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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.68 2004/07/05 11:10:24 neysx Exp $ -->
2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 4
4<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
5<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
6<author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author> 7<author title="Chief Architect">
7<author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author> 8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
8<author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author> 9</author>
10<author title="Reviewer">
11 Colin Morey
12</author>
13<author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14 John P. Davis
15</author>
16<author title="Editor">
9<author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author> 17 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18</author>
19<author title="Editor">
10<author title="Editor"><mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail></author> 20 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
11<author title="Editor"><mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail></author> 21</author>
12<author title="Editor"><mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail></author> 22<author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24</author>
25<author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27</author>
28<author title="Editor">
13<author title="Editor"><mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail></author> 29 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
14<abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract> 30</author>
15 31
32<abstract>
33This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
34mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add,
35please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.
36</abstract>
37
38<license/>
39
16<version>1.1.4</version> 40<version>2.8</version>
17<date>6 May 2003</date> 41<date>July 04, 2004</date>
18 42
19<chapter> 43<chapter>
44<title>Featured Questions</title>
45<section>
20 <title>Getting Started</title> 46<title>Getting Started</title>
47<body>
21 48
22 <section> 49<ul>
23 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title> 50 <li>
24 <body><p>Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (The "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle".)</p></body> 51 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
52 mean?</uri>
53 </li>
54 <li>
55 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
56 </li>
57</ul>
58
59</body>
25 </section> 60</section>
26
27 <section> 61<section>
28 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title> 62<title>Installation</title>
29 <body> 63<body>
30 <p>Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible 64
31 design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to 65<ul>
32 <uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>, 66 <li>
33 <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org">Linux From Scratch</uri> or 67 <uri link="#optimizations">I'm finding things to be really unstable and
34 <uri link="http://www.bsd.org">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux 68 I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What
35 distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports, 69 gives?</uri>
36 meaning the packages are continually updated to the lastest 70 </li>
37 versions. 71 <li>
38 </p> 72 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
73 password?</uri>
74 </li>
75 <li>
76 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
77 </li>
78 <li>
79 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
80 </li>
81 <li>
82 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
83 </li>
84 <li>
85 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
86 another without reinstalling?</uri>
87 </li>
88 <li>
89 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
90 I do now?</uri>
91 </li>
92 <li>
93 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
94 have to do?</uri>
95 </li>
96 <li>
97 <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
98 </li>
99</ul>
100
39 </body> 101</body>
40 </section> 102</section>
103<section>
104<title>Package Management</title>
105<body>
106
107<ul>
108 <li>
109 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
110 </li>
111 <li>
112 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
113 Can I?</uri>
114 </li>
115 <li>
116 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
117 </li>
118 <li>
119 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
120 firewall?</uri>
121 </li>
122 <li>
123 <uri link="#unison">Can I rsync from another operating
124 system?</uri>
125 </li>
126 <li>
127 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
128 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
129 </li>
130 <li>
131 <uri link="#distfiles">.tar.gz sources for installed software are
132 piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles using valuable space. Is it safe to
133 delete there files?</uri>
134 </li>
135 <li>
136 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
137 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
138 </li>
139</ul>
140
141</body>
142</section>
143<section>
144<title>Usage</title>
145<body>
146
147<ul>
148 <li>
149 <uri link="#rootssh">I have installed openssh on my box, but can
150 only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri>
151 </li>
152 <li>
153 <uri link="#rootX">I can start X applications as root only</uri>
154 </li>
155 <li>
156 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
157 Layout?</uri>
158 </li>
159 <li>
160 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
161 </li>
162 <li>
163 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
164 </li>
165 <li>
166 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
167 </li>
168 <li>
169 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
170 out?</uri>
171 </li>
172</ul>
173
174</body>
175</section>
176<section>
177<title>Maintenance</title>
178<body>
179
180<ul>
181 <li>
182 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
183 how to fix'em, etc.</uri>
184 </li>
185 <li>
186 <uri link="#metalogd">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri>
187 </li>
188</ul>
189
190</body>
191</section>
192<section>
193<title>Development</title>
194<body>
195
196<ul>
197 <li>
198 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
199 </li>
200 <li>
201 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
202 </li>
203 <li>
204 <uri link="#addfaq">How can I add a question or answer to this
205 FAQ?</uri>
206 </li>
207 <li>
208 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling
209 Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri>
210 </li>
211</ul>
212
213</body>
214</section>
215<section>
216<title>Resources</title>
217<body>
218
219<ul>
220 <li>
221 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
222 Linux?</uri>
223 </li>
224 <li>
225 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
226 </li>
227 <li>
228 <uri link="#mailinglist">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo
229 mailinglist, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the
230 entire list?</uri>
231 </li>
232 <li>
233 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
234 do now?</uri>
235 </li>
236</ul>
237
238</body>
239</section>
41</chapter> 240</chapter>
42 241
43<chapter> 242<chapter>
44 <title>Installation</title> 243<title>Getting Started</title>
45
46 <section>
47 244
48 <warn>REPORT all bugs to <uri>bugs.gentoo.org</uri>! Do not report bugs to upstream (original) 245<section id="pronunciation">
49 authors. Report the bugs to Gentoo, and we will move them upstream if necessary. 246<title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
50 </warn> 247<body>
51 248
52 <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title> 249<p>
53 <body><p>The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files 250A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
54 that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install 251"g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The latin name of the Gentoo
55 Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that 252penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
56 contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules, 253penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands.
57 necessary system tools such as <c>mkfs</c> and networking support, 254</p>
58 as well as the <e>.tbz2</e> minimal-system tarball. Most users will install 255
59 Gentoo Linux by burning the .iso file onto a CD, booting off of the CD, 256</body>
60 and installing from within the minimal linux environment provided by
61 the Gentoo boot CD. It is possible, however, for users to install
62 Gentoo Linux directly from an already-existing Linux distribution.
63 Such users need only download the .tbz2 file, install the contents
64 on a spare partition (making sure to use the <c>p</c> flag when
65 untarring the tarball!), chroot, and install in the usual fashion.</p>
66 </body>
67 </section> 257</section>
258<section id="differences">
259<title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
260<body>
68 261
69 <section> 262<p>
70 <title>Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</title> 263Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
71 <body><p> 264link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
72 The .tbz2 minimal-system tarball only needs to be revised when there have 265that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
73 been significant changes to the core Gentoo Linux system (such as baselayout 266Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
74 changes, or a new profile), and as such .tbz2 updates are relatively rare. 267link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">USE flags</uri>),
75 The .iso file tends to get updated whenever we discover that somebody has 268conditional dependencies, "fake" installs, safe installation (through
76 hardware that won't boot from our .iso. Since new kernel modules and 269sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
77 patches are constantly being generated, this situation probably won't 270link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=4#doc_chap1">configuration
78 stabilise anytime soon. 271file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
272link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=3">features</uri>.
79 </p> 273</p>
274
275<p>
276With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source completely using your
277choice of optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or
278aren't installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices so you can install
279Gentoo to your own taste. This is why Gentoo is called a
280<e>meta-distribution</e>.
281</p>
282
283<p>
284Gentoo is very actively developed. Not only the <e>ebuilds</e> themselves (the
285package format Gentoo uses) but the entire distribution uses a rapid pace
286development style. Patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
287mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, portage features are
288added frequently, releases succeed each other quickly, ...
289</p>
290
80 </body> 291</body>
81 </section> 292</section>
82
83 <section>
84 <title>I have a Sony Super-Slim VAIO laptop, and the Gentoo Linux CD is having problems
85 finding my PCMCIA ATAPI CD-ROM.</title>
86 <body>
87 <p>Make sure the second IDE port is set to CDROM (it unsets itself if the device isn't
88 attached on boot) then do the following at the isolinux <c>boot:</c> prompt:</p>
89<pre>
90boot: <i>rescue ide2=0x180,0x386</i>
91</pre>
92<p>If you are using a 1.0_rc5 or earlier boot CD, apart from thinking about downloading the latest iso,
93type <c>gentoo</c> instead of <c>rescue</c>, above.</p>
94</body>
95
96</section>
97 <section>
98 <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
99 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title>
100 <body>
101 <p>When you use any optimizations beyond <c>-O3</c>, you're really taking the risk of
102 having broken packages.
103 Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code
104 to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. A possible setting based on <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC)'s CFLAGS
105 is <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops
106 -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -falign-functions=4</c>, which is about
107 as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use
108 ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%,
109 (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
110 to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p>
111 <p>Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a bug</p>
112 </body>
113 </section>
114
115 <section>
116 <title>What's the default root password after installation?</title>
117 <body><p>The default password is blank; hit enter.</p></body>
118 </section>
119
120 <section>
121 <title>How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</title>
122 <body><p>You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged into.
123 for extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've completed the install.
124 </p></body>
125 </section>
126 <section>
127 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
128 <body><p>Everyone seems to think that i shouldn't be using <e>root</e> for everyday use,
129 how can i add another user?</p>
130 <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give
131 this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p>
132 <p>Insteed of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
133 <pre># <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i></pre>
134 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his login shell.
135 </p>
136 </body>
137 </section>
138 <section>
139 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
140 <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
141 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue the following
142 command as root:</p>
143 <pre># <i>usermod -G users,wheel username</i></pre>
144 </body>
145 </section>
146 <section>
147 <title>How do I enable devfs?</title>
148 <body>
149 <p>
150 If you're using 1.0_rc5 or greater, you don't need to do anything special to get
151 devfs working; it's already active (you did make sure that devfs was built into the
152 kernel, didn't you?).
153 However, if you are using a version of Gentoo Linux <e>prior</e> to version 1.0_rc5, add
154 <c>devfs=mount</c> to your <c>GRUB</c> kernel boot options so that the line looks something
155 like <c>kernel /boot/boot/bzImage devfs=mount foo=bar</c> The kernel will then mount the
156 <path>/dev</path> <e>devfs</e> filesystem automatically at boot-time.
157 </p>
158 </body>
159 </section>
160 <section>
161 <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
162 <body>
163 <p>Under Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc6 and later, you can disable devfs by passing the
164 <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel.</p>
165 </body>
166 </section>
167 <section>
168 <title>How do I get a <path>/dev/mouse </path> that
169 doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)?</title>
170 <body>
171 <p>
172 If you are using 1.0_rc6 or later, then you can just use <c>ln -s</c>
173 to make the usual symbolic link from <path>/dev/mouse</path>, and
174 it will be preserved between reboots.
175 </p>
176 <p>All other users need to edit <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>
177 and add these lines:</p>
178<pre>
179REGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL symlink misc/psaux mouse
180UNREGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL unlink mouse
181</pre>
182 <p>If you are not using the devfs PS/2 mouse <path>/dev/misc/psaux</path> device,
183 adjust the <c>misc/psaux</c> strings above accoringly. You'll then want to
184 <c>killall -HUP devfsd</c>
185 to get devfsd to reread <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>.</p>
186 </body>
187 </section>
188 <section>
189 <title>Grub can't find stage x.y?</title>
190 <body><p>
191 During installation the grub boot files are copied
192 to <path>/boot/grub</path> (<path>/boot/boot/grub</path> in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and
193 earlier.) Grub automatically looks in the <path>/boot/grub</path> directory on the boot
194 partition. (We strongly recommend having a separate no-auto boot partition mounted at
195 <path>/boot</path>, since that way it is much more difficult to clobber your kernel and boot
196 info by accident.) The above error generally arises from (a) not using a separate boot
197 partition, (b) forgetting to mount the boot partition at <path>/boot</path> before either
198 unpacking the build snapshot or running
199 <c>emerge --usepkg system</c>, or (c) forgetting the
200 <c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition.
201 You can get more information on grub, including how to
202 debug grub from the grub prompt, by reading the
203 <uri link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>.
204 </p>
205 </body>
206 </section>
207
208 <section>
209 <title>My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware
210 detection. </title>
211 <body>
212 <p>Disable MPS 1.4 (multi-processor-system) in the BIOS or switch this
213 function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System
214 will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p>
215 </body>
216 </section>
217
218 <section>
219 <title>If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without reinstalling?</title>
220 <body>
221 In fact there is no difference between the 1.4 releases <b>after they&apos;ve installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based.
222 As such 1.4rc1 machine for example, that does <c>emerge rsync; emerge -u world</c> is <b>exactly the same</b> as a machine with 1.4rc2 installed, after it does <c>emerge rsync; emerge -u world</c>. The true differences lie in the installer.
223 </body>
224 </section>
225</chapter> 293</chapter>
226 294
227<chapter> 295<chapter>
228 <title>Package Management</title> 296<title>Installation</title>
229 <section> 297<section id="optimizations">
230 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title> 298<title>
231 <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily 299 I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
232 a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a 300 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?
233 special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build 301</title>
234 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO 302<body>
235 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we 303
236 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c> 304<p>
237 compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p> 305Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
306current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
307compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
308do the same thing anymore.
309</p>
310
311<p>
312Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> first before reporting a
313bug.
314</p>
315
238 </body> 316</body>
239 </section> 317</section>
240 318<section id="password">
241 <section> 319<title>How can i change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
242 <title>Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</title>
243 <body> 320<body>
244 <p>In one sentence, because Portage is much better in so many ways. One of the design 321
245 philosophies of the <c>.ebuild</c> syntax was to make it an analog of what you'd type to 322<p>
246 install the program manually, thus making Portage very easy to learn and modify to your 323You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
247 needs. We also have OpenBSD-style "fake" installs, safe unmerging, system profiles, 324into. For extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've
248 package masking, a real dependency system, and lots of other good stuff.</p> 325completed the install.
326</p>
327
249 </body> 328</body>
250 </section> 329</section>
330<section id="useradd">
331<title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
332<body>
251 333
252 <section> 334<p>
253 <title>How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</title> 335The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step
254 <body><p>Portage features the best of apt and ports; for example, USE options, a full 336is to give this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.
255 dependency system, safe installs and uninstalls, and a true package database. Think of 337</p>
256 Portage as the best of both worlds; a ports system with the sensibilities and safety of a 338
257 Linux package management system built-in.</p></body> 339<p>
340Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
341</p>
342
343<pre caption="Using useradd">
344# <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i>
345</pre>
346
347<p>
348This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him/her to use sound-related
349devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him/her to switch to
350root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his/her login shell.
351</p>
352
353<p>
354You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and
355then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow
356the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.
357</p>
358
359</body>
258 </section> 360</section>
361<section id="su">
362<title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
363<body>
259 364
260 <section> 365<p>
261 <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title> 366For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
262 <body> 367<e>wheel</e> group. To add a <e>username</e> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue
263 <p>The <uri link="/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install 368the following command as root:
264 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p> 369</p>
265 </body> 370
371<pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
372# <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
373</pre>
374
375</body>
266 </section> 376</section>
377<section id="devfs">
378<title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
379<body>
267 380
268 <section> 381<p>
269 <title>How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</title> 382If you plan on using Gentoo with the "old-style" <path>/dev</path> approach, you
270 <body><p><path>/etc/make.conf</path> should be modified to override global and 383can disable devfs by passing the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel. If on the
271 profile-specific default options used to compile and merge packages. The most common options 384other hand you want to use <uri link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev</uri> (2.6
272 are as follows:</p> 385kernels only), you can disable devfs by passing the <c>devfs=nomount</c> option
273 <table> 386to the kernel. Don't forget to read up on our <uri
274 <tr> 387link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> too.
275 <th>Flag</th> 388</p>
276 <th>Description</th> 389
277 </tr>
278 <tr>
279 <ti>CHOST</ti>
280 <ti>This sets the HOST variable for compiles, e.g. <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c></ti>
281 </tr>
282 <tr>
283 <ti>CFLAGS</ti>
284 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C (*.c files)</ti>
285 </tr>
286 <tr>
287 <ti>CXXFLAGS</ti>
288 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C++ (*.c,*.cpp etc.
289 files)</ti>
290 </tr>
291 <tr>
292 <ti>USE</ti>
293 <ti>This allows you to set what optional components you'd like compiled-in, if
294 available. For example, if you have <c>gnome</c> inside the USE string, then when
295 you compile <c>xchat</c>, it will include GNOME support. All our dependencies are
296 also USE-aware.</ti>
297 </tr>
298 <tr>
299 <ti>GENTOO_MIRRORS</ti>
300 <ti>A space separated list of URIs currently mirroring the Gentoo packages. Portage
301 will attempt download from a <c>GENTOO_MIRROR</c> first before trying the official
302 <c>SRC_URI</c>. To force Portage to skip mirrors, set this variable to "".</ti>
303 </tr>
304 </table>
305 </body> 390</body>
306 </section> 391</section>
307 392<section id="upgrade">
308 <section> 393<title>
309 <title>What happened to <path>/etc/make.defaults</path>?</title> 394 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
395</title>
310 <body> 396<body>
311 <p>As of Portage 1.5 onwards, <path>/etc/make.defaults</path> is antiquated; 397
312 if you have portage-1.5-r1 or above installed then you can safely delete it. 398<p>
313 This file has been replaced by <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path> 399In fact there is no difference between the various releases
314 (<path>/etc/make.profile</path> should actually be a symlink to, 400<b>after they have been installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are
315 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default</path>), 401<c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such running <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c>
316 which contains system profile-specific default settings. The priority order of 402will bring your entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo".
317 the various configuration files is as follows (highest first): 403The true differences between individual releases lie in the installation.
318 <ol> 404</p>
319 <li>Environment variables</li> 405
320 <li><path>/etc/make.conf</path>, for your use</li> 406<p>
321 <li><path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>, for profile-specific defaults</li> 407More information can be found in our <uri link="gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo
322 <li><path>/etc/make.globals</path>, for global defaults (settings not specified in 408Upgrading Guide</uri>.
323 any other place come from here)</li> 409</p>
324 </ol></p></body> 410
411</body>
325 </section> 412</section>
326 413<section id="bootrescue">
327 <section> 414<title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
328 <title>Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages 415<body>
329 e.g. <e>apt-get upgrade</e> or <e>make World</e>?</title>
330 <body><p><b>YES!</b> Type <c>emerge --update system</c> (use it with <c>--pretend</c> first) to
331 update all core system packages, and use <c>emerge --update world</c> (again, use it with
332 <c>--pretend</c> first) to do a complete system upgrade of all installed packages.
333 416
417<p>
418You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
419kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
420on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
421<path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
422</p>
334 423
335 </p></body> 424<pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
425<comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
426<comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
427# <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
428# <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
429# <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
430# <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
431<comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
432# <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
433# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
434# <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
435# <i>make menuconfig</i>
436<comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
437<comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
438# <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
439<comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
440# <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
441<comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
442# <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
443<comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
444# <i>exit</i>
445# <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
446# <i>reboot</i>
447</pre>
448
449<p>
450If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
451follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
452should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
453</p>
454
455</body>
336 </section> 456</section>
457<section id="proxy">
458<title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
459<body>
337 460
338 <section> 461<p>
339 <title>When updating a package using <c>emerge</c> or <c>ebuild</c>, how do I avoid 462When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
340 clobbering my config files?</title> 463following syntax to authenticate yourself:
341 <body><p> 464</p>
342 Portage now includes config file management support by default. Type 465
343 <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if 466<pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
344 a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and 467# <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
345 another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will 468</pre>
346 instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful 469
347 tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>, 470<p>
348 which is now part of Portage. 471To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
349 </p></body> 472<path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
473</p>
474
475<pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
476FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
477RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
478</pre>
479
480<p>
481Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
482authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">What
483if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
484handle this situation.
485</p>
486
487</body>
350 </section> 488</section>
489<section id="isoburning">
490<title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
491<body>
351 492
352 <section> 493<p>
353 <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title> 494You need to burn the file in so-called <e>raw</e> mode. This means that you
354 <body><p> 495should <e>not</e> just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an
355 Yes, but it is not trivial. First do <c>man ebuild</c> followed by 496entire CD.
356 <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild unpack</c>. Then <c>cd</c> to 497</p>
357 <path>/var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/work</path>. You can manually perform 498
358 the <c>./configure</c> and <c>make</c> steps yourself (you'll have to do 499<p>
359 both, since Portage does not separate the configure and build steps). To 500There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
360 have Portage finish the installation (so that you can easily remove it later, 501Sisyphean problem. Describing a few popular tools however doesn't hurt :)
361 should you desire to do so, and it will be registered in Portage as a possible 502</p>
362 dependency) you first need to <c>touch /var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/.compiled</c> 503
363 (tricking Portage into thinking that <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild compile</c> has 504<ul>
364 completed), followed by <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild merge</c>. 505 <li>
365 </p></body> 506 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
507 from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
508 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
509 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
510 </li>
511 <li>
512 With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
513 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>Recoder</c> menu. Select the image you
514 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
515 your brand new CD being burnt.
516 </li>
517 <li>
518 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
519 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
520 by the path to the ISO file :)
521 </li>
522 <li>
523 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
524 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
525 <c>Start</c>.
526 </li>
527 <li>
528 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
529 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
530 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
531 select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
532 </li>
533 <li>
534 With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
535 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
536 <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
537 </li>
538</ul>
539
540
541</body>
366 </section> 542</section>
367
368 <section>
369 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
370 <body><p>
371 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit
372 rsync traffic, then you can use <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch
373 and install a Portage snapshot for you through regular HTTP.
374 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so proxy is fully
375 supported.
376 <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
377~# <c>emerge-webrsync</c></pre>
378 If you cannot do this either, you can manually download a snapshot
379 from <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri>.
380 In order to install the snapshot correctly, you first need to remove
381 your current <path>/usr/portage</path> so that outdated ebuilds don't
382 stay available on your system. However, you might want to put
383 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> somewhere safe if you don't want to
384 lose all your sourcecode.
385 <pre caption="Manually installing the snapshots">
386<codenote>(First download the snapshot and place it in /usr)</codenote>
387~# <c>cd /usr</c>
388~# <c>mv /usr/portage/distfiles /usr/distfiles-temp</c>
389~# <c>rm -rf /usr/portage</c>
390~# <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>
391~# <c>mv /usr/distfiles-temp /usr/portage/distfiles</c></pre>
392 </p></body>
393 </section>
394
395 <section>
396 <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title>
397 <body><p>
398 Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
399 edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
400 appropriately.
401 </p></body>
402 </section>
403
404 <section>
405 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
406 <body><p>There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available from
407 <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.</p></body>
408 </section>
409
410 <section>
411 <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and
412 add them to my system?</title>
413 <body><p>
414 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
415 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where to
416 download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>.
417 Download sources and bring them on any media
418 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run
419 <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in!
420 </p></body>
421 </section>
422
423 <section>
424 <title>.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using
425 valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</title>
426 <body><p>
427 Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
428 connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
429 possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
430 a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
431 upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
432 again.
433 </p></body>
434 </section>
435
436 <section>
437 <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards
438 <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre.
439 Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title>
440
441 <body>
442 <p>Solution: </p>
443 <pre caption = "Solution">
444# <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c>
445# <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c>
446 </pre>
447
448 </body>
449 </section>
450 <section>
451 <title>What's in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>?</title>
452 <body>
453 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this directory.
454 </body>
455 </section>
456</chapter> 543</chapter>
457 544
458<chapter> 545<chapter>
459 <title>Usage</title> 546<title>Package Management</title>
460 <section> 547<section id="ebuilds">
461 <title>I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user 548<title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
462 account doesn't work. </title> 549<body>
463 <body> 550
464 <p> 551<p>
465 This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell specified. Check 552They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; Gentoo is
466 for your user entry in 553primarily a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts
467 <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, 554(<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build
468 you must set a shell for the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this ; 555apps from sources. We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots.
556The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO</uri> covers the
557contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
558create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format
559(<c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the
560file).
469 </p> 561</p>
470 <pre># <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i></pre> 562
471 </body> 563</body>
472 </section> 564</section>
473 565<section id="configure">
474 <section> 566<title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
475 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title> 567<body>
476 <body><p>Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the sticky bit 568
477 set). Type the following as root:</p> 569<p>
478 <pre># <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i></pre> 570Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
571ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
572Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
573</p>
574
575<p>
576Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild
577/usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
578</p>
579
580<p>
581Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
582Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
583perform to configure and compile the package.
584</p>
585
586<p>
587When finished, execute <c>touch
588/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
589into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
590<c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
591merge</c>.
592</p>
593
479 </body> 594</body>
480 </section> 595</section>
596<section id="norsync">
597<title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
598<body>
481 599
482 <section> 600<p>
483 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title> 601If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
484 <body><p>Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>. 602<c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
485 Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script: 603through regular HTTP. <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so
486 <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.</p> 604proxy is fully supported.
605</p>
606
607<pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
608# <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
609</pre>
610
487 </body> 611</body>
488 </section> 612</section>
613<section id="firewall">
614<title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
615<body>
489 616
490 <section> 617<p>
491 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title> 618Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
492 <body><p><path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as follows: 619edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
620appropriately.
493 </p> 621</p>
494 <pre># <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i></pre> 622
495 </body> 623</body>
496 </section> 624</section>
625<section id="unison">
626<title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
627<body>
497 628
498 <section> 629<p>
499 <title>Why is KDE not reading <path>/etc/profile</path>?</title> 630There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available
500 <body><p>You need to add <c>--login</c> to the first line in <path>/opt/kde2.1/bin/startkde 631from <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.
501 </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p> 632</p>
502 <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre> 633
503 <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p>
504 </body> 634</body>
505 </section> 635</section>
636<section id="manualdownload">
637<title>
638 I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
639 else and add them to my system?
640</title>
641<body>
506 642
507 <section> 643<p>
508 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title> 644Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
509 <body><p>You need to add that user to the <i>cron</i> group. 645are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
646to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
647sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
648<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run <c>emerge package</c> to see it
649picking up the sources you just brought in!
510 </p> 650</p>
651
511 </body> 652</body>
512 </section> 653</section>
654<section id="distfiles">
655<title>
656 .tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in
657 /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these
658 files?
659</title>
660<body>
661
662<p>
663Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
664connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
665possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
666a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
667upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
668again.
669</p>
670
671</body>
672</section>
673<section id="tmpportage">
674<title>
675 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
676 directories in /var/tmp/portage?
677</title>
678<body>
679
680<p>
681During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
682<path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this
683directory.
684</p>
685
686</body>
687</section>
513</chapter> 688</chapter>
514 689
515<chapter> 690<chapter>
516 <title>Maintenance</title> 691<title>Usage</title>
517 <section> 692<section id="rootssh">
518 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title> 693<title>
694 I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal
695 user account doesn't work.
696</title>
519 <body> 697<body>
698
520 <p> 699<p>
521 If your 700This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell
522 ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo 701specified. Check for your user entry in <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it
523 Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on 702ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, you must set a shell for
524 the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent 703the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this:
525 again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
526 to the corruption.
527 </p> 704</p>
705
706<pre caption="Using usermod">
707# <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i>
708</pre>
709
528 </body> 710</body>
529 </section> 711</section>
530<!-- is this still relevant? -cpm --> 712<section id="rootX">
531 <section> 713<title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
532 <title>How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo
533 system?</title>
534 <body>
535 <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the
536 current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p>
537
538<pre>
539# <i>tai64nlocal &lt; /var/log/syslog.d/current | less</i>
540</pre>
541
542<p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p>
543
544<pre>
545# <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
546</pre>
547
548</body> 714<body>
715
716<p>
717Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the
718sticky bit set). Type the following as root:
719</p>
720
721<pre caption="Changing /tmp permissions">
722# <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i>
723</pre>
724
725</body>
549 </section> 726</section>
727<section id="intkeyboard">
728<title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
729<body>
730
731<p>
732Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
733Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
734<c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.
735</p>
736
737</body>
738</section>
739<section id="rootdns">
740<title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
741<body>
742
743<p>
744<path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
745follows:
746</p>
747
748<pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
749# <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
750</pre>
751
752</body>
753</section>
754<section id="crontab">
755<title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
756<body>
757
758<p>
759You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
760</p>
761
762</body>
763</section>
764<section id="numlock">
765<title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
766<body>
767
768<p>
769If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
770you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
771add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
772<path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
773<path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
774as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
775</p>
776
777<p>
778GNOME 2.6 users however will notice that this doesn't work. Instead, they will
779need to start the <c>gnome-session-properties</c> tool. At the top of the
780Window, select <c>Startup Programs</c> and click the <c>Add</c> button. Now
781insert the location of the <c>numlockx</c> tool (for instance
782<path>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</path>) and exit.
783</p>
784
785<p>
786If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
787numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
788reboot.
789</p>
790
791</body>
792</section>
793<section id="clear">
794<title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
795<body>
796
797<p>
798To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
799<path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
800</p>
801
802<pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
803$ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
804</pre>
805
806<p>
807If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
808user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
809</p>
810
811<pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
812# <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
813</body>
814
815</section>
550</chapter> 816</chapter>
551 817
552<chapter> 818<chapter>
819<title>Maintenance</title>
820<section id="filecorruption">
821<title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
822<body>
823
824<p>
825If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
826Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
827the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
828again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
829to the corruption.
830</p>
831
832</body>
833</section>
834<section id="metalogd">
835<title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
836<body>
837
838<p>
839Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
840recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
841performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
842system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
843turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
844<path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
845expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
846disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
847METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
848</p>
849
850<pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
851<codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
852# <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
853<codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
854# <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
855</pre>
856
857</body>
858</section>
859</chapter>
860
861<chapter>
553 <title>Development</title> 862<title>Development</title>
554 <section> 863<section id="reportbugs">
555 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title> 864<title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
865<body>
866
867<p>
556 <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our 868For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise,
557 Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in 869use our Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can
870also visit us in <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
558 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network. 871link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
559 </p></body> 872</p>
873
874</body>
560 </section> 875</section>
561 876<section id="releases">
562 <section>
563 <title>How often are new releases made?</title> 877<title>How often are new releases made?</title>
564 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> 878<body>
565 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves 879
566 are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc 880<p>
567 are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when 881New releases are announced on the <uri
568 new modules get added.</p></body> 882link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
883mailing list. In reality the packages themselves are updated shortly after the
884main authors release new code. As for when Gentoo makes new releases, check our
885<uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page.
886</p>
887
888</body>
569 </section> 889</section>
570 890<section id="addfaq">
571 <section>
572 <title>I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</title>
573 <body><p>Head over to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and submit a new bug of the type
574 "ebuild". Attach your ebuild to the bug report.</p></body>
575 </section>
576
577 <section>
578 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title> 891<title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
892<body>
893
894<p>
579 <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the 895Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
580 "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.</p></body> 896"Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.
897</p>
898
899</body>
581 </section> 900</section>
901<section id="beeping">
902<title>
903 My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console
904 beeps?
905</title>
906<body>
582 907
583 <section> 908<p>
584 <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title> 909Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
585 <body><p> 910</p>
586 Export <c>WANT_AUTOMAKE_1_4=1</c> for all KDE projects before running 911
587 <c>make -f Makefile.cvs</c>. Also, for KDE2 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1=1</c>, 912<pre caption="Using setterm">
588 and for KDE3 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5=1</c>. 913# <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
589 </p></body> 914</pre>
915
916<p>
917If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
918you need to put this command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However,
919this only disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
920beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
921target terminal, like this:
922</p>
923
924<pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
925# <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
926</pre>
927
928<p>
929You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
930console beeps for.
931</p>
932
933</body>
590 </section> 934</section>
591
592
593 <section>
594 <title>My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?
595 </title>
596 <body>
597 <p>
598 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this ;
599
600 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0</i></pre>
601
602 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
603 you need to put this command in
604 <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only
605 disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
606 beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
607 target terminal, like this ;
608
609 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i></pre>
610
611 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal
612 you would like to disable console beeps for.
613 </p>
614 </body>
615 </section>
616</chapter> 935</chapter>
617 936
618<chapter> 937<chapter>
619<title>Resources</title> 938<title>Resources</title>
620 <section> 939<section id="resources">
621 <title>Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</title>
622 <body><p><!-- TODO: --><uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri></p></body>
623 </section>
624
625 <section>
626 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title> 940<title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
627 <body><p>The official Gentoo documentation can be found on <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at <uri>http://www.linuxdoc.org</uri>.</p></body> 941<body>
942
943<p>
944The official Gentoo documentation can be found on
945<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at
946<uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>.
947</p>
948
949</body>
628 </section> 950</section>
629 951<section id="buycd">
630 <section>
631 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title> 952<title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
632 <body><p>Yes! Fresh CDRs are available for $5 USD apiece from 953<body>
633 <uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010805">Cheapbytes</uri>. 954
955<p>
956Yes! LiveCDs for all supported architecture are available on
957our <uri link="http://store.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
958purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development.
959So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-)
634 </p> 960</p>
961
962<p>
963You can also find fresh CDs from
635 <p>There are also CDs for sale at <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42"> 964<uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
636 tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a portion of the profits 965tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a
637 to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot! </p> 966portion of the profits to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot!
967</p>
968
638 </body> 969</body>
639 </section> 970</section>
640 971<section id="mailinglist">
641 <section> 972<title>
642 <title>Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer 973 Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
643 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</title> 974 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?
975</title>
644 <body> 976<body>
977
978<p>
645 <p>The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging 979The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
646 (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against 980(altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
647 altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various 981altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
648 reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the 982reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
649 entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted. 983entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
984</p>
650 985
986<p>
651 Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that 987Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
652 your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most 988your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
653 users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you 989users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
654 don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to 990don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
655 the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at 991the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
656 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>. 992<uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
993</p>
657 994
995<p>
658 Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily 996Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
659 discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides. 997discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
660 Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing 998Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
661 it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other 999it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
662 times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the 1000times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
663 administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is 1001administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
664 felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several 1002felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
665 reasons, many of these covered 1003reasons, many of these covered
666 <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>. 1004<uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
1005</p>
667 1006
1007<p>
668 (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list 1008(There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
669 administrators have seen them.) </p> 1009administrators have seen them).
1010</p>
1011
670 </body> 1012</body>
671 </section>
672
673 <section> 1013</section>
1014<section id="help">
674 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title> 1015<title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
675 <body> 1016<body>
676 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>, 1017
677 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing 1018<p>
1019A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
1020link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that,
1021the various Gentoo Linux mailing lists listed on <uri
678 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists, 1022link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo
679 just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want 1023mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all
680 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i> 1024else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc:
681 on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>. 1025<c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
682 </p> 1026</p>
1027
683 </body> 1028</body>
684 </section> 1029</section>
685</chapter> 1030</chapter>
1031
686</guide> 1032</guide>

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