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21 [<b><a href="http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/glep/glep-0011.txt">GLEP Source</a></b>]
22 </td></tr></table>
23 <table class="rfc2822 docutils field-list" frame="void" rules="none">
24 <col class="field-name" />
25 <col class="field-body" />
26 <tbody valign="top">
27 <tr class="field"><th class="field-name">GLEP:</th><td class="field-body">11</td>
28 </tr>
29 <tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Title:</th><td class="field-body">Web Application Installation</td>
30 </tr>
31 <tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Version:</th><td class="field-body">1.6</td>
32 </tr>
33 <tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Last-Modified:</th><td class="field-body"><a class="reference" href="http://www.gentoo.org/cgi-bin/viewcvs.cgi/xml/htdocs/proj/en/glep/glep-0011.txt?cvsroot=gentoo">2006/09/04 03:12:43</a></td>
34 </tr>
35 <tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Author:</th><td class="field-body">Troy Dack &lt;tad&#32;&#97;t&#32;gentoo.org&gt;</td>
36 </tr>
37 <tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Author:</th><td class="field-body">Stuart Herbert &lt;stuart&#32;&#97;t&#32;gentoo.org&gt;</td>
38 </tr>
39 <tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Discussions-To:</th><td class="field-body"><a class="reference" href="mailto:gentoo-dev&#64;gentoo.org?subject=PEP%2011">gentoo-dev&#32;&#97;t&#32;gentoo.org</a></td>
40 </tr>
41 <tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Status:</th><td class="field-body">Final</td>
42 </tr>
43 <tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Type:</th><td class="field-body">Standards Track</td>
44 </tr>
45 <tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Content-Type:</th><td class="field-body"><a class="reference" href="glep-0002.html">text/x-rst</a></td>
46 </tr>
47 <tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Created:</th><td class="field-body">02-August-2003</td>
48 </tr>
49 <tr class="field"><th class="field-name">Post-History:</th><td class="field-body">07-Aug-2003, 12-Aug-2003, 13-Aug-2003, 3-Sep-2006</td>
50 </tr>
51 </tbody>
52 </table>
53 <hr />
54 <div class="contents topic">
55 <p class="topic-title first"><a id="contents" name="contents">Contents</a></p>
56 <ul class="simple">
57 <li><a class="reference" href="#status" id="id7" name="id7">Status</a></li>
58 <li><a class="reference" href="#credits" id="id8" name="id8">Credits</a></li>
59 <li><a class="reference" href="#definitions" id="id9" name="id9">Definitions</a></li>
60 <li><a class="reference" href="#conventions" id="id10" name="id10">Conventions</a></li>
61 <li><a class="reference" href="#abstract" id="id11" name="id11">Abstract</a></li>
62 <li><a class="reference" href="#motivation" id="id12" name="id12">Motivation</a></li>
63 <li><a class="reference" href="#rationale" id="id13" name="id13">Rationale</a></li>
64 <li><a class="reference" href="#implementation" id="id14" name="id14">Implementation</a><ul>
65 <li><a class="reference" href="#web-server" id="id15" name="id15">1. Web Server</a><ul>
66 <li><a class="reference" href="#default-document-root" id="id16" name="id16">1.1 Default Document Root</a></li>
67 <li><a class="reference" href="#apache-2" id="id17" name="id17">1.2 Apache 2</a></li>
68 </ul>
69 </li>
70 <li><a class="reference" href="#application-installation" id="id18" name="id18">2. Application Installation</a><ul>
71 <li><a class="reference" href="#application-slots" id="id19" name="id19">2.1 Application SLOTs</a></li>
72 <li><a class="reference" href="#installation-paths" id="id20" name="id20">2.2 Installation Paths</a></li>
73 </ul>
74 </li>
75 <li><a class="reference" href="#virtual-host-support" id="id21" name="id21">3. Virtual Host Support</a><ul>
76 <li><a class="reference" href="#new-vhost-use-flag" id="id22" name="id22">3.1 New &quot;vhost&quot; USE Flag</a></li>
77 <li><a class="reference" href="#vhost-configuration-tool" id="id23" name="id23">3.2 VHost Configuration Tool</a></li>
78 <li><a class="reference" href="#single-host-installation" id="id24" name="id24">3.3 Single Host Installation</a></li>
79 <li><a class="reference" href="#virtual-host-installation" id="id25" name="id25">3.4 Virtual Host Installation</a></li>
80 <li><a class="reference" href="#configuration-files" id="id26" name="id26">3.5 Configuration Files</a></li>
81 </ul>
82 </li>
83 <li><a class="reference" href="#application-permissions" id="id27" name="id27">4. Application Permissions</a></li>
84 </ul>
85 </li>
86 <li><a class="reference" href="#backwards-compatibility" id="id28" name="id28">Backwards Compatibility</a></li>
87 <li><a class="reference" href="#references" id="id29" name="id29">References</a></li>
88 <li><a class="reference" href="#copyright" id="id30" name="id30">Copyright</a></li>
89 </ul>
90 </div>
91 <div class="section">
92 <h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id7" id="status" name="status">Status</a></h1>
93 <p>As of 2006-09-03 the webapp eclass has existed for some time.</p>
94 </div>
95 <div class="section">
96 <h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id8" id="credits" name="credits">Credits</a></h1>
97 <p>Based on comments posted to gentoo-dev mailing list <a class="footnote-reference" href="#webapppost1" id="id1" name="id1">[1]</a>
98 <a class="footnote-reference" href="#webapppost2" id="id2" name="id2">[2]</a> <a class="footnote-reference" href="#webapppost3" id="id3" name="id3">[3]</a> by:</p>
99 <blockquote>
100 Stuart Herbert &lt;stuart at gentoo.org&gt;, Max Kalika &lt;max at gentoo.org&gt;,
101 Robin H.Johnson &lt;robbat2 at gentoo.org&gt; and others</blockquote>
102 </div>
103 <div class="section">
104 <h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id9" id="definitions" name="definitions">Definitions</a></h1>
105 <blockquote>
106 <dl class="docutils">
107 <dt><em>Web Application</em></dt>
108 <dd>an application that requires a web server to function and interacts with
109 the user via a browser</dd>
110 <dt><em>Web Application Instance</em></dt>
111 <dd>An apparent install of the Web Application that is served up via the
112 webserver. There may be any number of instances per Web Application.
113 This is a major use for web applications. Our Gentoo Zope setup
114 already provides instances and can be used for some concepts on this
115 matter.</dd>
116 <dt><em>Web Application Setup Program</em></dt>
117 <dd>A script similar in function to zope-config that sets up instances.</dd>
118 <dt><em>Document Root</em></dt>
119 <dd>a location in the file system that forms the main document tree visible from
120 the web</dd>
121 </dl>
122 </blockquote>
123 </div>
124 <div class="section">
125 <h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id10" id="conventions" name="conventions">Conventions</a></h1>
126 <blockquote>
127 <p>When describing the location of a directory in the file system it
128 wil be shown <em>with</em> a trailing slash, eg:</p>
129 <pre class="literal-block">
130 /foo/bar/
131 </pre>
132 <p>When describing the location of a specific file (irrespective of any
133 file extention) it will shown <em>with out</em> a trailing slash, eg:</p>
134 <pre class="literal-block">
135 /foo/blah
136 </pre>
137 </blockquote>
138 </div>
139 <div class="section">
140 <h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id11" id="abstract" name="abstract">Abstract</a></h1>
141 <p>To define where and how web based applications should be installed by Gentoo.</p>
142 </div>
143 <div class="section">
144 <h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id12" id="motivation" name="motivation">Motivation</a></h1>
145 <p>Currently there is no standard defined regarding the installation of web
146 based applicaitons in Gentoo. This leads to ebuild authors creating a
147 variety of methods to determine:</p>
148 <blockquote>
149 <ul class="simple">
150 <li>where the application should be installed</li>
151 <li>what user and permissions the application should be given</li>
152 <li>where any configuration files related to the application should be
153 installed.</li>
154 </ul>
155 </blockquote>
156 <p>Due to a lack of standard install method configuration files are at
157 risk of being overwritten during upgrade, potentially causing system
158 administrators down tine as they have to reconfigure web applications
159 after an upgrade.</p>
160 </div>
161 <div class="section">
162 <h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id13" id="rationale" name="rationale">Rationale</a></h1>
163 <p>A discussion on the gentoo-dev mailing list <a class="footnote-reference" href="#webapppost1" id="id4" name="id4">[1]</a> raised the
164 following points regarding how Gentoo handles the installation of web based
165 applications:</p>
166 <blockquote>
167 <ol class="arabic">
168 <li><p class="first">Gentoo installed web applications (eg: horde, phpbb, cacti,
169 phpmysql) should not be installed in the Document Root of a web server.</p>
170 </li>
171 <li><p class="first">Web applications should not have their configuration files installed
172 under the Document Root of a web server.</p>
173 <blockquote>
174 <ol class="lowerroman simple">
175 <li>Web Application must be slotted by their full version numbers to
176 further avoid downtime when true configuration changes are required.</li>
177 </ol>
178 </blockquote>
179 </li>
180 <li><p class="first">Web applications should not be owned by the same user as the web server.</p>
181 </li>
182 <li><p class="first">It should be easily possible to have multiple instances of a web
183 application without any duplication of source files.</p>
184 </li>
185 <li><p class="first">It should be immediately apparent how to control instances of a web
186 application.</p>
187 </li>
188 </ol>
189 </blockquote>
190 </div>
191 <div class="section">
192 <h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id14" id="implementation" name="implementation">Implementation</a></h1>
193 <p>Max Kalika &lt;max at gentoo.org&gt; stated that he has a preliminary eclass that
194 implements a good deal of this GLEP.</p>
195 <p>Stuart Herbert &lt;stuart at gentoo.org&gt; has committed:</p>
196 <pre class="literal-block">
197 webapp-apache.eclass
198 </pre>
199 <p>to CVS, this is a stop-gap measure whilst this GLEP is being finalised.</p>
200 <div class="section">
201 <h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id15" id="web-server" name="web-server">1. Web Server</a></h2>
202 <p>A common default web server should be selected. Selection of a default web
203 server will help to reduce the number of bugs that are reported.</p>
204 <p>Given the popularity of the Apache web server it is suggested that Apache be
205 selected as the Gentoo default web server.</p>
206 <p>The Virtual Host Configuration tool (see below) will transparently support
207 different web servers, thus enabling web applications to be installed on a
208 Gentoo system irrespective of the installed web server.</p>
209 <div class="section">
210 <h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id16" id="default-document-root" name="default-document-root">1.1 Default Document Root</a></h3>
211 <p>The current default Document Root for Gentoo is /home/httpd/, this is
212 unsuitable for a couple of reasons:</p>
213 <blockquote>
214 <ul class="simple">
215 <li>/home/ may be exported via nfs to numerous other hosts, it is not
216 acceptable to share publically accessible files with numerous hosts.</li>
217 <li>there is a potential (all be it small) for a user name clash</li>
218 </ul>
219 </blockquote>
220 <p>To ensure the greatest flexibility when installing applications the following
221 <em>Document Root</em> locations are to be used:</p>
222 <blockquote>
223 <ul>
224 <li><p class="first">For single host installations:</p>
225 <pre class="literal-block">
226 /var/www/localhost/
227 </pre>
228 </li>
229 <li><p class="first">For multiple virtual host installations:</p>
230 <pre class="literal-block">
231 /var/www/&lt;fully qualified domain name&gt;/
233 eg:
234 /var/www/www.gentoo.org/
235 </pre>
236 </li>
237 </ul>
238 </blockquote>
239 <p>Additionally the chosen location ( /var/www/ ) appears to be becoming a defacto
240 standard for Linux distributions.</p>
241 </div>
242 <div class="section">
243 <h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id17" id="apache-2" name="apache-2">1.2 Apache 2</a></h3>
244 <p>All web application .ebuilds will honour any USE flags that are intended to
245 add support for Apache 2 as well as supporting Apache 1 installations.</p>
246 </div>
247 </div>
248 <div class="section">
249 <h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id18" id="application-installation" name="application-installation">2. Application Installation</a></h2>
250 <p>The current accepted standard Document Root in Gentoo is /home/httpd. The
251 discussion suggest that this is not the best location to install web based
252 applications.</p>
253 <div class="section">
254 <h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id19" id="application-slots" name="application-slots">2.1 Application SLOTs</a></h3>
255 <p>All ebuilds are to set the SLOT variable as follows:</p>
256 <pre class="literal-block">
257 SLOT=&quot;${PV}&quot;
258 </pre>
259 <p>Setting the SLOT variable as shown will enable different versions of the same
260 web application to be served concurrently by one server.</p>
261 </div>
262 <div class="section">
263 <h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id20" id="installation-paths" name="installation-paths">2.2 Installation Paths</a></h3>
264 <p>Web applications should be installed outside of the Document Root using the following
265 defaults:</p>
266 <blockquote>
267 <ul>
268 <li><p class="first">for files to be served to clients:</p>
269 <pre class="literal-block">
270 /usr/share/webapps/${PF}/htdocs/
272 /usr/share/webapps/${PF}/cgi-bin/
273 </pre>
274 </li>
275 <li><p class="first">install <em>site default</em> configuration files in:</p>
276 <pre class="literal-block">
277 /etc/webapps/${PF}/
278 </pre>
279 </li>
280 <li><p class="first">for documentation files (not served to clients):</p>
281 <pre class="literal-block">
282 /usr/share/doc/${PF}/
283 </pre>
284 </li>
285 </ul>
286 </blockquote>
287 </div>
288 </div>
289 <div class="section">
290 <h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id21" id="virtual-host-support" name="virtual-host-support">3. Virtual Host Support</a></h2>
291 <p>The ability to easily configure and administer multiple virtual hosts is a
292 must.</p>
293 <div class="section">
294 <h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id22" id="new-vhost-use-flag" name="new-vhost-use-flag">3.1 New &quot;vhost&quot; USE Flag</a></h3>
295 <p>To enable support for multiple virtual host installations a new USE flag is
296 to be added to Portage. The use flag will be:</p>
297 <pre class="literal-block">
298 vhost
299 </pre>
300 <p>When <em>vhost</em> is _set_ the installation location and configuration for the web
301 application will be effected, see below for more details.</p>
302 </div>
303 <div class="section">
304 <h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id23" id="vhost-configuration-tool" name="vhost-configuration-tool">3.2 VHost Configuration Tool</a></h3>
305 <p>To assist administration of multiple virtual hosts a &quot;VHost Configuration Tool&quot;
306 needs to be developed and implemented. Initial discussion regarding the VHost
307 Config tool and proposed usage can be found at <a class="reference" href="http://article.gmane.org/gmane.linux.gentoo.devel/10874">http://article.gmane.org/gmane.linux.gentoo.devel/10874</a>.</p>
308 <p>It's the job of the VHost Config toolset to make a local instance of the web
309 application run under a specific web server.</p>
310 <p>The VHost Configuration Utility will need to be a seperate package, maintained by Gentoo.</p>
311 <p>Web Server .ebuilds will require the VHost Config tool as a dependency (DEPEND).</p>
312 <p><a class="reference" href="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=26293">Bug #26293</a> <a class="footnote-reference" href="#id5" id="id6" name="id6">[4]</a> will be used to track the initial progress of the VHost
313 Configuration Tool.</p>
314 <p>The vhost-config must do three main things:</p>
315 <blockquote>
316 <ul class="simple">
317 <li>creates directories (copies a skeleton directory for the most part).</li>
318 <li>create web server vhost config files.</li>
319 <li>HUP web server so it reads in the new config without stopping.</li>
320 </ul>
321 </blockquote>
322 <p>Initially the VHost Config tool should provide support for the Apache web
323 server. As the tool matures support for other web servers can be added.</p>
324 </div>
325 <div class="section">
326 <h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id24" id="single-host-installation" name="single-host-installation">3.3 Single Host Installation</a></h3>
327 <p>For single host installations the .ebuild will make the required
328 configurations changes and symlinks using the VHost Config tool to ensure
329 that the web application is available to be served from:</p>
330 <pre class="literal-block">
331 /var/www/localhost/htdocs/${PF}/
332 </pre>
333 <p>In this case it may be feasible for the VHost Config tool to simply symlink the
334 directories from /usr/share/webapps/${PF}/ as is appropriate.</p>
335 </div>
336 <div class="section">
337 <h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id25" id="virtual-host-installation" name="virtual-host-installation">3.4 Virtual Host Installation</a></h3>
338 <p>For installations that support multiple virtual hosts the .ebuild will
339 install the web application into the default location and then leave configuration
340 to the user through the VHost Config tool.</p>
341 <p>In this case the web application files will be copied from
342 /usr/share/webapps/${PF}/ to /var/www/&lt;FQDN&gt;/ by the VHost Config tool.</p>
343 </div>
344 <div class="section">
345 <h3><a class="toc-backref" href="#id26" id="configuration-files" name="configuration-files">3.5 Configuration Files</a></h3>
346 <p>As stated above web application <em>site default</em> configuration files are to be
347 installed into:</p>
348 <pre class="literal-block">
349 /etc/webapps/${PF}/
350 </pre>
351 <p>The files in this directory are then copied (not symlinked!) by the VHost
352 Config tool to the Document Root for each instance of the app that is installed.</p>
353 <p>This will require the VHost Config toolset to emulate Portage's CONFIG_PROTECT
354 behaviour for the web applications.</p>
355 </div>
356 </div>
357 <div class="section">
358 <h2><a class="toc-backref" href="#id27" id="application-permissions" name="application-permissions">4. Application Permissions</a></h2>
359 <p>Installing web applications and giving the web server ownership of the files
360 is a security risk. This can possibly lead to application configuration
361 files being accessed by unwanted third parties.</p>
362 <p>All web applications should be owned by <em>root</em> unless the application
363 absolutely requires write access to its installation directories at execution
364 time.</p>
365 </div>
366 </div>
367 <div class="section">
368 <h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id28" id="backwards-compatibility" name="backwards-compatibility">Backwards Compatibility</a></h1>
369 <p>There may be some issues regarding compatibility with existing installs of
370 web applications. This is particularly true if the default Document Root is
371 moved from what is accepted as the current standard (/home/httpd).</p>
372 <dl class="docutils">
373 <dt>The main issues are:</dt>
374 <dd><ul class="first last simple">
375 <li>transition of existing configuration files to the
376 /etc/webapps/${PF}/ directory.</li>
377 <li>modification/reconfiguration of applications so that they
378 are aware of the location of configuration files.</li>
379 <li>creating the VHost Config toolset to enable installation and
380 configuration of web applications irrespective of web server.</li>
381 </ul>
382 </dd>
383 </dl>
384 </div>
385 <div class="section">
386 <h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id29" id="references" name="references">References</a></h1>
387 <table class="docutils footnote" frame="void" id="webapppost1" rules="none">
388 <colgroup><col class="label" /><col /></colgroup>
389 <tbody valign="top">
390 <tr><td class="label"><a name="webapppost1">[1]</a></td><td><em>(<a class="fn-backref" href="#id1">1</a>, <a class="fn-backref" href="#id4">2</a>)</em> <a class="reference" href="http://article.gmane.org/gmane.linux.gentoo.devel/10411">http://article.gmane.org/gmane.linux.gentoo.devel/10411</a></td></tr>
391 </tbody>
392 </table>
393 <table class="docutils footnote" frame="void" id="webapppost2" rules="none">
394 <colgroup><col class="label" /><col /></colgroup>
395 <tbody valign="top">
396 <tr><td class="label"><a class="fn-backref" href="#id2" name="webapppost2">[2]</a></td><td><a class="reference" href="http://news.gmane.org/onethread.php?group=gmane.linux.gentoo.devel&amp;root=%3C1059843010.5023.80.camel%40carbon.internal.lan%3E">http://news.gmane.org/onethread.php?group=gmane.linux.gentoo.devel&amp;root=%3C1059843010.5023.80.camel%40carbon.internal.lan%3E</a></td></tr>
397 </tbody>
398 </table>
399 <table class="docutils footnote" frame="void" id="webapppost3" rules="none">
400 <colgroup><col class="label" /><col /></colgroup>
401 <tbody valign="top">
402 <tr><td class="label"><a class="fn-backref" href="#id3" name="webapppost3">[3]</a></td><td><a class="reference" href="http://news.gmane.org/onethread.php?group=gmane.linux.gentoo.devel&amp;root=%3C86960000.1060038977%40valkyrie.lsit.ucsb.edu%3E">http://news.gmane.org/onethread.php?group=gmane.linux.gentoo.devel&amp;root=%3C86960000.1060038977%40valkyrie.lsit.ucsb.edu%3E</a></td></tr>
403 </tbody>
404 </table>
405 <table class="docutils footnote" frame="void" id="id5" rules="none">
406 <colgroup><col class="label" /><col /></colgroup>
407 <tbody valign="top">
408 <tr><td class="label"><a class="fn-backref" href="#id6" name="id5">[4]</a></td><td><a class="reference" href="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=26293">http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=26293</a></td></tr>
409 </tbody>
410 </table>
411 </div>
412 <div class="section">
413 <h1><a class="toc-backref" href="#id30" id="copyright" name="copyright">Copyright</a></h1>
414 <p>This document has been placed in the public domain.</p>
415 </div>
417 </div>
418 <div class="footer">
419 <hr class="footer" />
420 <a class="reference" href="glep-0011.txt">View document source</a>.
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