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1 g2boojum 1.1 GLEP: 33
2     Title: Eclass Restructure/Redesign
3 g2boojum 1.5 Version: $Revision: 1.4 $
4     Last-Modified: $Date: 2005/09/15 02:37:38 $
5 g2boojum 1.2 Author: Brian Harring <ferringb@gentoo.org>, John Mylchreest <johnm@gentoo.org>
6 g2boojum 1.5 Status: Approved
7 g2boojum 1.1 Type: Standards Track
8     Content-Type: text/x-rst
9     Created: 29-Jan-2005
10 g2boojum 1.5 Post-History: 29-Jan-2005 6-Mar-2005 15-Sep-2005
11 g2boojum 1.1
12 g2boojum 1.5 Status
13     ======
15     Approved by the Gentoo Council on 15 September 2005.
16 g2boojum 1.1
17     Abstract
18     ========
20     For any design, the transition from theoretical to applied exposes inadequacies
21     in the original design. This document is intended to document, and propose a
22     revision of the current eclass setup to address current eclass inadequacies.
24 g2boojum 1.2 This document proposes several things- the creation of ebuild libraries, 'elibs',
25 g2boojum 1.1 a narrowing of the focus of eclasses, a move of eclasses w/in the tree, the
26     addition of changelogs, and a way to allow for simple eclass gpg signing.
27     In general, a large scale restructuring of what eclasses are and how they're
28     implemented. Essentially version two of the eclass setup.
31     Terminology
32     ===========
34     From this point on, the proposed eclass setup will be called 'new eclasses', the
35     existing crop (as of this writing) will be referenced as 'old eclasses'. The
36 g2boojum 1.2 distinction is elaborated on within this document.
37 g2boojum 1.1
39     Motivation and Rationale
40     ========================
42     Eclasses within the tree currently are a bit of a mess- they're forced to
43 g2boojum 1.2 maintain backwards compatibility w/ all previous functionality. In effect,
44 g2boojum 1.1 their api is constant, and can only be added to- never changing the existing
45 vapier 1.4 functionality. This obviously is quite limiting, and leads to cruft accruing in
46 g2boojum 1.1 eclasses as a eclasses design is refined. This needs to be dealt with prior to
47 g2boojum 1.2 eclass code reaching a critical mass where they become unmanageable/fragile
48     (recent pushes for eclass versioning could be interpreted as proof of this).
49 g2boojum 1.1
50     Beyond that, eclasses were originally intended as a method to allow for ebuilds
51     to use a pre-existing block of code, rather then having to duplicate the code in
52     each ebuild. This is a good thing, but there are ill effects that result from
53 vapier 1.4 the current design. Eclasses inherit other eclasses to get a single function- in
54 g2boojum 1.1 doing so, modifying the the exported 'template' (default src_compile, default
55 vapier 1.4 src_unpack, various vars, etc). All the eclass designer was after was reusing a
56 g2boojum 1.1 function, not making their eclass sensitive to changes in the template of the
57     eclass it's inheriting. The eclass designer -should- be aware of changes in the
58     function they're using, but shouldn't have to worry about their default src_*
59     and pkg_* functions being overwritten, let alone the env changes.
61     Addressing up front why a collection of eclass refinements are being rolled into
62     a single set of changes, parts of this proposal -could- be split into multiple
63     phases. Why do it though? It's simpler for developers to know that the first
64     eclass specification was this, and that the second specification is that,
65     rather then requiring them to be aware of what phase of eclass changes is in
66     progress.
68     By rolling all changes into one large change, a line is intentionally drawn in
69     the sand. Old eclasses allowed for this, behaved this way. New eclasses allow
70 vapier 1.4 for that, and behave this way. This should reduce misconceptions about what is
71 g2boojum 1.1 allowed/possible with eclasses, thus reducing bugs that result from said
72     misconceptions.
74 g2boojum 1.2 A few words on elibs- think of them as a clear definition between behavioral
75     functionality of an eclass, and the library functionality. Eclass's modify
76     template data, and are the basis for other ebuilds- elibs, however are *just*
77     common bash functionality.
79     Consider the majority of the portage bin/* scripts- these all are candidates for
80     being added to the tree as elibs, as is the bulk of eutils.
82 g2boojum 1.1
83 vapier 1.4 Specification
84     =============
85 g2boojum 1.1
86     The various parts of this proposal are broken down into a set of changes and
87     elaborations on why a proposed change is preferable. It's advisable to the
88     reader that this be read serially, rather then jumping around.
91     Ebuild Libraries (elibs for short)
92     ----------------------------------
94     As briefly touched upon in Motivation and Rationale, the original eclass design
95     allowed for the eclass to modify the metadata of an ebuild, metadata being the
96     DEPENDS, RDEPENDS, SRC_URI, IUSE, etc, vars that are required to be constant,
97     and used by portage for dep resolution, fetching, etc. Using the earlier
98     example, if you're after a single function from an eclass (say epatch from
99     eutils), you -don't- want the metadata modifications the eclass you're
100     inheriting might do. You want to treat the eclass you're pulling from as a
101     library, pure and simple.
103     A new directory named elib should be added to the top level of the tree to serve
104     as a repository of ebuild function libraries. Rather then relying on using the
105     source command, an 'elib' function should be added to portage to import that
106     libraries functionality. The reason for the indirection via the function is
107     mostly related to portage internals, but it does serve as an abstraction such
108 g2boojum 1.2 that (for example) zsh compatibility hacks could be hidden in the elib function.
109 g2boojum 1.1
110     Elib's will be collections of bash functions- they're not allowed to do anything
111     in the global scope aside from function definition, and any -minimal-
112     initialization of the library that is absolutely needed. Additionally, they
113 g2boojum 1.2 cannot modify any ebuild template functions- src_compile, src_unpack. Since they are
114 g2boojum 1.1 required to not modify the metadata keys, nor in any way affect the ebuild aside
115     from providing functionality, they can be conditionally pulled in. They also
116     are allowed to pull in other elibs, but strictly just elibs- no eclasses, just
117 vapier 1.4 other elibs. A real world example would be the eutils eclass.
118 g2boojum 1.1
119     Portage, since the elib's don't modify metadata, isn't required to track elibs
120     as it tracks eclasses. Thus a change in an elib doesn't result in half the tree
121     forced to be regenerated/marked stale when changed (this is more of an infra
122     benefit, although regen's that take too long due to eclass changes have been
123 g2boojum 1.2 known to cause rsync issues due to missing timestamps).
125     Elibs will not be available in the global scope of an eclass, or ebuild- nor during the
126 vapier 1.4 depends phase (basically a phase that sources the ebuild, to get its metadata). Elib
127 g2boojum 1.2 calls in the global scope will be tracked, but the elib will not be loaded till just before
128 vapier 1.4 the setup phase (pkg_setup). There are two reasons for this- first, it ensures elibs are
129 g2boojum 1.2 completely incapable of modifying metadata. There is no room for confusion, late loading
130     of elibs gives you the functionality for all phases, except for depends- depends being the
131     only phase that is capable of specifying metadata. Second, as an added bonus, late
132     loading reduces the amount of bash sourced for a regen- faster regens. This however is minor,
133     and is an ancillary benefit of the first reason.
135 g2boojum 1.3 There are a few further restrictions with elibs--mainly, elibs to load can only be specified
136 g2boojum 1.2 in either global scope, or in the setup, unpack, compile, test, and install phases. You can
137 g2boojum 1.3 not load elibs in prerm, postrm, preinst, and postinst. The reason being, for \*rm phases,
138 g2boojum 1.2 installed pkgs will have to look to the tree for the elib, which allows for api drift to cause
139 g2boojum 1.3 breakage. For \*inst phases, same thing, except the culprit is binpkgs.
140 g2boojum 1.2
141 g2boojum 1.3 There is a final restriction--elibs cannot change their exported api dependent on the api
142     (as some eclass do for example). The reason mainly being that elibs are loaded once--not
143 g2boojum 1.2 multiple times, as eclasses are.
145     To clarify, for example this is invalid.
146     ::
147 g2boojum 1.3
148 g2boojum 1.2 if [[ -n ${SOME_VAR} ]]; then
149     func x() { echo "I'm accessible only via tweaking some var";}
150     else
151     func x() { echo "this is invalid, do not do it."; }
152     fi
154 g2boojum 1.1
155     Regarding maintainability of elibs, it should be a less of a load then old
156     eclasses. One of the major issues with old eclasses is that their functions are
157 vapier 1.4 quite incestuous- they're bound tightly to the env they're defined in. This
158 g2boojum 1.1 makes eclass functions a bit fragile- the restrictions on what can, and cannot
159     be done in elibs will address this, making functionality less fragile (thus a
160     bit more maintainable).
162 g2boojum 1.2 There is no need for backwards compatibility with elibs- they just must work
163 g2boojum 1.1 against the current tree. Thus elibs can be removed when the tree no longer
164     needs them. The reasons for this are explained below.
166     Structuring of the elibs directory will be exactly the same as that of the new
167     eclass directory (detailed below), sans a different extension.
169 g2boojum 1.2 As to why their are so many restrictions, the answer is simple- the definition of
170     what elibs are, what they are capable of, and how to use them is nailed down as much as
171     possible to avoid *any* ambiguity related to them. The intention is to make it clear,
172     such that no misconceptions occur, resulting in bugs.
173 g2boojum 1.1
174     The reduced role of Eclasses, and a clarification of existing Eclass requirements
175     ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
177     Since elibs are now intended on holding common bash functionality, the focus of
178 vapier 1.4 eclasses should be in defining an appropriate template for ebuilds. For example,
179 g2boojum 1.1 defining common DEPENDS, RDEPENDS, src_compile functions, src_unpack, etc.
180     Additionally, eclasses should pull in any elibs they need for functionality.
182     Eclass functionality that isn't directly related to the metadata, or src_* and
183     pkg_* funcs should be shifted into elibs to allow for maximal code reuse. This
184     however isn't a hard requirement, merely a strongly worded suggestion.
186     Previously, it was 'strongly' suggested by developers to avoid having any code
187     executed in the global scope that wasn't required. This suggestion is now a
188     requirement. Execute only what must be executed in the global scope. Any code
189     executed in the global scope that is related to configuring/building the package
190     must be placed in pkg_setup. Metadata keys (already a rule, but now stated as
191     an absolute requirement to clarify it) *must* be constant. The results of
192     metadata keys exported from an ebuild on system A, must be *exactly* the same as
193     the keys exported on system B.
195     If an eclass (or ebuild for that matter) violates this constant requirement, it
196     leads to portage doing the wrong thing for rsync users- for example, wrong deps
197 g2boojum 1.2 pulled in, leading to compilation failure, or dud deps.
198 g2boojum 1.1
199     If the existing metadata isn't flexible enough for what is required for a
200     package, the parsing of the metadata is changed to address that. Cases where
201     the constant requirement is violated are known, and a select few are allowed-
202     these are exceptions to the rule that are required due to inadequacies in
203 g2boojum 1.2 portage. Any case where it's determined the constant requirement may need to be
204     violated the dev must make it aware to the majority of devs, along with the portage
205     devs. This should be done prior to committing.
206 g2boojum 1.1
207     It's quite likely there is a way to allow what you're attempting- if you just go
208 g2boojum 1.2 and do it, the rsync users (our user base) suffer the results of compilation
209 g2boojum 1.1 failures and unneeded deps being pulled in.
211     After that stern reminder, back to new eclasses. Defining INHERITED and ECLASS
212     within the eclass is no longer required. Portage already handles those vars if
213     they aren't defined.
215 g2boojum 1.2 As with elibs, it's no longer required that backwards compatibility be maintained
216     indefinitely- compatibility must be maintained against the current tree, but
217 g2boojum 1.1 just that. As such new eclasses (the true distinction of new vs old is
218     elaborated in the next section) can be removed from the tree once they're no
219     longer in use.
222 g2boojum 1.2 The end of backwards compatibility...
223 g2boojum 1.1 -------------------------------------
225 vapier 1.4 With current eclasses, once the eclass is in use, its api can no longer be
226 g2boojum 1.1 changed, nor can the eclass ever be removed from the tree. This is why we still
227     have *ancient* eclasses that are completely unused sitting in the tree, for
228 vapier 1.4 example inherit.eclass. The reason for this, not surprisingly, is a portage
229     deficiency: on unmerging an installed ebuild, portage used the eclass from the
230 g2boojum 1.1 current tree.
232     For a real world example of this, if you merged a glibc 2 years back, whatever
233     eclasses it used must still be compatible, or you may not be able to unmerge the
234     older glibc version during an upgrade to a newer version. So either the glibc
235     maintainer is left with the option of leaving people using ancient versions out
236 g2boojum 1.2 in the rain, or maintaining an ever increasing load of backwards compatibility
237 g2boojum 1.1 cruft in any used eclasses.
239     Binpkgs suffer a similar fate. Merging of a binpkg pulls needed eclasses from
240     the tree, so you may not be able to even merge a binpkg if the eclasses api has
241     changed. If the eclass was removed, you can't even merge the binpkg, period.
243     The next major release of portage will address this- the environment that the
244     ebuild was built in already contains the eclasses functions, as such the env can
245     be re-used rather then relying on the eclass. In other words, binpkgs and
246     installed ebuilds will no longer go and pull needed eclasses from the tree,
247     they'll use the 'saved' version of the eclass they were built/merged with.
249 g2boojum 1.2 So the backwards compatibility requirement for users of the next major portage
250 g2boojum 1.1 version (and beyond) isn't required. All the cruft can be dropped.
252 g2boojum 1.2 The problem is that there will be users using older versions of portage that don't
253     support this functionality- these older installations *cannot* use the
254     new eclasses, due to the fact that their portage version is incapable of
255     properly relying on the env- in other words, the varying api of the eclass will
256     result in user-visible failures during unmerging.
258     So we're able to do a clean break of all old eclasses, and api cruft, but we need
259     a means to basically disallow access to the new eclasses for all portage versions
260     incapable of properly handling the env requirements.
262     Unfortunately, we cannot just rely on a different grouping/naming convention within
263     the old eclass directory. The new eclasses must be inaccessible, and portage throws
264     a snag into this- the existing inherit function that is used to handle existing
265     eclasses. Basically, whatever it's passed (inherit kernel or inherit
266 g2boojum 1.1 kernel/kernel) it will pull in (kernel.eclass, and kernel/kernel.eclass
267     respectively). So even if the new eclasses were implemented within a
268     subdirectory of the eclass dir in the tree, all current portage versions would
269     still be able to access them.
271     In other words, these new eclasses would in effect, be old eclasses since older
272     portage versions could still access them.
275 vapier 1.4 Tree restructuring
276     ------------------
277 g2boojum 1.1
278     There are only two way to block the existing (as of this writing) inherit
279     functionality from accessing the new eclasses- either change the extension of
280 g2boojum 1.2 eclasses to something other then 'eclass', or to have them stored in a separate
281 g2boojum 1.1 subdirectory of the tree then eclass.
283     The latter is preferable, and the proposed solution. Reasons are- the current
284     eclass directory is already overgrown. Structuring of the new eclass dir
285     (clarified below) will allow for easier signing, ChangeLogs, and grouping of
286     eclasses. New eclasses allow for something akin to a clean break and have new
287     capabilities/requirements, thus it's advisable to start with a clean directory,
288     devoid of all cruft from the old eclass implementation.
290     If it's unclear as to why the old inherit function *cannot* access the new
291     eclasses, please reread the previous section. It's unfortunately a requirement
292     to take advantage of all that the next major portage release will allow.
294 g2boojum 1.2 The proposed directory structure is ${PORTDIR}/include/{eclass,elib}.
295 g2boojum 1.1 Something like ${PORTDIR}/new-eclass, or ${PORTDIR}/eclass-ng could be used
296 vapier 1.4 (although many would cringe at the -ng), but such a name is unwise. Consider the
297 g2boojum 1.1 possibility (likely a fact) that new eclasses someday may be found lacking, and
298 vapier 1.4 refined further (version three as it were). Or perhaps we want to add yet more
299 g2boojum 1.1 functionality with direct relation to sourcing new files, and we would then need
300     to further populate ${PORTDIR}.
302     The new-eclass directory will be (at least) 2 levels deep- for example:
304     ::
305     kernel/
306     kernel/linux-info.eclass
307     kernel/linux-mod.eclass
308     kernel/kernel-2.6.eclass
309     kernel/kernel-2.4.eclass
310     kernel/ChangeLog
311     kernel/Manifest
313     No eclasses will be allowed in the base directory- grouping of new eclasses will
314     be required to help keep things tidy, and for the following reasons. Grouping
315     of eclasses allows for the addition of ChangeLogs that are specific to that
316     group of eclasses, grouping of files/patches as needed, and allows for
317 g2boojum 1.2 saner/easier signing of eclasses- you can just stick a signed
318 g2boojum 1.1 Manifest file w/in that grouping, thus providing the information portage needs
319     to ensure no files are missing, and that nothing has been tainted.
321     The elib directory will be structured in the same way, for the same reasons.
323     Repoman will have to be extended to work within new eclass and elib groups, and
324 vapier 1.4 to handle signing and committing. This is intentional, and a good thing. This
325 g2boojum 1.1 gives repoman the possibility of doing sanity checks on elibs/new eclasses.
326 g2boojum 1.2
327     Note these checks will not prevent developers from doing dumb things with eclass-
328     these checks would only be capable of doing basic sanity checks, such as syntax checks.
329     There is no way to prevent people from doing dumb things (exempting perhaps repeated
330     applications of a cattle prod)- these are strictly automatic checks, akin to repoman's
331     dependency checks.
332 g2boojum 1.1
334 g2boojum 1.2 The start of a different phase of backwards compatibility
335 g2boojum 1.1 ---------------------------------------------------------
337 g2boojum 1.2 As clarified above, new eclasses will exist in a separate directory that will be
338 g2boojum 1.1 intentionally inaccessible to the inherit function. As such, users of older
339     portage versions *will* have to upgrade to merge any ebuild that uses elibs/new
340 vapier 1.4 eclasses. A depend on the next major portage version would transparently handle
341 g2boojum 1.2 this for rsync users.
342 g2boojum 1.1
343     There still is the issue of users who haven't upgraded to the required portage
344 vapier 1.4 version. This is a minor concern frankly- portage releases include new
345 g2boojum 1.1 functionality, and bug fixes. If they won't upgrade, it's assumed they have
346     their reasons and are big boys, thus able to handle the complications themselves.
348     The real issue is broken envs, whether in binpkgs, or for installed packages.
349     Two options exist- either the old eclasses are left in the tree indefinitely, or
350     they're left for N months, then shifted out of the tree, and into a tarball that
351     can be merged.
353     Shifting them out of the tree is advisable for several reasons- less cruft in
354     the tree, but more importantly the fact that they are not signed (thus an angle
355     for attack). Note that the proposed method of eclass signing doesn't even try
356     to address them. Frankly, it's not worth the effort supporting two variations
357     of eclass signing, when the old eclass setup isn't designed to allow for easy
358     signing.
360     If this approach is taken, then either the old eclasses would have to be merged
361     to an overlay directory's eclass directory (ugly), or to a safe location that
362     portage's inherit function knows to look for (less ugly).
364     For users who do not upgrade within the window of N months while the old
365     eclasses are in the tree, as stated, it's assumed they know what they are doing.
366     If they specifically block the new portage version, as the ebuilds in the tree
367     migrate to the new eclasses, they will have less and less ebuilds available to
368 g2boojum 1.2 them. If they tried injecting the new portage version (lying to portage,
369     essentially), portage would bail since it cannot find the new eclass.
370     For ebuilds that use the new eclasses, there really isn't any way to sidestep
371     the portage version requirement- same as it has been for other portage features.
372 g2boojum 1.1
373     What is a bit more annoying is that once the old eclasses are out of the tree,
374 g2boojum 1.2 if a user has not upgraded to a portage version supporting env processing, they
375     will lose the ability to unmerge any installed ebuild that used an old
376     eclass. Same cause, different symptom being they will lose the ability to merge
377     any tbz2 that uses old eclasses also.
379     There is one additional case that is a rarity, but should be noted- if a user
380     has suffered significant corruption of their installed package database (vdb). This is
381     ignoring the question of whether the vdb is even usable at this point, but the possibility
382     exists for the saved envs to be non usable due to either A) missing, or B) corrupted.
383     In such a case, even with the new portage capabilities, they would need
384     the old eclass compat ebuild.
386     Note for this to happen requires either rather... unwise uses of root, or significant
387     fs corruption. Regardless of the cause, it's quite likely for this to even become an
388     issue, the system's vdb is completely unusable. It's a moot issue at that point.
389     If you lose your vdb, or it gets seriously damaged, it's akin to lobotomizing portage-
390 vapier 1.4 it doesn't know what's installed, it doesn't know of its own files, and in general,
391 g2boojum 1.2 a rebuilding of the system is about the only sane course of action. The missing env is
392     truly the least of the users concern in such a case.
394     Continuing with the more likely scenario, users unwilling to upgrade portage will
395     *not* be left out in the rain. Merging the old eclass compat ebuild will provide
396 vapier 1.4 the missing eclasses, thus providing that lost functionality.
397 g2boojum 1.1
398 g2boojum 1.2 Note the intention isn't to force them to upgrade, hence the ability to restore the
399 vapier 1.4 lost functionality. The intention is to clean up the existing mess, and allow us
400     to move forward. The saying "you've got to break a few eggs to make an omelet"
401 g2boojum 1.1 is akin, exempting the fact we're providing a way to make the eggs whole again
402     (the king's men would've loved such an option).
405     Migrating to the new setup
406     --------------------------
408     As has been done in the past whenever a change in the tree results in ebuilds
409     requiring a specific version of portage, as ebuilds migrate to the new eclasses,
410     they should depend on a version of portage that supports it. From the users
411     viewpoint, this transparently handles the migration.
413     This isn't so transparent for devs or a particular infrastructure server however.
414     Devs, due to them using cvs for their tree, lack the pregenerated cache rsync
415     users have. Devs will have to be early adopters of the new portage. Older
416     portage versions won't be able to access the new eclasses, thus the local cache
417     generation for that ebuild will fail, ergo the depends on a newer portage
418     version won't transparently handle it for them.
420     Additionally, prior to any ebuilds in the tree using the new eclasses, the
421     infrastructure server that generates the cache for rsync users will have to
422     either be upgraded to a version of portage supporting new eclasses, or patched.
423     The former being much more preferable then the latter for the portage devs.
425     Beyond that, an appropriate window for old eclasses to exist in the tree must be
426 vapier 1.4 determined, and prior to that window passing, an ebuild must be added to the tree
427 g2boojum 1.1 so users can get the old eclasses if needed.
429     For eclass devs to migrate from old to new, it is possible for them to just
430     transfer the old eclass into an appropriate grouping in the new eclass directory,
431 vapier 1.4 although it's advisable they cleanse all cruft out of the eclass. You can
432 g2boojum 1.1 migrate ebuilds gradually over to the new eclass, and don't have to worry about
433     having to support ebuilds from X years back.
435     Essentially, you have a chance to nail the design perfectly/cleanly, and have a
436     window in which to redesign it. It's humbly suggested eclass devs take
437     advantage of it. :)
440     Backwards Compatibility
441     =======================
443 g2boojum 1.2 All backwards compatibility issues are addressed in line, but a recap is offered-
444     it's suggested that if the a particular compatibility issue is
445 g2boojum 1.1 questioned/worried over, the reader read the relevant section. There should be
446     a more in depth discussion of the issue, along with a more extensive explanation
447 g2boojum 1.2 of the potential solutions, and reasons for the chosen solution.
448 g2boojum 1.1
449     To recap:
450     ::
451 g2boojum 1.3
452 g2boojum 1.1 New eclasses and elib functionality will be tied to a specific portage
453 vapier 1.4 version. A DEPENDs on said portage version should address this for rsync
454 g2boojum 1.1 users who refuse to upgrade to a portage version that supports the new
455     eclasses/elibs and will gradually be unable to merge ebuilds that use said
456     functionality. It is their choice to upgrade, as such, the gradual
457     'thinning' of available ebuilds should they block the portage upgrade is
458     their responsibility.
460     Old eclasses at some point in the future should be removed from the tree,
461 vapier 1.4 and released in a tarball/ebuild. This will cause installed ebuilds that
462 g2boojum 1.2 rely on the old eclass to be unable to unmerge, with the same applying for
463     merging of binpkgs dependent on the following paragraph.
464 g2boojum 1.1
465 g2boojum 1.2 The old eclass-compat is only required for users who do not upgrade their
466     portage installation, and one further exemption- if the user has somehow
467     corrupted/destroyed their installed pkgs database (/var/db/pkg currently),
468     in the process, they've lost their saved environments. The eclass-compat
469     ebuild would be required for ebuilds that required older eclasses in such a
470     case. Note, this case is rare also- as clarified above, it's mentioned
471     strictly to be complete, it's not much of a real world scenario as elaborated
472     above.
473 g2boojum 1.1
475     Copyright
476     =========
478     This document has been placed in the public domain.

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