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1 <?xml version='1.0'?>
2 <?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?>
4 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
6 <guide link="/doc/en/altinstall.xml">
7 <title>The Gentoo Linux alternative installation method HOWTO</title>
8 <author title="Author"><mail link="lordviram@rebelpacket.net">Travis Tilley</mail></author>
9 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="davoid@gentoo.org">Faust A.
10 Tanasescu</mail></author>
11 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="aliz@gentoo.org">Daniel Ahlberg</mail></author>
12 <abstract>
13 This HOWTO is meant to be a repository of alternative Gentoo installation
14 methods, for those with special installation needs such as lack of a cdrom
15 or a computer that cant boot cds.
16 </abstract>
18 <version>0.3</version>
19 <date>10 September 2002</date>
21 <chapter>
22 <title>About this document</title>
23 <section>
24 <body>
26 <p>If the standard boot-from-CD install method doesn't work for you
27 (or you just don't like it),
28 help is now here. This document serves to
29 provide a repository of alternative Gentoo Linux installation techniques
30 to those who need them.
31 Or, if you prefer, it serves as
32 a place to put your wacky installation methods. If you have an
33 installation method that you yourself find useful, or you have devised an
34 amusing way of installing gentoo, please dont hesitate to write something
35 up and <mail link="lordviram@rebelpacket.net">send it to me.</mail></p>
38 </body>
39 </section>
40 </chapter>
42 <chapter>
43 <title>Netboot install</title>
44 <section>
45 <title>Requirements</title>
46 <body>
47 <p>The requirements for a netboot install are a host computer than can
48 provide a tftp server and a computer
49 that can netboot itself via either bios or a floppy drive used to boot GRUB
50 or another network bootloader. A dhcp server might also be necessary. Of
51 course, you will also need the latest build ISO, which can be found at
52 <uri>http://www.ibiblio.org/gentoo/releases/build/</uri></p>
53 </body>
54 </section>
56 <section>
57 <title>Overview</title>
58 <body>
60 <p>In order to load images off the network, the first thing a netboot machine
61 must do is obtain an IP address. There are multiple ways of obtaining
62 an IP address, and any
63 one of them will do. Personally, I prefer to use GRUB for everything, but if
64 your computer supports booting from a network already then grub might not
65 be necessary, even if it might be easier to just use GRUB's <c>ifconfig</c> command
66 instead of setting up a bootp or dhcp server.</p>
68 <p>Once your computer has obtained an IP address, the next logical step is to find
69 out what you are going to be booting and where it might be held. Once again,
70 it would be easiest to do this with GRUB commands as opposed to setting up
71 a bootp or dhcp server. You will also need to specify how to obtain an initrd
72 and tell the kernel that it will be using this as it's root filesystem.</p>
74 <p>With your kernel loaded and root filesystem mounted, you may proceed
75 with installation as normal. The build image could be loaded from a cd, or it
76 can be downloaded from the network via tftp.</p>
78 </body>
79 </section>
80 <section>
81 <title>Using GRUB</title>
82 <body>
84 <p>To use GRUB for network booting purposes, you must first have GRUB
85 compiled with support for your network card. It doesn't matter if you install
86 to floppy, or to the hard drive of the computer you wish to install Gentoo
87 on. If your install target already has GRUB with network support installed,
88 then you are one step ahead. GRUB can be downloaded from
89 <uri>ftp://alpha.gnu.org/gnu/grub/</uri></p>
91 <p>A configure example for enabling tulip support, the network card in my
92 box:</p>
94 <pre caption="Manual GRUB installation">
95 # <i>./configure --enable-tulip --prefix=/usr</i>
96 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make install</i>
97 </pre>
99 <p>If you are currently in Gentoo and wish to install GRUB using Gentoo
100 tools, then you need to install step by step in order to configure in support
101 for your network card. An example for using ebuild to install GRUB with
102 tulip support:</p>
104 <pre caption="Installing and configuring GRUB on Gentoo Linux">
105 # <i>ebuild /usr/portage/sys-apps/grub/grub-0.91.ebuild clean fetch unpack</i>
106 # <i>cd /var/tmp/portage/grub-0.91/work/grub-0.91/</i>
107 # <i>./configure --prefix=/usr --sbindir=/sbin --mandir=/usr/share/man \ </i>
108 > <i>--infodir=/usr/share/info --enable-tulip</i>
109 # <i>make</i>
110 # <i>touch /var/tmp/portage/grub-0.91/.compiled</i>
111 # <i>cd /usr/portage/</i>
112 # <i>ebuild sys-apps/grub/grub-0.91.ebuild install merge</i>
113 </pre>
115 <p>Now that we have the GRUB shell itself installed, we need to install to
116 a boot sector. Although you could install GRUB to the boot sector of your
117 install computer's hard drive, here we will assume that you are installing
118 GRUB on a boot floppy. There are two ways of doing this. You can use the GRUB
119 shell itself, or you can use a provided script called <c>grub-install</c>. It is
120 preferable to use <c>grub-install</c> when installing GRUB to a floppy.</p>
122 <pre caption="grub-install example">
123 # <i>mkfs.ext2 /dev/fd0</i>
124 # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy/</i>
125 # <i>grub-install --root-directory=/mnt/floppy/ '(fd0)'</i>
126 # <i>umount /mnt/floppy/</i>
127 </pre>
129 <p><c>grub-install</c> does not always work... and isn't always the best way to install
130 GRUB. And since the GRUB shell works exactly like GRUB would when booted
131 via the boot sector, it might be more desirable just to use the GRUB shell. Here
132 is an example of how to use the GRUB shell to install GRUB to a floppy:</p>
134 <pre caption="Using the GRUB shell instead">
135 # <i>mkfs.ext2 /dev/fd0</i>
136 # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy/</i>
137 # <i>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</i>
138 # <i>cp -v /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/* /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</i>
139 # <i>grub</i>
140 grub> <i>root (fd0)</i>
141 grub> <i>setup (fd0)</i>
142 grub> <i>quit</i>
143 # <i>umount /mnt/floppy/</i>
144 </pre>
146 <p>Now that we have a bootable GRUB floppy, we need to set up the host tftp server
147 (I suggest netkit's tftp server)
148 for loading our kernel and initrd. If you use inetd then you will need
149 a line in your <path>/etc/inetd.conf</path> that looks
150 like this:</p>
152 <pre caption="/etc/inetd.conf">
153 tftp dgram udp wait nobody /usr/sbin/tcpd in.tftpd
154 </pre>
156 <p>To install the netkit tftp server under gentoo linux, emerge net-misc/netkit-tftp</p>
158 <note>There is an ebuild for xinetd... if you prefer to use this than feel free to do
159 so. However I do not use xinetd, and do not know how to set up tftp with it. If you
160 use it and such, please send me info on how to get xinetd working and I will include
161 them in this howto.</note>
163 <p>Now that we have our tftp server ready, we need a kernel and a root initrd to
164 put in it. You can compile a custom kernel yourself, but make sure it has all the
165 things necessary for running gentoo (like devfs) and for netbooting (like initrd
166 support). The root initrd will be the rescue.gz included in the gentoo ISO.</p>
168 <impo>Mounting an ISO file without burning it to cd requires loopback filesystem
169 support.</impo>
171 <pre>
172 # <i>mkdir /tftpboot</i>
173 # <i>mount -o loop /path/to/gentoo-ix86-1.1a.iso /mnt/cdrom/</i>
174 # <i>cp /mnt/cdrom/isolinux/kernel /mnt/cdrom/isolinux/rescue.gz /tftpboot</i>
175 # <i>chmod 644 /tftpboot/*</i>
176 # <i>umount /mnt/cdrom/</i>
177 </pre>
179 <p>Boot the machine you want to install to with your incredibly usefull grub floppy.
180 Once booted you need to specify a way for the machine to get
181 its IP address, specify where
182 to get a kernel and it's options, and where to get it's initrd.</p>
184 <pre>
185 grub> <i>ifconfig --address= --server=</i>
186 grub> <i>root (nd)</i>
187 grub> <i>kernel /tftpboot/kernel devfs=nomount vga=normal load_ramdisk=1 </i>
188 <i>prompt_ramdisk=0 ramdisk_size=24000 root=/dev/ram0 rw</i> <comment>(all on one line)</comment>
189 grub> <i>initrd /tftpboot/rescue.gz</i>
190 grub> <i>boot</i>
191 </pre>
193 <note>You can also use bootp and dhcp to configure your ip via grub. Use the bootp
194 and dhcp commands.</note>
196 <p>Now that you have your machine booted, you can install as normal. Refer to the
197 from source cd install howto.</p>
199 </body>
200 </section>
201 </chapter>
207 <chapter> <title>Installing Gentoo from an existing Linux distribution </title>
208 <section> <title> Requirements </title>
209 <body>
210 <p>In order to install Gentoo from your existing Linux distribution you need to
211 have chroot command installed, and have a copy of the Gentoo installation
212 tarball or ISO you want to install. A network connection would be preferable if
213 you want more than what's supplied in your tarball. (by the way, a tarball is
214 just a file ending in .tbz or .tar.gz). The author used RedHat Linux 7.3 as the
215 "host" operating system, but it is not very important. Let's get started! </p>
216 </body>
217 </section>
219 <section> <title> Overview </title>
220 <body>
221 <p>We will first allocate a partition to Gentoo by resizing our existing Linux partition, mount the partition, untar the tarball that is mounted, chroot inside the proto-system and start building. Once the bootstrap process is done, we will do some final configuration on the system so as to make sure it boots, then we are ready to reboot and use Gentoo. </p>
222 </body>
223 </section>
225 <section> <title> How should we make space for gentoo? </title>
226 <body>
228 <p>
229 The root partition is the filesystem mounted under "/". A quick run of mount on my system shows what I am talking about. We well also use df (disk free) to see how much space I have left and how I will be resizing. Note that it is not mandatory to resize your root partition! You could be resizing anything else supported by our resizer, but let's talk about that later.</p>
232 <pre caption="Filesystem information">
233 # <i>mount</i>
234 /dev/hdb2 on / type ext3 (rw)
235 none on /proc type proc (rw)
236 none on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620)
237 none on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw)
238 # <i>df -h </i>
239 Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
240 /dev/hdb2 4.0G 1.9G 2.4G 82% /
241 none 38M 0 38M 0% /dev/shm
242 </pre>
244 <p>As we can see, the partition mounted as "/" named /dev/hdb2 has 2.4 gigabytes free. In my case, I think I will resize it as to leave 400Megs free of space, therefore allocating 2 gigabytes for Gentoo. Not bad, I could have quite some stuff installed. However, think that even one gigabyte is enough for most users. So let's partition this thing! </p>
246 </body> </section>
248 <section> <title> Building parted to resize partition </title>
249 <body>
250 <p>Parted is an utility supplied by the GNU foundation, an old and respectable huge project whose software you are using in this very moment. There is one tool, however, that is extremely useful for us at the moment. It's called parted, partition editor and we can get it from <uri>
251 http://www.gnu.org/software/parted/ </uri>
252 </p>
253 <note> There are other tools for doing resize of partitions as well, but author
254 is unsure/uninterested whether PartitionMagic(tm) or other software of the kind
255 do the job. It's the reader's job to check them out </note>
257 <p>
258 Look up on that page the type of filesystem you want to resize and see if parted
259 can do it. If not, you're out of luck, you will have to destroy some partition
260 to make space for gentoo, and reinstall back. Go ahead by downloading the
261 software, install it. Here we have a problem. We want to resize our Linux root
262 partition, therefore we must boot from a floppy disk a minimal linux system and
263 use previously-compiled parted copied to a diskette in order to resize "/".
264 However, if you can unmount the partition while still in Linux you are lucky,
265 you don't need to do what follows. Just compile parted and run it on an
266 unmounted partition you chose to resize. Here's how I did it for my system.
267 </p>
269 <impo> Make sure that the operations you want to do on your partition are
270 supported by parted! </impo>
272 <p> Get tomsrtbt boot/root disk (free of charge) from <uri>
273 http://freshmeat.net/tomsrtbt" </uri>, create a floppy as suggested in the
274 Documentation that accompanies the software package and insert a new floppy in
275 the drive for the next step. </p>
277 <note> Note again that Linux is synonym of "There's one more way to do it". Your
278 objective is to run parted on an unmounted partition so it can do its work. You
279 might use some other boot/root diskset other than tomsrtbt. You might not even
280 need to do this step at all, that is only umount the filesystem you want to
281 repartition in your Linux session and run parted on it. </note>
283 <pre caption="Utility disk creation">
284 # <i>mkfs.minix /dev/fd0</i>
285 480 inodes
286 1440 blocks
287 Firstdatazone=19 (19)
288 Zonesize=1024
289 Maxsize=268966912
290 </pre>
292 We will now proceed with the build of parted. If it's not already downloaded and untarred, do so now and cd into the corresponding directory. Now run the following set of commands to build the utility and copy it to your floppy disk.
294 <pre caption="Building the utility floppy">
295 # <i> mkdir /floppy; mount -t minix /dev/fd0 /floppy &amp;&amp;
296 export CFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -static" &amp;&amp; ./configure
297 &amp;&amp; make &amp;&amp; cp parted/parted /floppy &amp;&amp; umount /floppy </i>
298 </pre>
300 <p>
301 Congratulations, you are ready to reboot and resize your partition. Do this only
302 after taking a quick look at the parted documentation on the GNU website. The
303 resize should take under 30 minutes for the largest hard-drives, be patient.
304 Reboot your system with the tomsrtbt boot disk (just pop it inside), and once
305 you are logged in, switch the disk in the drive with your utility disk we have
306 created above and type mount /dev/fd0 /floppy to have parted under /floppy.
307 There you go. Run parted and you will be able to resize your partition. Once
308 this lenghty process done, we are ready to have the real fun, by installing
309 gentoo. Reboot back into your old Linux system for now. Drive youwish to operate
310 on is the drive containing the partition we want to resize. For example, if we
311 want to resize /dev/hda3, the drive is /dev/hda </p>
313 <pre caption="Commands to run once logged into tomsrtbt system">
314 # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /floppy </i>
315 # <i>cd /floppy; ./parted [drive you wish to operate on]</i>
316 (parted) <i> print </i>
317 Disk geometry for /dev/hdb: 0.000-9787.148 megabytes
318 Disk label type: msdos
319 Minor Start End Type Filesystem Flags
320 1 0.031 2953.125 primary ntfs
321 3 2953.125 3133.265 primary linux-swap
322 2 3133.266 5633.085 primary ext3
323 4 5633.086 9787.148 extended
324 5 5633.117 6633.210 logical
325 6 6633.242 9787.148 logical ext3
326 (parted) <i> help resize </i>
327 resize MINOR START END resize filesystem on partition MINOR
329 MINOR is the partition number used by Linux. On msdos disk labels, the
330 primary partitions number from 1-4, and logical partitions are 5
331 onwards.
332 START and END are in megabytes
333 (parted) <i> resize 2 3133.266 4000.000 </i>
334 </pre>
336 <impo> Be patient! The computer is working! Just look at the hardware LED on
337 your case to see that it is really working. This should take between 2 and 30
338 minutes. </impo>
340 <p>Once you have resized, boot back into your old linux as described. Then go to
341 <uri link="/doc/build.html">http://www.gentoo.org/doc/build.html</uri> and follow steps 6, 7, 9 through
342 17.
345 Enjoy!
346 </p>
347 </body>
348 </section>
349 </chapter>
350 </guide>

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