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1 stuart 1.1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4     <guide link="/proj/en/overlays/devguide.xml">
5     <title>Gentoo Overlays: Developers' Guide</title>
7     <author title="Author">
8     <mail link="stuart@gentoo.org">Stuart Herbert</mail>
9     </author>
11     <abstract>This guide helps developers understand how to use the Gentoo
12     Overlays service.</abstract>
14     <license/>
16     <version>1.0</version>
17     <date>2006-07-29</date>
19     <chapter>
20     <title>Introduction</title>
22     <section>
23     <title>Audience</title>
24     <body>
25     <p>This document has been written for Gentoo developers and Gentoo staff members. If you are a Gentoo user, or you just want to start downloading and using overlays, please see <uri link="/proj/en/overlays/userguide.xml">the Gentoo Overlays User Guide</uri> instead.</p>
26     </body>
27     </section>
29     <section>
30     <title>What is overlays.gentoo.org?</title>
31     <body>
32     <p><uri link="http://overlays.gentoo.org">overlays.gentoo.org</uri> provides social workspaces to allow Gentoo projects, developers and users to collaborate together on tomorrow's Gentoo packages. We do this by hosting overlays for Gentoo projects, and overlays for Gentoo developers.</p>
33     </body>
34     </section>
36     <section>
37     <title>Who Can Use overlays.gentoo.org?</title>
38     <body>
39     <p>Any Gentoo project, or Gentoo developer, can have their own overlay hosted on overlays.gentoo.org, with the RSS feed from the changelog included on <uri link="http://overlays.gentoo.org">the overlays.gentoo.org homepage</uri>.</p>
41     <p>Any Gentoo staff member or user (ie, anyone who doesn't have write access to
42     the main Portage package tree) can download and use the contents of any hosted
43     overlay. If you choose, you can also give users write access to your
44     overlay.</p>
45     </body>
46     </section>
48     <section>
49     <title>What Does overlays.gentoo.org Give Me?</title>
50     <body>
51     <p>The overlays.gentoo.org service currently provides:</p>
52     <ul>
53     <li><uri link="http://trac.edgewall.com">Trac</uri> (a wiki w/ integrated subversion browser), for quickly creating and maintaining documentation about your overlay</li>
54     <li><uri link="http://subversion.tigris.org">Subversion</uri> - a centralised version control system (distributed version control systems will be supported in future)</li>
55     <li>Publishing the changelog for your overlay on <uri link="http://overlays.gentoo.org/">the o.g.o homepage</uri>, so that everyone who's interested can see what's going on</li>
56     </ul>
58     <p>... all hosted on secure, backed-up Gentoo infrastructure, administered by
59     <uri link="/proj/en/infrastructure">the Gentoo Infrastructure team</uri> (hardware / base OS) and <uri link="/proj/en/overlays">the Gentoo Overlays team</uri>
60     (wiki / VCS / ACLs).</p>
62     <p>Each overlay has separate authentication lists for Trac and for Subversion.
63     It's no problem at all to give someone write access to just Trac (e.g. for
64     writing documentation) without giving them write access to Subversion.</p>
65     </body>
66     </section>
68     <section>
69     <title>Why Should We Use overlays.gentoo.org?</title>
70     <body>
71     <p>You don't have to. You don't have to have an overlay at all, and if you do
72     have one, you are absolutely free to host your own overlay somewhere else.
73     You don't have to host an overlay on o.g.o for it to be considered
74     "official".</p>
76     <p>The advantage of using overlays.gentoo.org is that we already have everything
77     setup for you. You don't need to admin your own server, or worry about
78     software upgrades. We take care of all of that for you.</p>
79     </body>
80     </section>
82     <section>
83     <title>When Should We Not Use overlays.gentoo.org?</title>
84     <body>
85     <p>The purpose of o.g.o is to help bridge the gap between developers and users.
86     Gentoo is a community-based distribution, and we believe that our users are
87     just as important a part of that community as developers are.</p>
89     <p>All of the overlays hosted on o.g.o are there for all users to download and
90     use. It's for users to make their own decision about what software they
91     install on their computers - and that includes choosing to use your overlay.
92     Some users will make bad decisions, and end up breaking their computer. They
93     may even end up blaming Gentoo as a result. That's okay; these people
94     probably go around blaming everyone but themselves for their own
95     mistakes anyway, and there's probably nothing you can do to change that.
96     But that still doesn't give any of us the right to choose for them.</p>
98     <p>Users are free (in fact, they are encouraged) to provide constructive
99     feedback about anything to do with Gentoo - including all of the overlays
100     hosted on o.g.o. That feedback can come via bugs.g.o, via email to your
101     project team or directly to you, via the forums, or via IRC. We're not
102     talking about genuinely abusive users; we have no time for those, and no-one
103     expects you to have any time for them either.</p>
105     <warn>If you're not happy with users using your overlay, and / or if you don't want
106     users bothering you about your overlay, then don't use o.g.o to host your
107     overlay.</warn>
109     <p>The other thing we need to say is that o.g.o is for hosting overlays. You
110     can't use it to be $UPSTREAM for your packages. If that's the kind of hosting
111     you need, you can use services such as <uri link="http://www.sourceforge.net/">SourceForge.net</uri>, <uri link="http://www.berlios.de">Berlios</uri>, or
112     Patrick's <uri link="http://www.gentooexperimental.org">GentooExperimental.org</uri>.</p>
113     </body>
114     </section>
115     </chapter>
117     <chapter>
118     <title>Requesting An Overlay</title>
120     <section>
121     <title>Introduction</title>
122     <body>
123     <p>There are two types of overlay - "project" overlays, and "developer"
124     overlays. The only difference between them is responsibility and
125     accountability.</p>
127     <impo>Before requesting an overlay, please make sure that you have read our <uri link="/proj/en/overlays/policy.xml">Policy Document</uri>. It clearly sets out what's allowed and what is not, and what your responsibilities will be.</impo>
128     </body>
129     </section>
131     <section>
132     <title>Project Overlays</title>
133     <body>
134     <p>"Project" overlays are overlays for official Gentoo projects. A good
135     example is <uri link="http://overlays.gentoo.org/proj/php">the PHP Overlay</uri>.</p>
137     <p>An official Gentoo project is a project that has a project page on
138     www.gentoo.org, and that has an elected lead. (This definition comes from <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/glep/glep-0039.html">the
139     metastructure document</uri>, which is Gentoo's governing document). The project
140     lead(s) are responsible for the project overlay, including its contents, and
141     any problems it causes other Gentoo projects and developers.</p>
143     <p>To request a project overlay, the project's lead just needs to pop into
144     #gentoo-overlays on IRC and ask for an overlay to be created. Or, if he/she
145     prefers, drop an email to overlays@gentoo.org. We'll take care of the rest,
146     including granting write access to all the members of your project (as listed
147     on your project page).</p>
149     <p>We will:</p>
150     <ul>
151     <li>create your overlay (trac site + svn)</li>
152     <li>add your overlay's RSS feed to the o.g.o homepage</li>
153     <li>create an o.g.o account for you if you don't already have one</li>
154     <li>give you write access to your overlay's Trac wiki and Subversion
155     repository</li>
156     <li>give write access to all project members who already have an o.g.o
157     account</li>
158     <li>contact all of the other project members, and sort out their access</li>
159     </ul>
160     </body>
161     </section>
163     <section>
164     <title>Developer Overlays</title>
165     <body>
167     <p>"Developer" overlays are overlays owned by individual Gentoo developers. One
168     example is <uri link="http://overlays.gentoo.org/dev/tcort">tcort's overlay</uri>.</p>
170     <p>If you have an @gentoo.org email address, and you've passed the ebuild quiz,
171     then you can have your own developer overlay on o.g.o.</p>
173     <p>To request a developer overlay, just pop into #gentoo-overlays on IRC and ask
174     for an overlay to be created for you. Or, if you prefer, drop an email to
175     overlays@gentoo.org.</p>
177     <p>We will:</p>
178     <ul>
179     <li>create your overlay (trac site + svn)</li>
180     <li>add your overlay's RSS feed to the o.g.o homepage</li>
181     <li>create an o.g.o account for you if you don't have one already</li>
182     <li>give you write access to your overlay's Trac wiki and Subversion
183     repository</li>
184     </ul>
185     </body>
186     </section>
188     <section>
189     <title>A Word About Accounts</title>
190     <body>
191     <p>Because o.g.o is designed to support a blend of both Gentoo developers and
192     Gentoo users, we don't create 'real' system-level accounts on the o.g.o host.
193     All access is currently through Apache, and is managed by Apache htpasswd and
194     htgroup files.</p>
196     <impo>You do *not* have SSH access to o.g.o.</impo>
197     </body>
198     </section>
199     </chapter>
201     <chapter>
202     <title>Working With Your Overlay</title>
204     <section>
205     <title>Introduction</title>
206     <body>
207     <p>You can access your overlay as soon as it has been created. Project and
208     developer overlays have different URLs, so that everyone can tell one from the
209     other, but otherwise they are identical in every way.</p>
211     <p>There are *no* read restrictions on overlays or wikis. Everyone has full
212     read access to all overlays and wikis. If you need a 'secret' overlay of some
213     kind, then o.g.o is not for you.</p>
214     </body>
215     </section>
217     <section>
218     <title>Accessing Project Overlays</title>
219     <body>
220     <p>If your project overlay is called 'foo', your Trac wiki site will be
221     here: http://overlays.gentoo.org/proj/foo/</p>
223     <p>To checkout your Subversion repository, use:</p>
224     <pre caption="Checkout your project overlay">svn co http://overlays.gentoo.org/svn/proj/foo/</pre>
226     <p>We maintain <uri link="http://overlays.gentoo.org/proj/">a full list of project overlays hosted on overlays.gentoo.org</uri>.</p>
227     </body>
228     </section>
230     <section>
231     <title>Accessing Developer Overlays</title>
232     <body>
233     <p>If your Gentoo email address is 'foo@gentoo.org', your Trac wiki site will be
234     here: http://overlays.gentoo.org/dev/foo/</p>
236     <p>To checkout your Subversion repository, use:</p>
237     <pre caption="Checkout your developer overlay">>svn co http://overlays.gentoo.org/svn/dev/foo/</pre>
239     <p>We maintain <uri link="http://overlays.gentoo.org/dev/">a full list of developer overlays hosted on overlays.gentoo.org</uri>.</p>
240     </body>
241     </section>
243     <section>
244     <title>Getting Started With Trac</title>
245     <body>
246     <p>Your overlay comes with <uri link="http://trac.edgewall.com">Trac</uri>. Trac is a wiki, a subversion repository browser, and a bug tracking system that's
247     very popular with open source developers.</p>
249     <p>We have disabled the bug tracking system in Trac. Use <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo's bugzilla</uri> for bug tracking your overlay.</p>
251     <p>Your overlay's RSS feed - the one that is shown on <uri link="http://overlays.gentoo.org">the o.g.o homepage</uri> - comes from Trac's Timeline page.</p>
253     <p>We have installed several Trac plugins, which we hope will make your wiki even
254     more useful to you. If you come across any additional plugins that you'd like
255     to see installed, please let us know, and we'll take a look at them.</p>
257     <impo>more here, including details about each Trac plugin that we have installed</impo>
258     </body>
259     </section>
261     <section>
262     <title>Getting Started With Subversion</title>
263     <body>
264     <p>Your overlay comes with <uri link="http://subversion.tigris.org">Subversion</uri>, a modern alternative to CVS. The advantages of Subversion over CVS include real versioning of directories, full changeset support, and it's much easier to do branching if you need to. The main disadvantage of Subversion is that it is slower than CVS, and that a local Subversion checkout requires more disk space.</p>
266     <p>If you have never used Subversion before, the <uri link="http://svnbook.red-bean.com/">online book</uri> is an excellent online book for Subversion. You can buy it in dead-tree format too if you
267     prefer.</p>
269     <impo>more here, including basic checkout, status, commit and update commands</impo>
271     </body>
272     </section>
274     <section>
275     <title>Layman</title>
276     <body>
277     <p>We are telling users to use layman to download and manage your overlay.
278     layman is a utility written by <mail link="wrobel@gentoo.org">Gunnar Wrobel</mail> which makes it very easy for users to work with overlays.</p>
280     <p>To get started with using layman, see <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/news/en/gwn/20060522-newsletter.xml">Gentoo Weekly News for 22nd May</uri>, <uri link="http://gentoo-wiki.com/TIP_Overlays#layman">this article on Gentoo-Wiki.com</uri>, or the man page that comes with layman.</p>
281     </body>
282     </section>
284     <section>
285     <title>Auto-Sync From Portage</title>
286     <body>
287     <p>Your packages in the Portage tree are always at risk of being changed without
288     you knowing about it in advance. Arch teams need to be able to keyword
289     packages (and fix arch-specific brokenness), the QA team fix perceived
290     standards violations, and occaisionally developers will edit packages that
291     they shouldn't.</p>
293     <p>You need to make sure that the changes made in Portage aren't lost the next
294     time you copy your packages from your overlay back into Portage.</p>
296     <p>The PHP team have solved this problem by automatically copying their packages
297     from Portage back into a 'portage' branch of their overlay every night. They
298     can then use Subversion (or Trac's timeline) to see what has changed every
299     day.</p>
301     <p>If you'd like to have this feature added to your overlay, contact CHTEKK.</p>
302     </body>
303     </section>
304     </chapter>
306     <chapter>
307     <title>Giving Access To Your Overlay To Others</title>
309     <section>
310     <title>Introduction</title>
311     <body>
312     <p>One of the key features of o.g.o is that people who do not have write access
313     to the Gentoo Portage package tree can have write access to one or more
314     overlays. Several Gentoo projects have found that this is a great way to train
315     and evaluate potential Gentoo developers in a safe environment.</p>
317     <p>At the moment, only the Overlays team can update the access control lists for
318     overlays.gentoo.org. We will provide a web-based tool for managing the access
319     control lists at a later date. But, for now, if you need a change made,
320     please drop by #gentoo-overlays on IRC for assistance.</p>
321     </body>
322     </section>
324     <section>
325     <title>Project Overlays: Giving Write Access To Team Members</title>
326     <body>
327     <p>Any developer listed on a team's project page on www.g.o can have write
328     access to the team's overlay. The project lead can ask on their behalf, or
329     the developer can come and ask for access themselves.</p>
331     <p>If the developer doesn't have an o.g.o account yet, he/she will need to drop
332     by #gentoo-overlays so that we can create an account for them.</p>
333     </body>
334     </section>
336     <section>
337     <title>Project Overlays: Giving Write Access To Other Gentoo
338     Developers</title>
339     <body>
341     <p>Any Gentoo developer *not* listed on a team's project page on www.g.o can
342     have write access to the team's overlay. The request for write access must
343     come from a member of the team. It doesn't have to come from the project
344     lead.</p>
346     <p>If the developer doesn't have an o.g.o account yet, he/she will need to drop
347     by #gentoo-overlays so that we can create an account for them.</p>
348     </body>
349     </section>
351     <section>
352     <title>Project Overlays: Giving Write Access To Gentoo Users</title>
353     <body>
354     <p>Any Gentoo user can have write access to the team's overlay. The request for
355     write access must come from one of the project's leads. You can request that
356     we give the user write access to Trac, to Subversion, or to both. (We will
357     assume that the request is for write access to both, unless you say
358     otherwise).</p>
360     <p>We cannot accept these requests from anyone other than a project lead. If
361     your project only has the one lead, we recommend electing a second lead. If
362     your one and only lead is AWOL, consider electing a replacement :)</p>
364     <p>If the user doesn't have an o.g.o account yet, he/she will need to drop by
365     #gentoo-overlays so that we can create an account for them.</p>
366     </body>
367     </section>
369     <section>
370     <title>Developer Overlays: Giving Write Access To Gentoo Developers</title>
371     <body>
372     <p>Any Gentoo developer can have write access to your developer overlay. The
373     developer can ask us directly; we will not give access until we've checked
374     with you. You can also ask us to give write access to any named
375     developer.</p>
377     <p>If the developer doesn't have an o.g.o account yet, he/she will need to drop
378     by #gentoo-overlays so that we can create an account for them.</p>
379     </body>
380     </section>
382     <section>
383     <title>Developer Overlays: Giving Write Access To Gentoo Users</title>
384     <body>
385     <p>Any Gentoo user can have write access to your developer's overlay. The
386     request for write access must come from you. You can request that we give
387     the user write access just to Trac, just to Subversion, or to both. (We will
388     assume that the request is for write access to both unless you say
389     otherwise).</p>
391     <p>We cannot accept these requests from anyone else other than you. If you find
392     yourself giving access to a lot of other people, it might be that you should
393     consider setting up a new project, and transfering your work there
394     instead.</p>
396     <p>If the user doesn't have an o.g.o account yet, he/she will need to drop by
397     #gentoo-overlays so that we can create an account for them.</p>
398     </body>
399     </section>
400     </chapter>
402     <chapter>
403     <title>Accessing Someone Else's Overlay</title>
405     <section>
406     <title>Using An Overlay</title>
407     <body>
408     <p>Everyone has full read access to every overlay. We recommend that you
409     use</p>
410     <pre caption="Install layman">
411     emerge layman
412     echo 'source /usr/portage/local/layman/layman.conf' &gt;&gt; /etc/make.conf
413     </pre>
415     <p>After that, to view the list of overlays, use</p>
417     <pre caption="List overlays that layman knows about">layman -L</pre>
419     <p>To install an overlay, use</p>
420     <pre caption="Install an overlay">layman -a &lt;overlay-name&gt;</pre>
422     <p>You can now install packages from the overlay.</p>
423     </body>
424     </section>
426     <section>
427     <title>Requesting Write Access</title>
428     <body>
429     <p>If you want write access to a project overlay, contact a member of the
430     project team, and ask them for access. If they approve your request, they
431     will arrange for you to have write access, by contacting the Overlays
432     team.</p>
434     <p>If you want write access to a developer's overlay, contact the developer
435     directly, and ask them for access. If they approve your request, they will
436     arrange for you to have write access, by contacting the Overlays team.</p>
437     </body>
438     </section>
439     </chapter>
441     <chapter>
442     <title>Frequently Asked Questions</title>
444     <section>
445     <title>o.g.o Administration</title>
446     <body>
448     <p>Q: How do I contact the o.g.o admin staff?</p>
449     <ul>
450     <li>A: You can pop into #gentoo-overlays on IRC, and talk to us there. The
451     current staff are mostly in European timezones.</li>
452     <li>A: You can send an email to overlays@gentoo.org. Someone will answer you as
453     soon as possible.</li>
454     <li>A: You can contact Stuart Herbert (the project leader) directly, via his
455     email address: stuart@gentoo.org.</li>
456     </ul>
458     <p>Q: Why can't I edit the access control list directly?</p>
459     <ul>
460     <li>A: The access control list currently lives in htpasswd / htgroup files used
461     by Apache. Only o.g.o admin staff have ssh access into the o.g.o box.</li>
462     </ul>
463     </body>
464     </section>
466     <section>
467     <title>Security</title>
468     <body>
469     <p>Q: Is my overlay available via https?</p>
470     <ul>
471     <li>A: No, it currently is not. We have asked infra to set this up, and are
472     waiting for them to do so.</li>
473     </ul>
474     </body>
475     </section>
477     <section>
478     <title>Multiple Overlays</title>
479     <body>
481     <p>Q: Can I have multiple overlays?</p>
482     <ul>
483     <li>A: Yes, in a fashion. Inside your overlay, you can create
484     sub-directories, and put separate package trees inside those sub-directories.
485     Please take a look at the PHP project overlay for an example.</li>
486     </ul>
487     </body>
488     </section>
490     <section>
491     <title>Importing Existing Overlays</title>
492     <body>
493     <p>Q: I already have an overlay, and I'd like to move it to o.g.o. How do I
494     go about doing that?</p>
495     <ul>
496     <li>A: Create a tarball of your subversion repository, and put it somewhere
497     where it can be downloaded via http. We'll download it and install it onto
498     o.g.o for you.</li>
499     </ul>
500     <note>Make sure you tar up your repository, and not a checkout!</note>
502     <p>Q: I have an overlay, but it doesn't use Subversion. How do I go about
503     moving it to o.g.o?</p>
504     <ul>
505     <li>A: Ask us to create a new, empty overlay for you. You can then use 'svn
506     import' to import your files into the new overlay. You'll lose your history,
507     but that can't be helped.</li>
508     <li>A: Search the Internet, and see if there is a tool to convert from your
509     existing version control software to Subversion. If there is, use that, and
510     then we can help you move it to o.g.o.</li>
511     <li>A: If your version control software is used by Trac, and it can be used
512     over HTTP, come and help us add
513     support for your version control software on o.g.o.</li>
514     </ul>
515     </body>
516     </section>
518     <section>
519     <title>"Official" Overlays</title>
520     <body>
521     <p>Q: When is an overlay considered "official"?</p>
522     <ul>
523     <li>A: An "official" overlay is an overlay managed by a Gentoo project (for
524     project overlays) or a Gentoo developer (for developer overlays).</li>
525     </ul>
527     <p>Q: Does an overlay have to be on o.g.o to be "official"?</p>
528     <ul>
529     <li>A: No.</li>
530     </ul>
531     </body>
532     </section>
533     </chapter>
534     </guide>

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