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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.10 2005/04/09 11:30:48 swift Exp $ -->
4
5<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.46 2011/08/23 14:43:41 swift Exp $ -->
6 4
7<guide link="xorg-config.xml"> 5<guide>
8
9<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title> 6<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
10 7
11<author title="Author"> 8<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 9 <mail link="swift"/>
10</author>
11<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
13</author> 13</author>
14 14
15<abstract> 15<abstract>
16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical 16Xorg is the X Window server which allows users to have a graphical
17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to 17environment at their fingertips. This HOWTO explains what Xorg is, how to
18install it and what the various configuration options are. 18install it and what the various configuration options are.
19</abstract> 19</abstract>
20 20
21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 --> 22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23<license/> 23<license/>
24 24
25<version>1.9</version> 25<version>8</version>
26<date>2005-04-09</date> 26<date>2011-08-23</date>
27 27
28<chapter> 28<chapter>
29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title> 29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30<section> 30<section>
31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title> 31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
32<body> 32<body>
33 33
34<p> 34<p>
35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands. 35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands.
36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided 36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided
37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to 37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, of course you are able to
38do this :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and 38do this! Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and
39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation. 39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation.
40</p> 40</p>
41 41
42<p> 42<p>
43This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user 43This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user
46a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation. 46a powerful tool that fully enables the graphical abilities of your workstation.
47</p> 47</p>
48 48
49<p> 49<p>
50As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a 50As standards are important, a standard for drawing and moving windows on a
51screen, interacting with the user through mouse and keyboard and other basic yet 51screen, interacting with the user through mouse, keyboard and other basic, yet
52important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>, 52important aspects has been created and named the <e>X Window System</e>,
53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux 53commonly abbreviated as <e>X11</e> or just <e>X</e>. It is used on Unix, Linux
54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world. 54and Unix-like operating systems throughout the world.
55</p> 55</p>
56 56
57<p> 57<p>
58The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical 58The application that provides Linux users with the ability to run graphical
59user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of 59user interfaces and that uses the X11 standard is Xorg-X11, a fork of
60the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be 60the XFree86 project. XFree86 has decided to use a license that might not be
61compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended. 61compatible with the GPL license; the use of Xorg is therefore recommended.
62The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore. 62The official Portage tree does not provide an XFree86 package anymore.
63</p> 63</p>
64 64
65</body> 65</body>
66</section> 66</section>
68<title>The X.org Project</title> 68<title>The X.org Project</title>
69<body> 69<body>
70 70
71<p> 71<p>
72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and 72The <uri link="http://www.x.org">X.org</uri> project created and
73maintains a freely redistributable open-source implementation of the X11 system. 73maintains a freely redistributable, open-source implementation of the X11
74It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure. 74system. It is an open source X11-based desktop infrastructure.
75</p> 75</p>
76 76
77<p> 77<p>
78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software 78Xorg provides an interface between your hardware and the graphical software
79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you 79you want to run. Besides that, Xorg is also fully network-aware, meaning you
80are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different 80are able to run an application on one system while viewing it on a different
81one. 81one.
82</p> 82</p>
83 83
84</body> 84</body>
85</section> 85</section>
86</chapter> 86</chapter>
87
87<chapter> 88<chapter>
88<title>Installing Xorg</title> 89<title>Installing Xorg</title>
89<section> 90<section>
90<title>Using emerge</title> 91<body>
92
93<p>
94Before you can install Xorg, you need to prepare your system for it. First,
95we'll set up the kernel to support input devices and video cards. Then we'll
96prepare <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so that the right drivers and Xorg packages
97are built and installed.
98</p>
99
91<body> 100</body>
101</section>
102<section>
103<title>Input driver support</title>
104<body>
92 105
106<p>
107By default, Xorg uses <c>evdev</c>, a generic input driver. You'll need to
108activate support for <c>evdev</c> by making a change to your kernel
109configuration. Read the <uri link="/doc/en/kernel-config.xml">Kernel
110Configuration Guide</uri> if you don't know how to setup your kernel.
93<p> 111</p>
94Enough chitchat, let's get to business shall we? To install Xorg, you just 112
95need to run <c>emerge xorg-x11</c>. Installing Xorg does take a while 113<pre caption="Enabling evdev in the kernel">
96though, so you might want to grab a snack while you are waiting. 114Device Drivers ---&gt;
115 Input device support ---&gt;
116 &lt;*&gt; Event interface
117</pre>
118
119</body>
120</section>
121<section>
122<title>Kernel modesetting</title>
123<body>
124
125<p>
126Modern open-source video drivers rely on kernel modesetting (KMS). KMS provides
127an improved graphical boot with less flickering, faster user switching, a
128built-in framebuffer console, seamless switching from the console to Xorg, and
129other features. KMS conflicts with legacy framebuffer drivers, which must remain
130<b>disabled</b> in your kernel configuration.
131</p>
132
133<p>
134First, prepare your kernel for KMS. You need to do this step regardless of which
135Xorg video driver you're using.
136</p>
137
138<pre caption="Configuring framebuffers">
139Device Drivers ---&gt;
140 Graphics support ---&gt;
141 Support for frame buffer devices ---&gt;
142 <comment>(Disable all drivers, including VGA, Intel, nVidia, and ATI)</comment>
143
144 <comment>(Further down, enable basic console support. KMS uses this.)</comment>
145 Console display driver support ---&gt;
146 &lt;*&gt; Framebuffer Console Support
147</pre>
148
149<p>
150Next, configure your kernel to use the proper KMS driver for your video card.
151Intel, nVidia, and AMD/ATI are the most common cards, so follow code listing for
152your card below.
153</p>
154
155<p>
156For Intel cards:
157</p>
158
159<pre caption="Intel settings">
160Device Drivers ---&gt;
161 Graphics support ---&gt;
162 /dev/agpgart (AGP Support) ---&gt;
163 &lt;*&gt; Intel 440LX/BX/GX, I8xx and E7x05 chipset support
164 Direct Rendering Manager (XFree86 4.1.0 and higher DRI support) ---&gt;
165 &lt;*&gt; Intel 830M, 845G, 852GM, 855GM, 865G (i915 driver)
166 i915 driver
167 [*] Enable modesetting on intel by default
168</pre>
169
170<p>
171For nVidia cards:
172</p>
173
174<pre caption="nVidia settings">
175<comment>(Enable DRM)</comment>
176Device Drivers ---&gt;
177 Graphics support ---&gt;
178 &lt;*&gt; Direct Rendering Manager ---&gt;
179
180<comment>(Nouveau is currently in the Staging drivers section)</comment>
181Device Drivers ---&gt;
182 Staging drivers ---&gt;
183 [ ] Exclude Staging drivers from being built
184 &lt;*&gt; Nouveau (nVidia) cards
185</pre>
186
187<p>
188For newer AMD/ATI cards (<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">RadeonHD 2000 and
189up</uri>), you will need to emerge <c>radeon-ucode</c> or
190<c>linux-firmware</c>. Once you have installed one of these packages,
191configure your kernel as shown:
192</p>
193
194<pre caption="AMD/ATI settings">
195<comment>(Setup the kernel to use the radeon-ucode firmware)</comment>
196Device Drivers ---&gt;
197 Generic Driver Options ---&gt;
198 [*] Include in-kernel firmware blobs in kernel binary
199 <comment># RadeonHD 2000, 3000, and 4000 series cards:</comment>
200 (radeon/R600_rlc.bin radeon/R700_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
201 <comment># RadeonHD 5000, a.k.a Evergreen, and newer cards:</comment>
202 (radeon/CEDAR_me.bin radeon/CEDAR_pfp.bin radeon/CEDAR_rlc.bin
203 radeon/CYPRESS_me.bin radeon/CYPRESS_pfp.bin radeon/CYPRESS_rlc.bin
204 radeon/JUNIPER_me.bin radeon/JUNIPER_pfp.bin radeon/JUNIPER_rlc.bin
205 radeon/REDWOOD_me.bin radeon/REDWOOD_pfp.bin
206 radeon/REDWOOD_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
207 <comment># Radeon HD 6000 series Fusion APUs:</comment>
208 (radeon/PALM_me.bin radeon/PALM_pfp.bin SUMO2_me.bin SUMO2_pfp.bin
209 SUMO_me.bin SUMO_pfp.bin radeon/SUMO_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
210 <comment># Radeon HD 6200/6300 aka. Ontario/Zacate:</comment>
211 (radeon/PALM_me.bin radeon/PALM_pfp.bin radeon/SUMO_rlc.bin) External
212 firmware blobs
213 <comment># Radeon HD 6400-6900 aka. Northern Islands:</comment>
214 (radeon/BARTS_mc.bin radeon/BARTS_me.bin radeon/BARTS_pfp.bin
215 radeon/BTC_rlc.bin radeon/CAICOS_mc.bin radeon/CAICOS_me.bin
216 radeon/CAICOS_pfp.bin CAYMAN_mc.bin
217 CAYMAN_me.bin CAYMAN_pfp.bin CAYMAN_rlc.bin radeon/TURKS_mc.bin
218 radeon/TURKS_me.bin radeon/TURKS_pfp.bin) External firmware blobs
219 (/lib/firmware/) Firmware blobs root directory
220
221<comment>(Enable Radeon KMS support)</comment>
222Device Drivers ---&gt;
223 Graphics support ---&gt;
224 &lt;*&gt; Direct Rendering Manager ---&gt;
225 &lt;*&gt; ATI Radeon
226 [*] Enable modesetting on radeon by default
227</pre>
228
229<note>
230Old Radeon cards (X1900 series and older) don't need the <c>radeon-ucode</c>
231package or any firmware configuration. Just enable the Direct Rendering Manager
232and ATI Radeon modesetting.
233</note>
234
235<p>
236Now that you're done setting up KMS, continue with preparing
237<path>/etc/make.conf</path> in the next section.
238</p>
239
240</body>
241</section>
242<section>
243<title>make.conf configuration</title>
244<body>
245
246<p>
247Now that your kernel is prepared, you have to configure two important variables
248in the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file before you can install Xorg.
249</p>
250
251<p>
252The first variable is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers
253that you intend to use and is usually based on the kind of video card you have.
254The most common settings are <c>nouveau</c> for nVidia cards or <c>radeon</c>
255for ATI cards. Both have actively developed, well-supported open-source
256drivers.
257</p>
258
259<note>
260You may also try the proprietary drivers from nVidia and AMD/ATI, <c>nvidia</c>
261and <c>fglrx</c> respectively. However, setting up the proprietary drivers is
262beyond the scope of this guide. Please read the <uri
263link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and <uri
264link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know which
265drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
266</note>
267
268<p>
269The <c>intel</c> driver may be used for desktops or laptops with common Intel
270integrated graphics chipsets.
271</p>
272
273<note>
274<c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, each separated with a
275space.
276</note>
277
278<p>
279The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which
280drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to
281<c>evdev</c> should work just fine. If you use alternative input
282devices, such as a Synaptics touchpad for a laptop, be sure to add it to
283<c>INPUT_DEVICES</c>.
284</p>
285
286<p>
287Now you should decide which drivers you will use and add necessary settings to
288the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file:
289</p>
290
291<pre caption="Sample make.conf entries">
292<comment>(For mouse, keyboard, and Synaptics touchpad support)</comment>
293INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics"
294<comment>(For nVidia cards)</comment>
295VIDEO_CARDS="nouveau"
296<comment>(For AMD/ATI cards)</comment>
297VIDEO_CARDS="radeon"
298</pre>
299
300<p>
301If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv
302xorg-drivers</c>, check all the options available and choose those which apply to
303your system. This example is for a system with a keyboard, mouse, Synaptics
304touchpad, and a Radeon video card.
305</p>
306
307<pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available">
308# <i>emerge -pv xorg-drivers</i>
309
310These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
311
312Calculating dependencies... done!
313[ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-drivers-1.9 INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics
314-acecad -aiptek -elographics% -fpit% -joystick -keyboard -mouse -penmount -tslib
315-virtualbox -vmmouse -void -wacom"
316VIDEO_CARDS="radeon -apm -ark -ast -chips -cirrus -dummy -epson -fbdev -fglrx
317(-geode) -glint -i128 (-i740) (-impact) -intel -mach64 -mga -neomagic (-newport)
318-nouveau -nv -nvidia -r128 -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage -siliconmotion -sis
319-sisusb (-sunbw2) (-suncg14) (-suncg3) (-suncg6) (-sunffb) (-sunleo) (-suntcx)
320-tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l -vesa -via -virtualbox -vmware (-voodoo) (-xgi)"
3210 kB
322</pre>
323
324<p>
325After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package.
97</p> 326</p>
98 327
99<pre caption="Installing Xorg"> 328<pre caption="Installing Xorg">
329<comment>(Make sure udev is in your USE flags)</comment>
330# <i>echo "x11-base/xorg-server udev" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
331<comment>(Install Xorg)</comment>
100# <i>emerge xorg-x11</i> 332# <i>emerge xorg-server</i>
101</pre> 333</pre>
102 334
335<note>
336You could install the <c>xorg-x11</c> metapackage instead of the more
337lightweight <c>xorg-server</c>. Functionally, <c>xorg-x11</c> and
338<c>xorg-server</c> are the same. However, <c>xorg-x11</c> brings in many more
339packages that you probably don't need, such as a huge assortment of fonts in
340many different languages. They're not necessary for a working desktop.
341</note>
342
103<p> 343<p>
104When the installation is finished, you might need to reinitialise some 344When the installation is finished, you will need to re-initialise some
105environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed 345environment variables before you continue:
106by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set. This doesn't harm your system
107in any way.
108</p> 346</p>
109 347
110<pre caption="Reinitialising the environment variables"> 348<pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables">
111# <i>env-update</i> 349# <i>env-update</i>
112# <i>source /etc/profile</i> 350# <i>source /etc/profile</i>
113</pre> 351</pre>
114 352
115</body> 353</body>
116</section> 354</section>
117</chapter> 355</chapter>
356
118<chapter> 357<chapter>
119<title>Configuring Xorg</title> 358<title>Configuring Xorg</title>
120<section> 359<section>
121<title>The xorg.conf File</title>
122<body>
123
124<p>
125The configuration file of Xorg is called <path>xorg.conf</path> and it
126resides in <path>/etc/X11</path>. The Xorg-X11 package provides an example
127configuration as <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path> which you can use to
128create your own configuration. It is heavily commented, but if you are in need
129of more documentation regarding the syntax, don't hesitate to read the man page:
130</p>
131
132<pre caption="Reading the xorg.conf man page">
133# <i>man 5 xorg.conf</i>
134</pre>
135
136<p>
137Happy reading for those of you willing to. We surely don't so we'll continue
138with checking out how we can create the file automatically.
139</p>
140
141</body> 360<body>
142</section> 361
362<p>
363The X server is designed to work out-of-the-box, with no need to manually edit
364Xorg's configuration files. It should detect and configure devices such as
365displays, keyboards, and mice.
366</p>
367
368<p>
369You should first try <uri link="#using_startx">starting X</uri> without editing
370any configuration files. If Xorg won't start, or there's some other problem,
371then you'll need to manually configure Xorg as shown in the next section.
372</p>
373
374</body>
143<section> 375</section>
144<title>Default: Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
145<body>
146
147<p>
148Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you
149will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and
150running. If you are interested in more in-depth tweaking, be sure to check the
151resources at the end of this chapter. But first, let us generate a (hopefully
152working) Xorg configuration file.
153</p>
154
155<pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file">
156# <i>Xorg -configure</i>
157</pre>
158
159<p>
160Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished
161probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to
162manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it
163will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready
164for you to test. So let's test :)
165</p>
166
167<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file">
168# <i>X -config /root/xorg.conf.new</i>
169</pre>
170
171<p>
172If all goes well, you should see a simple black and white pattern. Verify if
173your mouse works correctly and if the resolution is good. You might not be able
174to deduce the exact resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low.
175You can exit any time by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.
176</p>
177
178</body>
179</section> 376<section>
180<section> 377<title>The xorg.conf.d directory</title>
181<title>Alternative: Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
182<body>
183
184<p>
185Xorg provides a tool called <c>xorgconfig</c> which will ask you for various
186information regarding your system (graphical adapter, keyboard, ...). Based on
187your input it will create a <path>xorg.conf</path> file.
188</p>
189
190<pre caption="Semi-Automatic Generation of xorg.conf">
191# <i>xorgconfig</i>
192</pre>
193
194<p>
195Another tool, also provided by Xorg, is <c>xorgcfg</c>, which will first
196attempts to run <c>Xorg -configure</c> and then start the X server for more
197final tweaking.
198</p>
199
200<pre caption="Using xorgcfg">
201# <i>xorgcfg</i>
202</pre>
203
204</body> 378<body>
205</section>
206<section>
207<title>Copying over xorg.conf</title>
208<body>
209 379
210<p> 380<note>
211Let us copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to 381Configuring files in <path>xorg.conf.d</path> should be seen as a "last resort"
212<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> now, so we won't have to continuously run 382option. It really desirable to run without any special configuration if
213<c>X -config</c> -- typing just <c>X</c> or <c>startx</c> is far more easy :) 383possible. If you still can't get a working configuration, then read on.
384</note>
385
214</p> 386<p>
215 387The configuration files of Xorg are stored in
216<pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf"> 388<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>. Each file is given a unique name and ends in
217# <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i> 389<path>.conf</path>. If the filenames start with a number, then Xorg will read
390the files in numeric order. <path>10-evdev.conf</path> will be read before
391<path>20-synaptics.conf</path>, and so on. You don't <e>have</e> to give them
392numbers, but it may help you organize them.
218</pre> 393</p>
394
395<note>
396Xorg provides example configurations in
397<path>/usr/share/doc/xorg-server-${version}/xorg.conf.example.bz2</path>. You
398can use these to create your own configuration files in
399<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>. The examples are heavily commented, but if
400you are in need of more documentation regarding the syntax, read <c>man
401xorg.conf</c>. Other examples can be found in the <uri
402link="#resources">Resources</uri> chapter at the end of this guide.
403</note>
219 404
220</body> 405</body>
221</section> 406</section>
222<section id="using_startx"> 407<section id="using_startx">
223<title>Using startx</title> 408<title>Using startx</title>
224<body> 409<body>
225 410
226<p> 411<p>
227Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script 412Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script
228that executes an <e>X session</e>, that is, it starts the X servers and some 413that executes an <e>X session</e>; that is, it starts the X server and some
229graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run 414graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run
230using the following logic: 415using the following logic:
231</p> 416</p>
232 417
233<ul> 418<ul>
234 <li> 419 <li>
236 execute the commands listed there. 421 execute the commands listed there.
237 </li> 422 </li>
238 <li> 423 <li>
239 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute 424 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute
240 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> 425 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path>
241 accordingly (you can set the value of XSESSION in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> 426 accordingly. You can set the value of XSESSION in
242 to make it a default for all the users on the system). 427 <path>/etc/env.d/90xsession</path> to make it a default for all the users
243 </li> 428 on the system. For example, as root, run <c>echo XSESSION="Xfce4" >
244<li> 429 /etc/env.d/90xsession</c>. This will create the <path>90xsession</path> file
245 If all of the above fail, it will fall back to a simple window manager, 430 and set the default X session to <uri
246 usually <c>twm</c>. 431 link="/doc/en/xfce-config.xml">Xfce</uri>. Remember to run <c>env-update</c>
432 after changing <path>90xsession</path>.
247 </li> 433 </li>
248</ul> 434</ul>
249 435
250<pre caption="Starting X"> 436<pre caption="Starting X">
251# <i>startx</i> 437$ <i>startx</i>
252</pre> 438</pre>
253 439
440<p>
441If you haven't yet installed a window manager, all you'll see is a black screen.
442Since this can also be a sign that something's wrong, you may want to emerge
443<c>twm</c> and <c>xterm</c> <e>only to test X</e>.
254<p> 444</p>
255If you see an ugly, loathsome, repulsive, deformed window manager, that's 445
256<c>twm</c>. To finish the twm session, type in <c>exit</c> or Ctrl-D in the 446<p>
257upcoming xterms. You can also kill the X session using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace 447Once those two programs are installed, run <c>startx</c> again. A few
258combination. This will however make X exit disgracefully - something that you 448<c>xterm</c> windows should appear, making it easier to verify that X is working
259might not always want. It doesn't hurt though :) 449correctly. Once you're satisfied with the results, run <c>emerge --unmerge twm
450xterm</c> as root to get rid of the testing packages. You won't need them once
451you've setup a proper desktop environment.
260</p> 452</p>
261 453
262</body> 454</body>
263</section> 455</section>
264</chapter> 456</chapter>
457
265<chapter> 458<chapter>
266<title>Tweaking xorg.conf</title> 459<title>Tweaking X settings</title>
267<section> 460<section>
268<title>Setting your Resolution</title> 461<title>Setting your Resolution</title>
269<body> 462<body>
270 463
271<p> 464<p>
272If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two 465If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two
273sections in your configuration. First of all, you have the <e>Screen</e> section 466sections in your <path>xorg.conf.d</path> configuration. First of all, you have
274which lists the resolutions - if any - that your X server will run at. By 467the <e>Screen</e> section which lists the resolutions that your X server will
275default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the 468run at. This section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the case,
276case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the 469Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the second
277second section, <e>Monitor</e>. 470section, <e>Monitor</e>.
278</p>
279
280<p> 471</p>
281What happens is that Xorg checks the settings of <c>HorizSync</c> and 472
282<c>VertRefresh</c> in the <e>Monitor</e> section to compute valid resolutions.
283For now, leave these settings as-is. Only when the changes to the <e>Screen</e>
284section (which we will describe in a minute) don't work, then you will need to
285look up the specs for your monitor and fill in the correct values. You can also
286use a tool that searches for your monitor's specs, such as
287<c>sys-apps/ddcxinfo-knoppix</c>.
288</p> 473<p>
289
290<warn>
291Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor-related variables
292without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting
293incorrect values lead to out-of-sync errors at best and smoked up screens at
294worst.
295</warn>
296
297<p>
298Now let us change the resolutions. In the next example from 474Now let us change the resolution. In the next example from
299<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>Modes</c> lines and the 475<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/40-monitor.conf</path> we add the
300<c>DefaultDepth</c> so that our X server starts with 24 bits at 1024x768 by 476<c>PreferredMode</c> line so that our X server starts at 1440x900 by default.
301default. Don't mind the given strings - they are examples and will most likely 477The <c>Option</c> in the <c>Device</c> section must match the name of your
302differ from the settings on your system. 478monitor (<c>DVI-0</c>), which can be obtained by running <c>xrandr</c>. You'll
479need to <c>emerge xrandr</c> just long enough to get this information. The
480argument after the monitor name (in the <c>Device</c> section) must match the
481<c>Identifier</c> in the <c>Monitor</c> section.
303</p> 482</p>
304 483
305<pre caption="Changing the Screen section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf"> 484<pre caption="Changing the Monitor section">
485# <i>nano -w /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/40-monitor.conf</i>
486
306Section "Screen" 487Section "Device"
307 Identifier "Default Screen" 488 Identifier "RadeonHD 4550"
308 Device "S3 Inc. ProSavage KN133 [Twister K]" 489 Option "Monitor-DVI-0" "DVI screen"
309 Monitor "Generic Monitor"
310 <i>DefaultDepth 24</i>
311 <comment># Skipping some text to improve readability</comment>
312 SubSection "Display"
313 Depth 24
314 <i>Modes "1024x768"</i>
315 EndSubSection
316EndSection 490EndSection
317</pre> 491Section "Monitor"
318 492 Identifier "DVI screen"
319<p> 493 Option "PreferredMode" "1440x900"
320Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want :)
321</p>
322
323</body>
324</section>
325<section>
326<title>Configuring your Keyboard</title>
327<body>
328
329<p>
330To setup X to use an international keyboard, search for the <e>InputDevice</e>
331section that configures the keyboard and add the <c>XkbLayout</c> option to
332point to the keyboard layout you want. As an example, we show you how to apply
333for the Belgian layout. Just substitute the country-keycode with yours:
334</p>
335
336<pre caption="Changing the keyboard layout">
337Section "InputDevice"
338 Identifier "Generic Keyboard"
339 Driver "keyboard"
340 Option "CoreKeyboard"
341 Option "XkbRules" "xorg"
342 Option "XkbModel" "pc105"
343 <i>Option "XkbLayout" "be"</i>
344EndSection 494EndSection
345</pre> 495</pre>
346 496
497<p>
498Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want.
499</p>
500
347</body> 501</body>
348</section>
349<section> 502</section>
350<title>Configuring your Mouse</title> 503<section>
504<title>Multiple monitors</title>
351<body> 505<body>
352 506
353<p>
354If your mouse isn't working, you will first need to find out if it is detected
355by the kernel at all. PS/2 mice are (device-wise) seen as
356<path>/dev/psaux</path>. Other mice (like USBs) are seen as
357<path>/dev/input</path> (or <path>/dev/input/mice</path>). In either case you
358can check if the devices do represent your mouse by checking the output of those
359files when you move your mouse. To end the session press <c>Ctrl-C</c>.
360</p> 507<p>
361 508You can configure more than one monitor in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>.
362<pre caption="Checking the device files"> 509All you have to do is give each monitor an identifer, then list its physical
363# <i>cat /dev/input</i> 510position, such as "RightOf" or "Above" another monitor. The following example
364<comment>(Don't forget to press Ctrl-C to end this)</comment> 511shows how to configure a DVI and a VGA monitor, with the VGA monitor as the
365</pre> 512right-hand screen:
366
367<p> 513</p>
368If your mouse isn't detected, verify if all the necessary modules are loaded.
369</p>
370 514
371<p> 515<pre caption="Configuring multiple monitors">
372If your mouse is detected, fill in the device in the appropriate 516# <i>nano -w /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/40-monitor.conf</i>
373<e>InputDevice</e> section. In the next example you'll see we also set two other
374options: <c>Protocol</c> (which lists the mouse protocol to be used - most users
375will use PS/2 or IMPS/2) and <c>ZAxisMapping</c> (which allows for the
376mousewheel (if applicable) to be used).
377</p>
378 517
379<pre caption="Changing the mouse settings in Xorg">
380Section "InputDevice" 518Section "Device"
381 Identifier "TouchPad Mouse" 519 Identifier "RadeonHD 4550"
382 Driver "mouse" 520 Option "Monitor-DVI-0" "DVI screen"
383 Option "CorePointer" 521 Option "Monitor-VGA-0" "VGA screen"
384 <i>Option "Device" "/dev/psaux"</i>
385 <i>Option "Protocol" "IMPS/2"</i>
386 <i>Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"</i>
387EndSection 522EndSection
523Section "Monitor"
524 Identifier "DVI screen"
525EndSection
526Section "Monitor"
527 Identifier "VGA screen"
528 Option "RightOf" "DVI screen"
529EndSection
388</pre> 530</pre>
389 531
532</body>
533</section>
534<section>
535<title>Configuring your keyboard</title>
536<body>
537
538<p>
539To setup X to use an international keyboard, you just have to create the
540appropriate config file in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>. This example
541features a Czech keyboard layout:
390<p> 542</p>
543
544<pre caption="Using an international keyboard">
545# <i>nano -w /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/30-keyboard.conf</i>
546
547Section "InputClass"
548 Identifier "keyboard-all"
549 Driver "evdev"
550 Option "XkbLayout" "us,cz"
551 Option "XkbModel" "logitech_g15"
552 Option "XkbRules" "xorg"
553 Option "XkbOptions" "grp:alt_shift_toggle,grp:switch,grp_led:scroll,compose:rwin,terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp"
554 Option "XkbVariant" ",qwerty"
555 MatchIsKeyboard "on"
556EndSection
557</pre>
558
559<p>
560The "terminate" command (<c>terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp</c>) lets you kill the X
561session by using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace key combination. This will, however,
562make X exit disgracefully -- something that you might not always want. It can be
563useful when programs have frozen your display entirely, or when you're
564configuring and tweaking your Xorg environment. Be careful when killing your
565desktop with this key combination -- most programs really don't like it when you
566end them this way, and you may lose some (or all) of what you were working on.
567</p>
568
569</body>
570</section>
571<section>
572<title>Finishing up</title>
573<body>
574
575<p>
391Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result :) Congratulations, you now 576Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result. Congratulations, you now
392(hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to remove this 577(hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to install a
393ugly lightweight window manager and use a high-feature one (or even a desktop 578useful window manager or desktop environment such as KDE, GNOME, or Xfce, but
394environment) such as KDE or GNOME, but that's not part of this guide :) 579that's not part of this guide. Information on installing these desktop
580environments can be found in our <uri link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo
581Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>.
395</p> 582</p>
396 583
397</body> 584</body>
398</section> 585</section>
399</chapter> 586</chapter>
400<chapter> 587
588<chapter id="resources">
401<title>Resources</title> 589<title>Resources</title>
402<section> 590<section>
403<title>Creating and Tweaking xorg.conf</title> 591<title>Creating and editing config files</title>
592<body>
593
594<p>
595First of all, <c>man xorg.conf</c> and <c>man evdev</c> provide quick yet
596complete references about the syntax used by these configuration files. Be sure
597to have them open on a terminal when you edit your configuration files!
598</p>
599
600<p>
601There are also many online resources on editing config files in
602<path>/etc/X11/</path>. We only list few of them here; be sure to <uri
603link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> for more.
604</p>
605
404<body> 606</body>
607</section>
608<section>
609<title>Other resources</title>
610<body>
405 611
406<p>
407First of all, <c>man 5 xorg.conf</c> provides a quick yet complete reference
408about the syntaxis used by the configuration file. Be sure to have it open on a
409terminal near you when you edit your configuration file!
410</p> 612<p>
411 613More information about installing and configuring various graphical desktop
614environments and applications can be found in the <uri
615link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>
616section of our documentation.
412<p> 617</p>
413A second point of resources on your system is the 618
414<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/doc</path> directory with various <path>README</path>'s
415for individual graphical chipsets.
416</p> 619<p>
417 620If you're upgrading to <c>xorg-server</c> 1.9 from an earlier version, then be
621sure to read the <uri
622link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/xorg-server-1.9-upgrade-guide.xml">migration
623guide</uri>.
418<p> 624</p>
419There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only 625
420list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>
421for more :) As <path>xorg.conf</path> and <path>XF86Config</path> (the
422configuration file for the XFree86 project) use the
423same syntaxis for most configuration options and more information about
424<path>XF86Config</path> is available, we'll list those resources as well.
425</p> 626<p>
426 627X.org provides many <uri link="http://www.x.org/wiki/FAQ">FAQs</uri> on their
427<ul> 628website, in addition to their other documentation.
428 <li> 629</p>
429 <uri link="http://tldp.org/HOWTO/XFree-Local-multi-user-HOWTO/">The XFree
430 Local Multi-User HOWTO</uri>
431 </li>
432 <li>
433 <uri
434 link="http://www-106.ibm.com/developerworks/edu/os-dw-linuxxwin-i.html">An
435 Introduction to XFree 4.x</uri> by Chris Houser
436 </li>
437</ul>
438 630
439</body> 631</body>
440</section> 632</section>
441</chapter> 633</chapter>
442</guide> 634</guide>

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