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1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3
4 <guide link="/proj/en/overlays/devguide.xml">
5 <title>Gentoo Overlays: Developers' Guide</title>
6
7 <author title="Author">
8 <mail link="stuart">Stuart Herbert</mail>
9 </author>
10 <author title="Author">
11 <mail link="jokey">Markus Ullmann</mail>
12 </author>
13 <author title="Author">
14 <mail link="robbat2">Robin H. Johnson</mail>
15 </author>
16
17 <abstract>This guide helps developers understand how to use the Gentoo
18 Overlays service.</abstract>
19
20 <license/>
21
22 <version>2.3</version>
23 <date>2009-01-18</date>
24
25 <chapter>
26 <title>Introduction</title>
27
28 <section>
29 <title>Audience</title>
30 <body>
31 <p>This document has been written for Gentoo developers and Gentoo staff members. If you are a Gentoo user, or you just want to start downloading and using overlays, please see <uri link="/proj/en/overlays/userguide.xml">the Gentoo Overlays User Guide</uri> instead.</p>
32 </body>
33 </section>
34
35 <section>
36 <title>Who Can Use overlays.gentoo.org?</title>
37 <body>
38 <p>Any Gentoo project, or Gentoo developer, can have their own overlay hosted on (git.)overlays.gentoo.org, with the RSS feed from the changelog included on <uri link="http://overlays.gentoo.org">the overlays.gentoo.org planet</uri>.</p>
39
40 <p>Any User can download and use the contents of any hosted
41 overlay. If you choose, you can also give users write access to your
42 overlay.</p>
43 </body>
44 </section>
45
46 <section>
47 <title>What Does overlays.gentoo.org Give Me?</title>
48 <body>
49 <p>The (git.)overlays.gentoo.org service currently provides:</p>
50 <ul>
51 <li><uri link="http://trac.edgewall.com">Trac</uri> (a wiki w/ integrated subversion browser), for quickly creating and maintaining documentation about your Subversion based overlay</li>
52 <li>Publishing the changelog for your overlay on <uri link="http://overlays.gentoo.org/">the o.g.o homepage</uri>, so that everyone who's interested can see what's going on</li>
53 <li><uri link="http://git.or.cz/gitwiki/Gitweb">gitweb</uri> - provides full-fledged web interface for viewing Git repositories.</li>
54 </ul>
55
56 <p>... all hosted on secure, backed-up Gentoo infrastructure, administered by
57 <uri link="/proj/en/infrastructure">the Gentoo Infrastructure team</uri> (hardware / base OS) and <uri link="/proj/en/overlays">the Gentoo Overlays team</uri>
58 (wiki / VCS / ACLs).</p>
59
60 <p>Each overlay has separate authentication lists for Trac, Subversion and Git.
61 It's no problem at all to give someone write access to just Trac (e.g. for
62 writing documentation) without giving them write access to Subversion.</p>
63 </body>
64 </section>
65
66 <section>
67 <title>Why Should We Use overlays.gentoo.org?</title>
68 <body>
69 <p>You don't have to. You don't have to have an overlay at all, and if you do
70 have one, you are absolutely free to host your own overlay somewhere else.
71 You don't have to host an overlay on o.g.o for it to be considered
72 "official".</p>
73
74 <p>The advantage of using overlays.gentoo.org is that we already have everything
75 setup for you. You don't need to admin your own server, or worry about
76 software upgrades. We take care of all of that for you.</p>
77 </body>
78 </section>
79
80 <section>
81 <title>When Should We Not Use overlays.gentoo.org?</title>
82 <body>
83 <p>The purpose of o.g.o is to help bridge the gap between developers and users.
84 Gentoo is a community-based distribution, and we believe that our users are
85 just as important a part of that community as developers are.</p>
86
87 <p>All of the overlays hosted on o.g.o are there for all users to download and
88 use. It's for users to make their own decision about what software they
89 install on their computers - and that includes choosing to use your overlay.
90 Some users will make bad decisions, and end up breaking their computer. They
91 may even end up blaming Gentoo as a result. That's okay; these people
92 probably go around blaming everyone but themselves for their own
93 mistakes anyway, and there's probably nothing you can do to change that.
94 But that still doesn't give any of us the right to choose for them.</p>
95
96 <p>Users are free (in fact, they are encouraged) to provide constructive
97 feedback about anything to do with Gentoo - including all of the overlays
98 hosted on o.g.o. That feedback can come via bugs.g.o, via email to your
99 project team or directly to you, via the forums, or via IRC. We're not
100 talking about genuinely abusive users; we have no time for those, and no-one
101 expects you to have any time for them either.</p>
102
103 <warn>If you're not happy with users using your overlay, and / or if you don't want
104 users bothering you about your overlay, then don't use o.g.o to host your
105 overlay.</warn>
106
107 <p>o.g.o used to have restrictions of not being the $UPSTREAM for packages.
108 This restriction has been adjusted. We do offer hosting as the $UPSTREAM now,
109 but only for packages that are Gentoo-specific or important to the running of
110 Gentoo. Other hosting may be more suitable, some services in this vein are:
111 <uri link="http://www.sourceforge.net/">SourceForge.net</uri>, <uri
112 link="http://www.berlios.de">Berlios</uri>, or Patrick's <uri
113 link="http://www.gentooexperimental.org">GentooExperimental.org</uri>.</p>
114 </body>
115 </section>
116 </chapter>
117
118 <chapter>
119 <title>Requesting An Overlay</title>
120
121 <section>
122 <title>Introduction</title>
123 <body>
124 <p>There are two types of overlay - "project" overlays, and "developer"
125 overlays. The only difference between them is responsibility and
126 accountability.</p>
127
128 <impo>Before requesting an overlay, please make sure that you have read our <uri link="/proj/en/overlays/policy.xml">Policy Document</uri>. It clearly sets out what's allowed and what is not, and what your responsibilities will be.</impo>
129 </body>
130 </section>
131
132 <section>
133 <title>Project Overlays</title>
134 <body>
135 <p>"Project" overlays are overlays for official Gentoo projects. An example is <uri link="http://overlays.gentoo.org/proj/php">the PHP Overlay</uri>.</p>
136
137 <p>An official Gentoo project is a project that has a project page on
138 www.gentoo.org, and that has an elected lead. (This definition comes from the
139 metastructure document). The project lead(s) are responsible for the project overlay, including its contents, and any problems it causes other Gentoo projects and developers.</p>
140
141 <p>To request a SVN project overlay, the project's lead just needs to pop into
142 #gentoo-overlays on IRC and ask for an overlay to be created. Or, if he/she
143 prefers, drop an email to overlays@gentoo.org. We'll take care of the rest,
144 including granting write access to all the members of your project (as listed
145 on your project page).</p>
146
147 <p>To request a Git project overlay, just visit the <uri
148 link="http://git.overlays.gentoo.org">git.overlays</uri> site, and follow the
149 setup instructions, emailing the completed template as directed.</p>
150
151 <p>For an SVN request, we will:</p>
152 <ul>
153 <li>create your overlay (trac site + svn)</li>
154 <li>add your overlay's RSS feed to the o.g.o homepage</li>
155 <li>create an o.g.o account for you if you don't already have one</li>
156 <li>give you write access to your overlay's Trac wiki and Subversion
157 repository</li>
158 <li>give write access to all project members who already have an o.g.o
159 account</li>
160 </ul>
161
162 <p>For an Git request, we will:</p>
163 <ul>
164 <li>create your overlay (git, gitweb, no trac)</li>
165 <li>add your overlay's RSS feed to the o.g.o homepage</li>
166 <li>create an git.o.g.o account for you if you don't already have one</li>
167 <li>give you write access to your overlays Git repository</li>
168 <li>give write access to all project members who already have an o.g.o account</li>
169 </ul>
170
171 </body>
172 </section>
173
174 <section>
175 <title>Developer Overlays</title>
176 <body>
177
178 <p>"Developer" overlays are overlays owned by individual Gentoo developers. One
179 example is <uri link="http://overlays.gentoo.org/dev/beandog">beandog's overlay</uri>.</p>
180
181 <p>If you have an @gentoo.org email address, and you've passed the ebuild quiz,
182 then you can have your own developer overlay on o.g.o.</p>
183
184 <p>To request a SVN developer overlay, just pop into #gentoo-overlays on IRC
185 and ask for an overlay to be created for you. Or, if you prefer, drop an email
186 to overlays@gentoo.org.</p>
187
188 <p>To request a Git developer overlay, just visit the <uri
189 link="http://git.overlays.gentoo.org">git.overlays</uri> site, and follow the
190 setup instructions, emailing the completed template as directed.</p>
191
192 <p>For an SVN request, we will:</p>
193 <ul>
194 <li>create your overlay (trac site + svn)</li>
195 <li>add your overlay's RSS feed to the o.g.o homepage</li>
196 <li>create an o.g.o account for you if you don't have one already</li>
197 <li>give you write access to your overlay's Trac wiki and Subversion
198 repository</li>
199 </ul>
200
201 <p>For an Git request, we will:</p>
202 <ul>
203 <li>create your overlay (git, gitweb, no trac)</li>
204 <li>add your overlay's RSS feed to the o.g.o homepage</li>
205 <li>create an git.o.g.o account for you if you don't already have one</li>
206 <li>give you write access to your overlays Git repository</li>
207 </ul>
208 </body>
209 </section>
210
211 <section>
212 <title>A Word About Accounts</title>
213 <body>
214 <p>Because o.g.o is designed to support a blend of both Gentoo developers and
215 Gentoo users, we don't create 'real' system-level accounts on the o.g.o host.
216 </p>
217
218 <impo>You do *not* have SSH access to o.g.o.</impo>
219 </body>
220 </section>
221 </chapter>
222
223 <chapter>
224 <title>Working With Your Overlay</title>
225
226 <section>
227 <title>Introduction</title>
228 <body>
229 <p>You can access your overlay as soon as it has been created. Project and
230 developer overlays have different URLs, so that everyone can tell one from the
231 other, but otherwise they are identical in every way.</p>
232
233 <p>There are *no* read restrictions on overlays or wikis. Everyone has full
234 read access to all overlays and wikis. If you need a 'secret' overlay of some
235 kind, then o.g.o is not for you.</p>
236 </body>
237 </section>
238
239 <section>
240 <title>Accessing Project Overlays</title>
241 <body>
242 <p>If your project overlay is called 'foo', your Trac wiki site will be
243 here: http://overlays.gentoo.org/proj/foo/</p>
244
245 <p>To checkout your Subversion repository, use:</p>
246 <pre caption="Checkout your project overlay">svn co https://overlays.gentoo.org/svn/proj/foo/</pre>
247
248 <p>While you may perform read-only actions via unsecure HTTP, you must perform
249 all commits via HTTPS. If you need to switch between modes, use:</p>
250 <pre caption="Switching your project overlay from HTTP to HTTPS">svn sw --relocate http://overlays.gentoo.org/svn/proj/foo/ https://overlays.gentoo.org/svn/proj/foo/</pre>
251
252 <p>We maintain <uri link="http://overlays.gentoo.org/proj/">a full list of project overlays hosted on overlays.gentoo.org</uri>.</p>
253 </body>
254 </section>
255
256 <section>
257 <title>Accessing Developer Overlays</title>
258 <body>
259 <p>If your Gentoo email address is 'foo@gentoo.org', your Trac wiki site will be
260 here: http://overlays.gentoo.org/dev/foo/</p>
261
262 <p>To checkout your Subversion repository, use:</p>
263 <pre caption="Checkout your developer overlay">svn co https://overlays.gentoo.org/svn/dev/foo/</pre>
264
265 <p>While you may perform read-only actions via unsecure HTTP, you must perform
266 all commits via HTTPS. If you need to switch between modes, use:</p>
267 <pre caption="Switching your developer overlay from HTTP to HTTPS">svn sw --relocate http://overlays.gentoo.org/svn/dev/foo/ https://overlays.gentoo.org/svn/dev/foo/</pre>
268
269 <p>We maintain <uri link="http://overlays.gentoo.org/dev/">a full list of developer overlays hosted on overlays.gentoo.org</uri>.</p>
270 </body>
271 </section>
272
273 <section>
274 <title>Getting Started With Trac</title>
275 <body>
276 <p>Your overlay comes with <uri link="http://trac.edgewall.com">Trac</uri>. Trac is a wiki, a subversion repository browser, and a bug tracking system that's
277 very popular with open source developers.</p>
278
279 <p>We have disabled the bug tracking system in Trac. Use <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo's bugzilla</uri> for bug tracking your overlay.</p>
280
281 <p>Your overlay's RSS feed - the one that is shown on <uri link="http://overlays.gentoo.org">the o.g.o homepage</uri> - comes from Trac's Timeline page or GitWeb's summary.</p>
282
283 </body>
284 </section>
285
286 <section>
287 <title>Getting Started With Subversion</title>
288 <body>
289 <p>The advantages of Subversion over CVS include real versioning of directories, full changeset support, and it's much easier to do branching if you need to. The main disadvantage of Subversion is that it is slower than CVS, and that a local Subversion checkout requires more disk space.</p>
290
291 <p>If you have never used Subversion before, the online book is an excellent way to learn Subversion. You can buy it in dead-tree format too if you prefer.</p>
292
293 <p>Here are some basic commands to get you started.</p>
294 <pre caption="Checking out your overlay">svn co https://overlays.gentoo.org/proj/php</pre>
295 <pre caption="Seeing which files need committing">svn status</pre>
296 <pre caption="Adding files to your overlay">svn add my.ebuild</pre>
297 <pre caption="Committing your changes">svn commit -m 'My changelog entry'</pre>
298
299 </body>
300 </section>
301
302 <section>
303 <title>Layman</title>
304 <body>
305 <p>We are telling users to use layman to download and manage your overlay.
306 layman is a utility written by <mail link="wrobel@gentoo.org">Gunnar Wrobel</mail> which makes it very easy for users to work with overlays.</p>
307
308 <p>
309 To get started with using layman, see <uri
310 link="http://layman.sourceforge.net/">the homepage documentation</uri>, the <uri
311 link="http://www.gentoo.org/news/en/gwn/20060522-newsletter.xml">Gentoo Weekly
312 News for 22nd May</uri> or read <c>man layman</c>.
313 </p>
314 </body>
315 </section>
316
317 <section>
318 <title>Auto-Sync From Portage</title>
319 <body>
320 <p>Your packages in the Portage tree are always at risk of being changed without
321 you knowing about it in advance. Arch teams need to be able to keyword
322 packages (and fix arch-specific brokenness), the QA team fix perceived
323 standards violations, and occaisionally developers will edit packages that
324 they shouldn't.</p>
325
326 <p>You need to make sure that the changes made in Portage aren't lost the next
327 time you copy your packages from your overlay back into Portage.</p>
328
329 <p>The PHP team have solved this problem by automatically copying their packages
330 from Portage back into a 'portage' branch of their overlay every night. They
331 can then use Subversion (or Trac's timeline) to see what has changed every day.</p>
332
333 </body>
334 </section>
335 </chapter>
336
337 <chapter>
338 <title>Using git on overlays</title>
339
340 <section>
341 <title>Initializing your overlay</title>
342 <body>
343 <p>Before uploading you need to locally create a git repository and add all items:</p>
344 <pre caption="go to your overlay">cd ~/my-overlay</pre>
345 <pre caption="create a new git repo">git init
346 git add .
347 git commit -m "populate overlay"</pre>
348 <p>Note that this commit was only locally, now we get the server into the game.</p>
349 <pre caption="tell git the url">git remote add origin git+ssh://git@git.overlays.gentoo.org/(proj or dev)/(name)</pre>
350 <pre caption="finally get it up there">git push origin master</pre>
351 <p>Source: http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/tutorial.html</p>
352 </body></section>
353
354 <section>
355 <title>Checking out the overlay with git</title>
356 <body>
357 <pre caption="clone it!">git clone git://git@git.overlays.gentoo.org/(proj or dev)/(name)/</pre>
358 </body>
359 </section>
360 </chapter>
361
362 <chapter>
363 <title>Giving Access To Your Overlay To Others</title>
364
365 <section>
366 <title>Introduction</title>
367 <body>
368 <p>One of the key features of o.g.o is that people who do not have write access
369 to the Gentoo Portage package tree can have write access to one or more
370 overlays. Several Gentoo projects have found that this is a great way to train
371 and evaluate potential Gentoo developers in a safe environment.</p>
372 </body>
373 </section>
374
375 <section>
376 <title>Project Overlays: Giving Write Access To Team Members</title>
377 <body>
378 <p>Any developer listed on a team's project page on www.g.o can have write
379 access to the team's overlay. The project lead can ask on their behalf, or
380 the developer can come and ask for access themselves.</p>
381
382 <p>If the developer doesn't have an o.g.o account yet, he/she will need to drop
383 by #gentoo-overlays so that we can create an account for them.</p>
384 </body>
385 </section>
386
387 <section>
388 <title>Project Overlays: Giving Write Access To Other Gentoo
389 Developers</title>
390 <body>
391
392 <p>Any Gentoo developer *not* listed on a team's project page on www.g.o can
393 have write access to the team's overlay. The request for write access must
394 come from a member of the team. It doesn't have to come from the project
395 lead.</p>
396
397 <p>If the developer doesn't have an o.g.o account yet, he/she will need to drop
398 by #gentoo-overlays so that we can create an account for them.</p>
399 </body>
400 </section>
401
402 <section>
403 <title>Project Overlays: Giving Write Access To Gentoo Users</title>
404 <body>
405 <p>Any Gentoo user can have write access to the team's overlay. The request for
406 write access must come from one of the project's leads. You can request that
407 we give the user write access to Trac, to Subversion, or to both. (We will
408 assume that the request is for write access to both, unless you say
409 otherwise).</p>
410
411 <p>We cannot accept these requests from anyone other than a project lead. If
412 your project only has the one lead, we recommend electing a second lead. If
413 your one and only lead is AWOL, consider electing a replacement :)</p>
414
415 <p>If the user doesn't have an o.g.o account yet, he/she will need to drop by
416 #gentoo-overlays so that we can create an account for them.</p>
417 </body>
418 </section>
419
420 <section>
421 <title>Developer Overlays: Giving Write Access To Gentoo Developers</title>
422 <body>
423 <p>Any Gentoo developer can have write access to your developer overlay. The
424 developer can ask us directly; we will not give access until we've checked
425 with you. You can also ask us to give write access to any named
426 developer.</p>
427
428 <p>If the developer doesn't have an o.g.o account yet, he/she will need to drop
429 by #gentoo-overlays so that we can create an account for them.</p>
430 </body>
431 </section>
432
433 <section>
434 <title>Developer Overlays: Giving Write Access To Gentoo Users</title>
435 <body>
436 <p>Any Gentoo user can have write access to your developer's overlay. The
437 request for write access must come from you. You can request that we give
438 the user write access just to Trac, just to Subversion, or to both. (We will
439 assume that the request is for write access to both unless you say
440 otherwise).</p>
441
442 <p>We cannot accept these requests from anyone else other than you. If you find
443 yourself giving access to a lot of other people, it might be that you should
444 consider setting up a new project, and transfering your work there
445 instead.</p>
446
447 <p>If the user doesn't have an o.g.o account yet, he/she will need to drop by
448 #gentoo-overlays so that we can create an account for them.</p>
449 </body>
450 </section>
451 </chapter>
452
453 <chapter>
454 <title>Accessing Someone Else's Overlay</title>
455
456 <section>
457 <title>Using An Overlay</title>
458 <body>
459 <p>Everyone has full read access to every overlay. We recommend that you
460 use</p>
461 <pre caption="Install layman">
462 emerge layman
463 echo 'source /var/lib/layman/layman.conf' &gt;&gt; /etc/make.conf
464 </pre>
465
466 <note>
467 Layman will create "/var/lib/layman/make.conf" once you add
468 your first overlay. But if you do not plan to install an overlay
469 immediately you should ensure that this file actually exists and
470 contains the empty variable "PORTDIR_OVERLAY". Otherwise portage will
471 complain. You can run "echo PORTDIR_OVERLAY='' >
472 /var/lib/layman/make.conf" in order to have the file created
473 correctly.
474 </note>
475
476 <p>After that, to view the list of overlays, use</p>
477
478 <pre caption="List overlays that layman knows about">layman -L</pre>
479
480 <p>To install an overlay, use</p>
481 <pre caption="Install an overlay">layman -a &lt;overlay-name&gt;</pre>
482
483 <p>You can now install packages from the overlay.</p>
484 </body>
485 </section>
486
487 <section>
488 <title>Requesting Write Access</title>
489 <body>
490 <p>If you want write access to a project overlay, contact a member of the
491 project team, and ask them for access. If they approve your request, they
492 will arrange for you to have write access, by contacting the Overlays
493 team.</p>
494
495 <p>If you want write access to a developer's overlay, contact the developer
496 directly, and ask them for access. If they approve your request, they will
497 arrange for you to have write access, by contacting the Overlays team.</p>
498 </body>
499 </section>
500 </chapter>
501
502 <chapter>
503 <title>Frequently Asked Questions</title>
504
505 <section>
506 <title>o.g.o Administration</title>
507 <body>
508
509 <p>Q: How do I contact the o.g.o admin staff?</p>
510 <ul>
511 <li>A: You can pop into #gentoo-overlays on IRC, and talk to us there. The
512 current staff are mostly in European timezones.</li>
513 <li>A: You can send an email to overlays@gentoo.org. Someone will answer you as
514 soon as possible.</li>
515 </ul>
516
517 <p>Q: Why can't I edit the access control list directly?</p>
518 <ul>
519 <li>A: (SVN) The access control list currently lives in htpasswd format. Only o.g.o admin staff members have ssh access to the o.g.o box.</li>
520 <li>A: (Git) The access control list currently lives in the gitosis-admin repository, which is writable only by the o.g.o staff.</li>
521 </ul>
522 </body>
523 </section>
524
525 <section>
526 <title>Security</title>
527 <body>
528 <p>Q: Is my overlay available via https?</p>
529 <ul>
530 <li>A: Yes, it is.</li>
531 </ul>
532 </body>
533 </section>
534
535 <section>
536 <title>Multiple Overlays</title>
537 <body>
538
539 <p>Q: Can I have multiple overlays?</p>
540 <ul>
541 <li>A: Yes, in a fashion. Inside your overlay, you can create
542 sub-directories, and put separate package trees inside those sub-directories.
543 Please take a look at the PHP project overlay for an example.</li>
544 </ul>
545 </body>
546 </section>
547
548 <section>
549 <title>Importing Existing Overlays</title>
550 <body>
551 <p>Q: I already have an overlay, and I'd like to move it to o.g.o. How do I
552 go about doing that?</p>
553 <ul>
554 <li>A: Create a tarball of your subversion repository, and put it somewhere
555 where it can be downloaded via http. We'll download it and install it onto
556 o.g.o for you.</li>
557 </ul>
558 <note>Make sure you tar up your repository, and not a checkout!</note>
559
560 <p>Q: I have an overlay, but it doesn't use Subversion. How do I go about
561 moving it to o.g.o?</p>
562 <ul>
563 <li>A: Ask us to create a new, empty overlay for you. You can then use 'svn
564 import' to import your files into the new overlay. You'll lose your history,
565 but that can't be helped.</li>
566 <li>A: Search the Internet, and see if there is a tool to convert from your
567 existing version control software to Subversion. If there is, use that, and
568 then we can help you move it to o.g.o.</li>
569 <li>A: If your version control software is used by Trac, and it can be used
570 over HTTP, come and help us add
571 support for your version control software on o.g.o.</li>
572 </ul>
573 </body>
574 </section>
575
576 <section>
577 <title>"Official" Overlays</title>
578 <body>
579 <p>Q: When is an overlay considered "official"?</p>
580 <ul>
581 <li>A: An "official" overlay is an overlay managed by a Gentoo project (for
582 project overlays) or a Gentoo developer (for developer overlays).</li>
583 </ul>
584
585 <p>Q: Does an overlay have to be on o.g.o to be "official"?</p>
586 <ul>
587 <li>A: No.</li>
588 </ul>
589 </body>
590 </section>
591 </chapter>
592 </guide>

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