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1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/bugzilla-howto.xml,v 1.1 2005/07/07 12:02:21 fox2mike Exp $ -->
5 <guide link="/doc/en/bugzilla-howto.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Bug Reporting Guide</title>
8 <author title="Author">
9 <mail link="chriswhite@gentoo.org">Chris White</mail>
10 </author>
11 <author title="Editor">
12 <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail>
13 </author>
15 <abstract>
16 This document shows the proper method of reporting bugs using Bugzilla.
17 </abstract>
19 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
20 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
21 <license/>
23 <version>1.1</version>
24 <date>2005-07-07</date>
26 <chapter>
27 <title>Introduction</title>
28 <section>
29 <title>Preface</title>
30 <body>
32 <p>
33 Often one of the factors that delay a bug being fixed is how it is reported. By
34 creating this guide, I hope to help improve the communication between
35 developers and users in bug resolution. Getting bugs fixed is an important, if
36 not crucial part of the quality assurance of any project and hopefully this
37 guide will help make that a success.
38 </p>
40 </body>
41 </section>
42 <section>
43 <title>Initial Finding</title>
44 <body>
46 <p>
47 You're emerge-ing a package or working with a program, then suddenly the worst
48 happens -- you find a bug. Bugs come in many forms, whether it be emerge
49 failures or segmentation faults. Whatever the cause, the fact still remains that
50 such a bug must be fixed. Here is a few examples of such bugs.
51 </p>
53 <pre caption="A run time error">
54 $ <i>./bad_code `perl -e 'print Ax100'`</i>
55 Segmentation fault
56 </pre>
58 <pre caption="An emerge failure">
59 /usr/lib/gcc-lib/i686-pc-linux-gnu/3.3.2/include/g++-v3/backward/backward_warning.h:32:2:
60 warning: #warning This file includes at least one deprecated or antiquated
61 header. Please consider using one of the 32 headers found in section of
62 the C++ standard. Examples include substituting the &lt;X&gt; header for the &lt;X.h&gt;
63 header for C++ includes, or &lt;sstream&gt; instead of the deprecated header
64 &lt;strstream.h&gt;. To disable this warning use -Wno-deprecated.
65 In file included from main.cc:40:
66 menudef.h:55: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
67 OXPopupMenu*'
68 menudef.h:62: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
69 OXPopupMenu*'
70 menudef.h:70: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
71 OXPopupMenu*'
72 menudef.h:78: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
73 OXPopupMenu*'
74 main.cc: In member function `void OXMain::DoOpen()':
75 main.cc:323: warning: unused variable `FILE*fp'
76 main.cc: In member function `void OXMain::DoSave(char*)':
77 main.cc:337: warning: unused variable `FILE*fp'
78 make[1]: *** [main.o] Error 1
79 make[1]: Leaving directory
80 `/var/tmp/portage/xclass-0.7.4/work/xclass-0.7.4/example-app'
81 make: *** [shared] Error 2
83 !!! ERROR: x11-libs/xclass-0.7.4 failed.
84 !!! Function src_compile, Line 29, Exitcode 2
85 !!! 'emake shared' failed
86 </pre>
88 <p>
89 These errors can be quite troublesome. However, once you find them, what do
90 you do? The following sections will look at 2 important tools for handling
91 run time errors. After that, we'll take a look at compile errors, and how to
92 handle them. Let's start out with the first tool for debugging run time
93 errors -- <c>gdb</c>
94 </p>
96 </body>
97 </section>
98 </chapter>
101 <chapter>
102 <title>Debugging using GDB</title>
103 <section>
104 <title>Introduction</title>
105 <body>
107 <p>
108 GDB, or the (G)NU (D)e(B)ugger, is a program used to find run time errors that
109 normally involve memory corruption. First off, let's take a look at what
110 debugging entails. One of the main things you must do in order to debug a
111 program is to <c>emerge</c> the program with FEATURES="nostrip". This prevents
112 the stripping of debug symbols. Why are programs stripped by default? The reason
113 is the same as that for having gzipped man pages -- saving space. Here's how the
114 size of a program varies with and without debug symbol stripping.
115 </p>
117 <pre caption="Filesize Comparison">
118 <comment>(debug symbols stripped)</comment>
119 -rwxr-xr-x 1 chris users 3140 6/28 13:11 bad_code
120 <comment>(debug symbols intact)</comment>
121 -rwxr-xr-x 1 chris users 6374 6/28 13:10 bad_code
122 </pre>
124 <p>
125 Just for reference, <e>bad_code</e> is the program we'll be debugging with
126 <c>gdb</c> later on. As you can see, the program without debugging symbols is
127 3140 bytes, while the program with them is 6374 bytes. That's close to double
128 the size! Two more things can be done for debugging. The first is adding -g to
129 your CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS. This flag adds more debugging information than is
130 generally included. We'll see what that means later on. Lastly, you can also add
131 debug to the package's USE flags. This can be done with the
132 <path>package.use</path> file.
133 </p>
135 <pre caption="Using package.use to add debug USE flag">
136 # <i>echo "category/package debug" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
137 </pre>
139 <note>
140 The directory <path>/etc/portage</path> does not exist by default and you may
141 have to create it, if you have not already done so. If the package already has
142 USE flags set in <path>package.use</path>, you will need to manually modify them
143 in your favorite editor.
144 </note>
146 <p>
147 Now that that's done, you will need to re-emerge your package to set the
148 new debug settings into place. This can be done as follows:
149 </p>
151 <pre caption="Re-emergeing a package with debugging">
152 # <i>FEATURES="nostrip" emerge package</i>
153 </pre>
155 <p>
156 Now that debug symbols are setup, we can continue with debugging the program.
157 </p>
159 </body>
160 </section>
161 <section>
162 <title>Running the program with GDB</title>
163 <body>
165 <p>
166 Let's say we have a program here called "bad_code" (I know, it's sort of cheesy
167 but..). Some person claims he can break the code and provides an example. You go
168 ahead and test it out:
169 </p>
171 <pre caption="Breaking The Program">
172 $ <i>./bad_code `perl -e 'print Ax100'`</i>
173 Segmentation fault
174 </pre>
176 <p>
177 It seems this person was right. Since the program is obviously broken, we have
178 a bug at hand. Now, it's time to use <c>gdb</c> to help solve this matter. First
179 we run <c>gdb</c> with <c>--args</c>, then give it the full program with
180 arguments like shown:
181 </p>
183 <pre caption="Running Our Program Through GDB">
184 $ <i>gdb --args ./bad_code `perl -e 'print Ax100'`</i>
185 GNU gdb 6.3
186 Copyright 2004 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
187 GDB is free software, covered by the GNU General Public License, and you are
188 welcome to change it and/or distribute copies of it under certain conditions.
189 Type "show copying" to see the conditions.
190 There is absolutely no warranty for GDB. Type "show warranty" for details.
191 This GDB was configured as "i686-pc-linux-gnu"...Using host libthread_db library "/lib/libthread_db.so.1".
192 </pre>
194 <p>
195 You should see a small terminal like setup after that which says "(gdb)" and
196 waits for input. First, we have to run the program. We type in <c>run</c> at the
197 command and receive a notice like:
198 </p>
200 <pre caption="Running the program in GDB">
201 (gdb) run
202 Starting program: /home/chris/bad_code
204 Program received signal SIGSEGV, Segmentation fault.
205 0xb7ec6dc0 in strcpy () from /lib/libc.so.6
206 </pre>
208 <p>
209 Here we see the program starting, as well as a notification of SIGSEGV, or
210 Segmentation Fault. This is GDB telling us that our program has crashed. It
211 also gives the last run function it could trace when the program crashes.
212 However, this isn't too useful, as there could be multiple strcpy's in the
213 program, making it hard for developers to find which one is causing the issue.
214 In order to help them out, we do what's called a backtrace. A backtrace runs
215 backwards through all the functions that occurred upon program execution, to the
216 function at fault. Functions that return (without causing a crash) will not show
217 up on the backtrace. To get a backtrace, at the (gdb) prompt, type in <c>bt</c>.
218 You will get something like this:
219 </p>
221 <pre caption="Program backtrace">
222 (gdb) bt
223 #0 0xb7ec6dc0 in strcpy () from /lib/libc.so.6
224 #1 0x0804838c in run_it ()
225 #2 0x080483ba in main ()
226 </pre>
228 <p>
229 So as we see here, first main() was run, then run_it(), and somewhere in run_it
230 lies the strcpy() at fault. Things such as this help developers narrow things
231 down. Now, there are a few exceptions to the output. First off is forgetting
232 to disable debug symbols with FEATURES="nostrip". With debug symbols stripped,
233 output looks something like this:
234 </p>
236 <pre caption="Program backtrace With debug symbols stripped">
237 (gdb) bt
238 #0 0xb7e2cdc0 in strcpy () from /lib/libc.so.6
239 #1 0x0804838c in ?? ()
240 #2 0xbfd19510 in ?? ()
241 #3 0x00000000 in ?? ()
242 #4 0x00000000 in ?? ()
243 #5 0xb7eef148 in libgcc_s_personality () from /lib/libc.so.6
244 #6 0x080482ed in ?? ()
245 #7 0x080495b0 in ?? ()
246 #8 0xbfd19528 in ?? ()
247 #9 0xb7dd73b8 in __guard_setup () from /lib/libc.so.6
248 #10 0xb7dd742d in __guard_setup () from /lib/libc.so.6
249 #11 0x00000006 in ?? ()
250 #12 0xbfd19548 in ?? ()
251 #13 0x080483ba in ?? ()
252 #14 0x00000000 in ?? ()
253 #15 0x00000000 in ?? ()
254 #16 0xb7deebcc in __new_exitfn () from /lib/libc.so.6
255 #17 0x00000000 in ?? ()
256 #18 0xbfd19560 in ?? ()
257 #19 0xb7ef017c in nullserv () from /lib/libc.so.6
258 #20 0xb7dd6f37 in __libc_start_main () from /lib/libc.so.6
259 #21 0x00000001 in ?? ()
260 #22 0xbfd195d4 in ?? ()
261 #23 0xbfd195dc in ?? ()
262 #24 0x08048201 in ?? ()
263 </pre>
265 <p>
266 This backtrace contains a large number of ?? marks. This is because without
267 debug symbols, <c>gdb</c> doesn't know how the program was ran. Hence, it is
268 crucial that debug symbols are <e>not</e> stripped. Now remember a while ago I
269 told you about the -g flag. Let's see what the output looks like with that:
270 </p>
272 <pre caption="Program backtrace with -g flag">
273 (gdb) bt
274 #0 0xb7e4bdc0 in strcpy () from /lib/libc.so.6
275 #1 0x0804838c in run_it (input=0x0) at bad_code.c:7
276 #2 0x080483ba in main (argc=1, argv=0xbfd3a434) at bad_code.c:12
277 </pre>
279 <p>
280 Here we see that a lot more information is available for developers. Not only is
281 variable information displayed, but even the exact line numbers of the source
282 files. This method is the most preferred if you can spare the extra space.
283 Here's how much the file size varies between debug, strip, and -g programs.
284 </p>
286 <pre caption="Filesize differences With -g flag">
287 <comment>(debug symbols stripped)</comment>
288 -rwxr-xr-x 1 chris users 3140 6/28 13:11 bad_code
289 <comment>(debug symbols enabled)</comment>
290 -rwxr-xr-x 1 chris users 6374 6/28 13:10 bad_code
291 <comment>(-g flag enabled)</comment>
292 -rwxr-xr-x 1 chris users 7366 6/28 13:11 bad_code
293 </pre>
295 <p>
296 As you can see, -g adds about a 1000 more bytes to the file size over the one
297 with debugging symbols. However, as shown above, this increase in file size can
298 be worth it if presenting debug information to developers. Now that we have
299 obtained the backtrace, we can save it to a file by copying and pasting from the
300 terminal (if it's a non-x based terminal, you can use gpm. To keep this doc
301 simple, I recommend you read up on the documentation for gpm to see how to copy
302 and paste with it). Now that we're done with <c>gdb</c>, we can quit.
303 </p>
305 <pre caption="Quitting GDB">
306 (gdb) quit
307 The program is running. Exit anyway? (y or n) y
308 $
309 </pre>
311 <p>
312 This ends the walk-through of <c>gdb</c>. Using <c>gdb</c>, I hope that you will
313 be able to use it to create better bug reports. However, there are other types
314 of errors that can cause a program to fail during run time. One of the other
315 ways is through improper file access. We can find those using a nifty little
316 tool called <c>strace</c>.
317 </p>
319 </body>
320 </section>
321 </chapter>
323 <chapter>
324 <title>Finding file access errors using strace</title>
325 <section>
326 <title>Introduction</title>
327 <body>
329 <p>
330 Programs often use files to get configuration information, get access
331 to hardware, or write logs. Often a program attempts to reach such files
332 incorrectly. A program called <c>strace</c> was created to help deal with
333 this. <c>strace</c> traces system calls (hence the name) which include
334 calls that use the memory and files. For our example, we're going to take a
335 program foobar2. This is an updated version of foobar. However, during the
336 changeover to foobar2, you notice all your configurations are missing! In
337 foobar version 1, you had it setup to say "foo", but now it's using the default
338 "bar".
339 </p>
341 <pre caption="Foobar2 With an invalid configuration">
342 $ <i>./foobar2</i>
343 Configuration says: bar
344 </pre>
346 <p>
347 Our previous configuration specifically had it set to foo, so let's use
348 <c>strace</c> to find out what's going on.
349 </p>
351 </body>
352 </section>
353 <section>
354 <title>Using strace to track the issue</title>
355 <body>
357 <p>
358 Let's have <c>strace</c> log the results of the system calls. To do this, we run
359 <c>strace</c> with the -o[file] arguments. Let's use it on foobar2 like so:
360 </p>
362 <pre caption="Running foobar2 through strace">
363 # <i>strace -ostrace.log ./foobar2</i>
364 </pre>
366 <p>
367 This creates a file called <path>strace.log</path> in the current directory. We
368 check the file, and shown below are the relevant parts from the file.
369 </p>
371 <pre caption="A Look At the strace Log">
372 open(".foobar2/config", O_RDONLY) = 3
373 read(3, "bar", 3) = 3
374 </pre>
376 <p>
377 Aha! So There's the problem. Someone moved the configuration directory to
378 <path>.foobar2</path> instead of <path>.foobar</path>. We also see the program
379 reading in "bar" as it should. In this case, we can recommend the ebuild
380 maintainer to put a warning about it. For now though, we can copy over the
381 config file from <path>.foobar</path> and modify it to produce the correct
382 results.
383 </p>
385 </body>
386 </section>
387 <section>
388 <title>Conclusion</title>
389 <body>
391 <p>
392 Now we've taken care of finding run time bugs. These bugs prove to be
393 problematic when you try and run your programs. However, run time errors are
394 the least of your concern if your program won't compile at all. Let's take a
395 look at how to address <c>emerge</c> compile errors.
396 </p>
398 </body>
399 </section>
400 </chapter>
402 <chapter>
403 <title>Handling emerge Errors</title>
404 <section>
405 <title>Introduction</title>
406 <body>
408 <p>
409 <c>emerge</c> errors, such as the one displayed earlier, can be a major cause
410 of frustration for users. Reporting them is considered crucial for helping
411 maintain the health of Gentoo. Let's take a look at a sample ebuild, foobar2,
412 which contains some build errors.
413 </p>
415 </body>
416 </section>
417 <section id="emerge_error">
418 <title>Evaluating emerge Errors</title>
419 <body>
421 <p>
422 Let's take a look at this very simple <c>emerge</c> error:
423 </p>
425 <pre caption="emerge Error">
426 gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2-7.o foobar2-7.c
427 gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2-8.o foobar2-8.c
428 gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2-9.o foobar2-9.c
429 gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2.o foobar2.c
430 foobar2.c:1:17: ogg.h: No such file or directory
431 make: *** [foobar2.o] Error 1
433 !!! ERROR: sys-apps/foobar2-1.0 failed.
434 !!! Function src_compile, Line 19, Exitcode 2
435 !!! Make failed!
436 !!! If you need support, post the topmost build error, NOT this status message
437 </pre>
439 <p>
440 The compile is going smoothly, then it stops and presents an error message. This
441 particular error can be split into 3 different sections, The compile, the build
442 error, and the emerge error message as shown below.
443 </p>
445 <pre caption="Parts of the error">
446 <comment>(Compile Error)</comment>
447 gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2-7.o foobar2-7.c
448 gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2-8.o foobar2-8.c
449 gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2-9.o foobar2-9.c
450 gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2.o foobar2.c
452 <comment>(Build Error)</comment>
453 foobar2.c:1:17: ogg.h: No such file or directory
454 make: *** [foobar2.o] Error 1
456 <comment>(Emerge Error)</comment>
457 !!! ERROR: sys-apps/foobar2-1.0 failed.
458 !!! Function src_compile, Line 19, Exitcode 2
459 !!! Make failed!
460 !!! If you need support, post the topmost build error, NOT this status message
461 </pre>
463 <p>
464 The compile is what leads up to the error. Most often, it's good to at least
465 include 10 lines of compile information so that the developer knows where the
466 compile is at. Make errors are the actual error, and the information the
467 developer needs. When you see "make: ***", this is often where the error has
468 occurred. Normally, you can copy and paste 10 lines above it and the developer
469 will be able to address the issue. However, this may not always work and we'll
470 take a look at an alternative shortly. The emerge error is what <c>emerge</c>
471 can address from the make error. Often people make the mistake of posting the
472 emerge error and that's all. This is useless by itself, but with make error and
473 compile information, a developer can get what application and what version of
474 the package is failing. As a side note, make is commonly used as the build
475 process for programs (<b>but not always</b>). If you can't find a "make: ***"
476 error anywhere, then simply copy and paste 20 lines before the emerge error.
477 This should take care of most all build system error messages. Now let's say the
478 errors seem to be quite large. 10 lines won't be enough to catch everything.
479 That's where PORT_LOGDIR comes into play.
480 </p>
482 </body>
483 </section>
484 <section>
485 <title>emerge and PORT_LOGDIR</title>
486 <body>
488 <p>
489 PORT_LOGDIR is a portage variable that sets up a log directory for separate
490 emerge logs. Let's take a look and see what that entails. First, run your emerge
491 with PORT_LOGDIR set to your favorite log location. Let's say we have a
492 location /var/log/portage. We'll use that for our log directory:
493 </p>
495 <note>
496 In the default setup, /var/log/portage does not exist, and you will most likely
497 have to create it. If you do not, portage will fail to write the logs.
498 </note>
500 <pre caption="emerge-ing With PORT_LOGDIR">
501 # <i>PORT_LOGDIR=/var/log/portage emerge foobar2</i>
502 </pre>
504 <p>
505 Now the emerge fails again. However, this time we have a log we can work with,
506 and attach to the bug later on. Let's take a quick look at our log directory.
507 </p>
509 <pre caption="PORT_LOGDIR Contents">
510 # <i>ls -la /var/log/portage</i>
511 total 16
512 drwxrws--- 2 root root 4096 Jun 30 10:08 .
513 drwxr-xr-x 15 root root 4096 Jun 30 10:08 ..
514 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 7390 Jun 30 10:09 2115-foobar2-1.0.log
515 </pre>
517 <p>
518 The log files have the format [counter]-[package name]-[version].log. Counter
519 is a special variable that is meant to state this package as the n-th package
520 you've emerged. This prevents duplicate logs from appearing. A quick look at
521 the log file will show the entire emerge process. This can be attached later
522 on as we'll see in the bug reporting section. Now that we've safely obtained
523 our information needed to report the bug we can continue to do so. However,
524 before we get started on that, we need to make sure no one else has reported
525 the issue. Let's take a look at searching for bugs.
526 </p>
528 </body>
529 </section>
530 </chapter>
532 <chapter>
533 <title>Searching Using Bugzilla</title>
534 <section>
535 <title>Introduction</title>
536 <body>
538 <p>
539 <uri link="http://www.bugzilla.org">Bugzilla</uri> is what we at Gentoo use to
540 handle bugs. Gentoo's Bugzilla is reachable by HTTPS and HTTP. HTTPS is
541 available for those on insecure networks or simply paranoid :). For the sake of
542 consistency, I will be using the HTTPS version in the examples to follow. Head
543 over to <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo Bugs</uri> to see how it
544 looks.
545 </p>
547 <p>
548 One of the most frustrating thing for developers and bug-wranglers is finding
549 duplicate bug reports. This causes them valuable time they could be using to
550 find new and more important bugs. Often, this can be prevented by a few simple
551 search methods. So we're going to see how to search for bugs and find out if
552 you have one that's similar. For this example, we're going to use the xclass
553 emerge error that was used earlier:
554 </p>
556 <pre caption="xclass emerge error">
557 /usr/lib/gcc-lib/i686-pc-linux-gnu/3.3.2/include/g++-v3/backward/backward_warning.h:32:2:
558 warning: #warning This file includes at least one deprecated or antiquated
559 header. Please consider using one of the 32 headers found in section of
560 the C++ standard. Examples include substituting the &lt;X&gt; header for the &lt;X.h&gt;
561 header for C++ includes, or &lt;sstream&gt; instead of the deprecated header
562 &lt;strstream.h&gt;. To disable this warning use -Wno-deprecated.
563 In file included from main.cc:40:
564 menudef.h:55: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
565 OXPopupMenu*'
566 menudef.h:62: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
567 OXPopupMenu*'
568 menudef.h:70: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
569 OXPopupMenu*'
570 menudef.h:78: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
571 OXPopupMenu*'
572 main.cc: In member function `void OXMain::DoOpen()':
573 main.cc:323: warning: unused variable `FILE*fp'
574 main.cc: In member function `void OXMain::DoSave(char*)':
575 main.cc:337: warning: unused variable `FILE*fp'
576 make[1]: *** [main.o] Error 1
577 make[1]: Leaving directory
578 `/var/tmp/portage/xclass-0.7.4/work/xclass-0.7.4/example-app'
579 make: *** [shared] Error 2
581 !!! ERROR: x11-libs/xclass-0.7.4 failed.
582 !!! Function src_compile, Line 29, Exitcode 2
583 !!! 'emake shared' failed
584 </pre>
586 <p>
587 So to begin searching, we head over to the <uri
588 link="https://bugs.gentoo.org/">Bugzilla Homepage</uri>.
589 </p>
591 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-homepage.png" caption="Bugzilla Homepage"/>
593 <p>
594 In order to begin our search, we'll click on "Query Existing bug reports". The
595 reason why we choose this versus the basic bug search is because the basic bug
596 search tends to give vague results and often hinders users from looking
597 through the results and finding the duplicate bug. Once we click on the query
598 screen, we reach the next page:
599 </p>
601 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-search.png" caption="Bugzilla Search Page"/>
603 <note>
604 If you've used the Advanced Search before, you'll most likely see that screen
605 instead.
606 </note>
608 <p>
609 Proceed on clicking the "Advanced Search" link to bring up the Advanced
610 Search page:
611 </p>
613 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-adv-search.png" caption="Advanced Search Page"/>
615 <p>
616 This is how the Advanced Search Page looks like. While it may seem overwhelming
617 at first, we're going to look at a few simple areas to narrow down the rather
618 vague searches bugzilla returns.
619 </p>
621 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-content.png" caption="Content"/>
623 <p>
624 The first field is the summary of the bug. Here we're simply going to put the
625 name of the package that's crashing. If you still don't get results, try
626 removing the package name, just in case someone didn't put that in the summary
627 (highly unlikely, but I've seen my fair share of strange bug reports).
628 </p>
630 <p>
631 Product, Component, and Version should all be set to the default. This
632 prevents us from being too specific and missing all the bugs.
633 </p>
635 <p>
636 Comment is the important part. Use comment to list what appears to be a
637 specific instance of the error. Basically, don't use anything like the
638 beginning of the build error, find a line that's before it stating a true
639 error. Also, you'll want to filter out any punctuation to prevent bugzilla
640 from interpreting the results the comment the wrong way. Example from the xclass
641 emerge error:
642 </p>
644 <pre caption="Comment Line Content">
645 menudef.h:78: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `OXPopupMenu'
646 <comment>(Remove the quotes ' ')</comment>
647 menudef.h 78 error brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize OXPopupMenu
648 </pre>
650 <p>
651 The above is specific enough to where we'll find the bug without wading through
652 other xclass compile failure candidates.
653 </p>
655 <p>
656 URI, Whiteboard, and Keywords can all be left alone. What we've entered so far
657 should be enough to find our bug. Let's see what we have filled out:
658 </p>
660 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-comp-search.png" caption="Completed Search Form"/>
662 <p>
663 Now we click on the Search button and here come the results:
664 </p>
666 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-search-result.png" caption="Search Results"/>
668 <p>
669 Only 2 bugs! That's a lot easier to deal with. We click on the first one to
670 check, and sure enough it's the one we're looking for:
671 </p>
673 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-located.png" caption="Bug Located"/>
675 <p>
676 Not only is it the one we want, but it has also been resolved. By checking the
677 last comment we see the solution and know what to do in order to resolve it.
678 Now, let's see what would have happened if we had not used the advanced search:
679 </p>
681 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-basic-search-result.png" caption="Basic Search Results"/>
683 <p>
684 4 more bugs to deal with! It gets even worse with larger packages. However,
685 with these simple tools, we're able to significantly narrow down the search to
686 try and locate a specific bug.
687 </p>
689 </body>
690 </section>
691 <section>
692 <title>Conclusion</title>
693 <body>
695 <p>
696 Let's say that you have searched and searched but still can't find a bug.
697 You've found yourself a new bug. Let's take a look at the bug reporting process
698 for submitting your new bug.
699 </p>
701 </body>
702 </section>
703 </chapter>
705 <chapter>
706 <title>Reporting Bugs</title>
707 <section>
708 <title>Introduction</title>
709 <body>
711 <p>
712 In this chapter, we'll figure out how to use Bugzilla to file a shiny, new bug.
713 Head over to <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo Bugs</uri> and...
714 </p>
716 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-homepage.png" caption="Bugzilla Homepage"/>
718 <p>
719 Go ahead and click on "Report a Bug - Using the Guided format".
720 </p>
722 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-prod-select.png" caption="Product Selection"/>
724 <p>
725 As you can see, <b>major</b> emphasis has been placed on putting your bug in the
726 right place. Gentoo Linux is where a large majority of bugs go. Despite this,
727 some people will file ebuild bugs in portage development (assumption that
728 portage team handles the portage tree) or infra (assumption that infra has
729 access to mirrors and rsync and can fix it directly). This is simply not how
730 things work. Our bug goes in Gentoo Linux, as it's an ebuild bug. We head over
731 there and are presented with the multi-step bug reporting process.
732 </p>
734 <note>
735 We would rather see a non-Gentoo Linux bug filed in Gentoo Linux than a Gentoo
736 Linux bug filed in non-Gentoo Linux projects! While neither is preferred, the
737 former is more acceptable and understandable (except website bugs.. we might
738 have an issue with that...)
739 </note>
741 <p>
742 Let us now proceed with Step 1...
743 </p>
745 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-guide-step1.png" caption="Guided Format Step 1"/>
747 <p>
748 The first step here is really important (as the red text tells you). This is
749 where you search to see that someone else hasn't hit the same bug you have, yet.
750 If you do skip this step, and a bug like yours already exists, it will be marked
751 as a DUPLICATE thus wasting a large amount of QA effort. To give you an idea,
752 the numbers that are struck out above are duplicate bugs. Now comes step 2,
753 where we give the information.
754 </p>
756 </body>
757 </section>
758 <section>
759 <title>Required Information</title>
760 <body>
762 <p>
763 Onto Step 2, let's see what we have here.
764 </p>
766 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-basic.png" caption="Basic Information"/>
768 <p>
769 First, there's the product. This is Gentoo Linux, which we selected earlier.
770 Component is where the problem occurs. We use this to help us sort out the
771 severity of the issue (i.e. baselayout and core systems will be more important
772 than new ebuilds or application bugs). Here we select Application, as it is an
773 application at fault. Hardware platform is what architecture you're running.
774 If you were running SPARC, you would set it to SPARC. For this example, we know
775 this error can occur on multiple architectures, so we'll select All. Operating
776 System is what Operating System you're using. Because Gentoo is considered a
777 "Meta-distribution", it can run on other operating systems beside Linux.
778 Examples are Gentoo on MacOS, Gentoo on FreeBSD, etc. For this example,
779 we'll select All, as this can occur on all types of systems. Build Identifier
780 is what is being used to report the bugs (for logging purposes). You can just
781 leave this as is. Let's see what we have so far:
782 </p>
784 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-basic-comp.png" caption="Completed Basic Information"/>
786 <p>
787 That does look good, so we'll begin with the actual report. In this instance,
788 we'll use the foobar2 bug as our example. URL is used to point to errors on a
789 site someplace (pastebin, etc.). However, doing it inside the bug allows the
790 developers be able to reference to it at any time and is preferred. Then we have
791 the summary. In the summary, you should put the package category, name, and
792 number. Not including the category really isn't too bad, but it's recommended.
793 If you don't include the package name, however, we won't know what you're
794 filling a bug for, and will have to ask you about it later. The version number
795 is important for people searching for bugs. If 20 people filed bugs and not one
796 put a version number, how would people looking for similar bugs be able to tell
797 if one was there's? They'd have to look through every single bug, which isn't
798 too hard, but if there are say, 200 bugs.. it's not that easy. After all the
799 package information, you'll want to include a small description of the incident.
800 Here's an example:
801 </p>
803 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-summary.png" caption="Summary"/>
805 <p>
806 Just these simple rules can make handling bugs a lot easier. Next are the
807 details. Here we put in the information about the bug. We'll demonstrate with an
808 example:
809 </p>
811 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-details.png" caption="Details"/>
813 <p>
814 So now the developer knows why we're filing the bug. They can then try to
815 reproduce it. Reproducibility tells us how often we were able to make the
816 problem recur. In this example, we can reproduce it any time simply by running
817 foobar2. Let's put that information in:
818 </p>
820 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-reprod.png" caption="Reproduction"/>
822 <p>
823 So now we have explained how we found the bug. Next we want to explain what
824 the results were and what we think they should be:
825 </p>
827 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-results.png" caption="Results"/>
829 <p>
830 Next we put additional information. This can be things such as stack traces,
831 <b>sections</b> of strace logs, but most importantly, your emerge --info output.
832 Here's an example:
833 </p>
835 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-addl-info.png" caption="Additional Information"/>
837 <p>
838 Lastly we select the severity of the bug. Please look this over carefully. In
839 most cases it's OK to leave it as is and someone will raise/lower it for you.
840 However, if you raise the severity of the bug, please make sure you read it over
841 carefully and make sure you're not making a mistake. Here we will set it to the
842 default of normal:
843 </p>
845 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-sev.png" caption="Severity"/>
847 <p>
848 Now we can submit the bug report by clicking on the Submit Bug Report box. You
849 will now see your new bug come up. See <uri
850 link="https://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=97265">Bug 97561</uri> for what
851 the result looks like. We've reported our bug! Now let's see how it's dealt
852 with.
853 </p>
855 </body>
856 </section>
857 </chapter>
859 <chapter>
860 <title>Working With Your Bug</title>
861 <section>
862 <body>
864 <p>
865 looking at the bug, we see the information we provided earlier:
866 </p>
868 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-new-basic.png" caption="New Bug Basic Information"/>
870 <p>
871 And our details are there too:
872 </p>
874 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-new-details.png" caption="New Bug Details"/>
876 <p>
877 Now as you can see, the bug has been assigned to bug-wranglers@gentoo.org. This
878 is the default location for Application component bugs. However, bug-wranglers
879 (usually) won't fix our bugs, so we'll reassign it to someone that can (you can
880 let bug-wranglers re-assign it for you as well). For this we use the package's
881 metadata.xml. You can normally find them in
882 /usr/portage/category/package/metadata.xml. Here's one I've made up for foobar2:
883 </p>
885 <pre caption="metadata.xml">
886 &lt;?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
887 &lt;!DOCTYPE pkgmetadata SYSTEM "http://www.gentoo.org/dtd/metadata.dtd"&gt;
888 &lt;pkgmetadata&gt;
889 &lt;herd&gt;chriswhite&lt;/herd&gt;
890 &lt;maintainer&gt;
891 &lt;email&gt;chriswhite@gentoo.org&lt;/email&gt;
892 &lt;name&gt;Chris White&lt;/name&gt;
893 &lt;/maintainer&gt;
894 &lt;longdescription lang="en"&gt;
895 Foobar2 is a package that uses a configuration file to display a word.
896 &lt;/longdescription&gt;
897 &lt;/pkgmetadata&gt;
898 </pre>
900 <p>
901 Notice the maintainer section.T his lists the maintainer of the package, which
902 in this case is myself, Chris White. The email listed is chriswhite@gentoo.org.
903 We will use this to re-assign the bug to the proper person. To do this, click
904 the bubble next to Reassign bug to, then fill in the email:
905 </p>
907 <note>
908 A package without a metadata.xml file should be re-assigned to
909 maintainer-needed@gentoo.org.
910 </note>
912 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-reassign.png" caption="Bug Reassignment"/>
914 <p>
915 Then hit the Commit button for the changes to take place. The bug has been
916 reassigned to me. Shortly afterward, you notice (by email usually) that I've
917 responded to your bug. I've stated that I'd like to see an strace log to figure
918 out how the program is trying to reach your configuration file. You follow the
919 previous instructions on using strace and obtain an strace log. Now you need to
920 attach it to the bug. In order to do this, click on "Create A New Attachment".
921 </p>
923 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-new-attach.png" caption="New Attachment"/>
925 <p>
926 Now we have to attach the log. We click on the "Browse..." button under "File"
927 and select the strace log. For Description, we'll put "strace log". Content-Type
928 is what kind of file we're attaching. A common mistake is to set it to
929 auto. In most cases it's best to manually set it. Our log file is a
930 plain text file, so we select "plain text (text/plain)". Obsoletes are for when
931 you are attaching a revision to a previously attached file. You can simply click
932 a check box next to the old file and Bugzilla will cross it out in the bug,
933 indicating that the attachment has been obsoleted. Reassignment means you want
934 to take the bug yourself. I rarely tend to use this.. and I don't think you will
935 need to at some point (unless you create great patches and we don't care about
936 you taking our bugs ;). Comments are for leaving comments about the file you're
937 posting. We'll put "Here is the strace file you requested". Now we have
938 something like this:
939 </p>
941 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-new-attach-comp.png" caption="New Attachment Completed"/>
943 <p>
944 We Submit the patch and it is now reflected on the bug report.
945 </p>
947 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-strace.png" caption="Attached strace log"/>
949 <p>
950 Now, while we're waiting another person notices your bug during step 1 of the
951 Guided Format. This person wants to see the status of the bug as well. He or
952 she may do so by putting their email in the Add CC field like so:
953 </p>
955 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-add-email.png" caption="Adding Email To CC:"/>
957 <note>
958 Email addresses must be registered with bugzilla. In order to CC multiple
959 addresses, simply separate them with commas or spaces.
960 </note>
962 <p>
963 After all this work, the bug can undergo various status markings. Here's a few:
964 </p>
966 <ul>
967 <li>
968 UNCONFIRMED - You're generally not going to see this too often. This
969 means that a bug reporter has opened a bug using the advanced method and is
970 uncertain his or her bug is an actual bug.
971 </li>
972 <li>
973 NEW - Bugs that are first opened are considered new.
974 </li>
975 <li>
976 ASSIGNED - When the person you've assigned the bug too validates your
977 bug, it will often receive ASSIGNED status while they figure out the issue.
978 This let's you know that they've accepted your bug as a real bug.
979 </li>
980 <li>
981 REOPENED - Someone has resolved a bug and you think the solution is not
982 feasible or the problem still persists. At this point, you may re-open the
983 bug. However <b>please do not abuse this</b>. If a developer closes the bug a
984 second or even third time, chances are that your bug is closed.
985 </li>
986 </ul>
988 <p>
989 Now shortly afterward, I find the error in the strace log. I resolve the bug
990 as RESOLVED FIXED and say that there was a change in the location of
991 configuration files, and that I will update the ebuild with a warning about it.
992 The bug now becomes resolved, and you are displayed with this:
993 </p>
995 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-reso.png" caption="Resolved Bug"/>
997 <p>
998 Also note the section here:
999 </p>
1001 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-options.png" caption="Bug Options"/>
1003 <p>
1004 This gives you the option of Reopening the bug if you wish to (i.e. the developer
1005 thinks it's resolved but it's really not to your standards). Now our bug is
1006 fixed! However, different resolutions can occur. Here's a small list:
1007 </p>
1009 <ul>
1010 <li>
1011 FIXED - The bug is fixed, follow the instructions to resolve your
1012 issue.
1013 </li>
1014 <li>
1015 INVALID - You did not do something specifically documented, causing the
1016 bug
1017 </li>
1018 <li>
1019 DUPLICATE - You didn't use this guide and reported a duplicate bug
1020 :)
1021 </li>
1022 <li>
1023 WORKSFORME - Developer/person assigned the bug cannot reproduce your
1024 error
1025 </li>
1026 </ul>
1028 </body>
1029 </section>
1031 <section>
1032 <title>Conclusion</title>
1033 <body>
1035 <p>
1036 This concludes the howto on working with Bugzilla. I hope you find this useful.
1037 If you have any questions, comments, or ideas regarding this document, please
1038 send them to me at <mail
1039 link="chriswhite@gentoo.org">chriswhite@gentoo.org</mail>. Special
1040 thanks go to moreon for his notes on -g flags and compile errors, the people at
1041 #gentoo-bugs for helping out with bug-wrangling, and Griffon26 for his notes on
1042 maintainer-needed.
1043 </p>
1045 </body>
1046 </section>
1047 </chapter>
1048 </guide>

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