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1 cam 1.4 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 jkt 1.7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-freebsd.xml,v 1.6 2005/09/21 19:16:21 jkt Exp $ -->
3 neysx 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5     <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-freebsd.xml">
6     <title>A short guide to Gentoo/FreeBSD</title>
7    
8     <author title="Author">
9     <mail link="ignacio.arquelatour@gmail.com">Ignacio Arque-Latour</mail>
10     </author>
11     <author title="Author">
12     <mail link="citizen428@gentoo.org">Michael Kohl</mail>
13     </author>
14     <author title="Author">
15     Otavio R. Piske
16     </author>
17     <author title="Author">
18     <mail link="ka0ttic@gentoo.org">Aaron Walker</mail>
19     </author>
20    
21     <abstract>
22     This document gives some general information on FreeBSD, as well as
23     installation instructions for Gentoo/FreeBSD. It also includes some reference
24     for people interested in helping out with development.
25     </abstract>
26    
27     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
28     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
29     <license/>
30    
31 jkt 1.7 <version>1.5</version>
32     <date>2005-10-06</date>
33 neysx 1.1
34     <chapter>
35     <title>Introduction to FreeBSD</title>
36     <section>
37     <title>What is FreeBSD?</title>
38     <body>
39    
40     <p>
41     <uri link="http://www.freebsd.org/">FreeBSD</uri> is a free (<uri
42     link="http://www.freebsd.org/copyright/freebsd-license.html">license</uri>)
43     Unix-like operating system. Back in 1993 when development of <uri
44     link="http://www.386bsd.org/">386BSD</uri> stopped, two projects were born:
45     <uri link="http://www.netbsd.org/">NetBSD</uri>, commonly known to run on a
46     huge number of architetures, and FreeBSD which focuses mainly on the x86
47     platform. FreeBSD is renowned for its stability, performance and security, thus
48     being used from small to huge companies all over the world. FreeBSD's current
49     production release version is 5.4, which is also used as the foundation for the
50     Gentoo/FreeBSD project.
51     </p>
52    
53     </body>
54     </section>
55     <section>
56     <title>What is Gentoo/FreeBSD?</title>
57     <body>
58    
59     <p>
60 cam 1.4 Gentoo/FreeBSD is an effort to provide a fully-capable FreeBSD operating system
61     with Gentoo's design sensibilities. The long-term goal of the Gentoo/BSD project
62     is to allow users to choose any combination of *BSD or Linux kernels, *BSD or
63     GNU libc, and *BSD or GNU userland tools.
64 neysx 1.1 </p>
65    
66     </body>
67     </section>
68     <section>
69     <title>FreeBSD and Linux</title>
70     <body>
71    
72     <p>
73     Users migrating from Linux to FreeBSD commonly consider the two operating
74     systems "almost the same". In fact, FreeBSD really shares a lot of similarities
75     with Linux distributions in general. Nevertheless, it has some key differences
76     that are worth noting:
77     </p>
78    
79     <ul>
80     <li>
81     Contrary to Linux, which actually only refers to the kernel, FreeBSD is a
82     complete operating system, consisting of a C library, userland tools and
83     much more. This development approach makes the overall system very
84 cam 1.4 consistent.
85 neysx 1.1 </li>
86     <li>
87     Contrary to the Linux kernel, FreeBSD development is not led by one person,
88     but instead managed by a small group of people called the <uri
89     link="http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributors/staff-core.html">Core
90     Team</uri>.
91     </li>
92     </ul>
93    
94     <p>
95     Besides, FreeBSD also has some technical differences which set it apart
96     from Linux. Some of them are very important to know, even if you don't plan on
97     joining the Gentoo/FreeBSD development effort:
98     </p>
99    
100     <ul>
101     <li>
102 cam 1.4 To get run-time dynamic linking functions like <c>dlopen()</c>, programs do
103 neysx 1.1 not need to be linked against libdl like on GNU/Linux. Instead they are
104 cam 1.4 linked against libc.
105 neysx 1.1 </li>
106     <li>
107     FreeBSD doesn't have an official tool for kernel compilation, thus you'll
108 cam 1.4 have to resolve feature dependencies on your own.
109 neysx 1.1 </li>
110     <li>
111     FreeBSD uses UFS/UFS-2 as its filesystems and has no official support for
112     e.g. ReiserFS or XFS. However, there are projects for adding read-only
113 cam 1.4 support for these filesystems. Accessing ext2/ext3 partitions is already
114     possible, but you cannot install your system on them.
115 neysx 1.1 </li>
116     </ul>
117    
118     </body>
119     </section>
120     </chapter>
121    
122     <chapter>
123     <title>Installing Gentoo/FreeBSD</title>
124     <section>
125     <title>Installation instructions</title>
126     <body>
127    
128     <p>
129     After this short introduction, it's about time to finally install
130     Gentoo/FreeBSD. Unfortunately, we currently lack our own installation media, so
131     you have to choose between two alternative installation methods. The first
132     would be to use an existing FreeBSD installation to partition your hard drive
133     and use it as a base for installing Gentoo/FreeBSD. Alternatively, you can also
134     use the excellent <uri link="http://www.freesbie.org/">FreeSBIE LiveCD</uri> as
135     an installation medium for Gentoo/FreeBSD.
136     </p>
137    
138     <p>
139     Before you can begin with the installation, you have to setup a hard disk for
140     use with Gentoo/FreeBSD. This can either be done via <c>sysinstall</c>
141     (available from a current FreeBSD installation as well as from within FreeSBIE)
142     or by manually using the commands <c>fdisk</c>, <c>disklabel</c> and
143     <c>newfs</c>. If you have never set up a FreeBSD system before,
144     <c>sysinstall</c> may be the better option for you. If you face difficulties
145     while partitioning or formatting your hard disks, have a look at the great
146     <uri link="http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/">FreeBSD
147     Handbook</uri> or hop onto <c>#gentoo-bsd</c> on the Freenode IRC server.
148     </p>
149    
150     <p>
151     Once you're done setting up your disks, you have to create a mount point for
152     your Gentoo/FreeBSD installation and mount all the necessary partitions.
153     </p>
154    
155     <pre caption="Creating a mount point and mounting partitions">
156     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gfbsd</i>
157     <comment>(Replace X with the correct numbers for your hard disk.)</comment>
158     # <i>mount /dev/adXsXa /mnt/gfbsd</i>
159     </pre>
160    
161     <p>
162     Now that you have mounted the target partition, it is time to fetch and unpack
163     a stage3 tarball.
164     </p>
165    
166     <pre caption="Obtaining and unpacking a stage3 tarball">
167     <comment>(Any other Gentoo mirror which includes the experimental/ directory will also work.)</comment>
168 jkt 1.7 # <i>wget http://gentoo.osuosl.org/experimental/x86/freebsd/stage3-x86-fbsd-20051005.tar.bz2</i>
169     # <i>cp stage3-x86-fbsd-20051005.tar.bz2 /mnt/gfbsd/</i>
170 neysx 1.1 # <i>cd /mnt/gfbsd/</i>
171 jkt 1.7 # <i>tar -jxvpf stage3-x86-fbsd-20051005.tar.bz2</i>
172 neysx 1.1 <comment>(You can delete the tarball with the following command if you want to.)</comment>
173 jkt 1.7 # <i>rm stage3-x86-fbsd-20051005.tar.bz2</i>
174 rane 1.3 <comment>(Create a home directory for root.)</comment>
175     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gfbsd/root</i>
176     </pre>
177    
178     <p>
179 jkt 1.7 Before chrooting into the newly-extracted stage, you first must obtain an up-to-date
180     copy of the Gentoo/FreeBSD overlay. The easiest way to achieve this is to to get our latest
181     snapshot which you than extract to <path>/usr/local/portage</path>.
182 rane 1.3 </p>
183    
184     <pre caption="Getting the Gentoo/FreeBSD portage overlay">
185 jkt 1.7 # <i>cd /usr/local/portage</i>
186     # <i>wget http://gentoo.osuosl.org/experimental/snapshots/portage-alt-overlay-latest.tar.bz2</i>
187     # <i>tar -xjf portage-alt-overlay-latest.tar.bz2</i>
188 neysx 1.1 </pre>
189    
190     <p>
191 jkt 1.7 Alternatively, you can also use Subversion to check out the current version of the overlay.
192     If you are interested in this possibility, please refer to the <uri
193     link="http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/gentoo-alt/overlay.xml">Gentoo/ALT overlay
194     documentation</uri>.
195     </p>
196    
197     <p>
198 neysx 1.1 In order for your install to work, you need to mount the <path>/dev</path>
199     filesystem from the currently running system into the Gentoo/FreeBSD mount
200     point before proceeding with the chroot.
201     </p>
202    
203     <pre caption="Mounting the /dev filesystem and chrooting">
204     # <i>mount -t devfs none /mnt/gfbsd/dev/</i>
205     # <i>chroot /mnt/gfbsd/ /bin/bash</i>
206 jkt 1.7 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
207 neysx 1.1 </pre>
208    
209     <p>
210     After you got hold of the Gentoo/FreeBSD overlay, it's time to link
211     <path>/etc/make.profile</path> to the correct profile and add get your
212     <path>/etc/make.conf</path> ready for Gentoo/FreeBSD.
213     </p>
214    
215     <pre caption="Setting up the profile and editing /etc/make.conf">
216 jkt 1.7 # <i>ln -sf /usr/local/portage/portage-alt-overlay/profiles/default-bsd/fbsd/5.4/x86/ /etc/make.profile</i>
217 neysx 1.1 <comment>(FreeBSD's standard editor is ee, which is used to edit /etc/make.conf)</comment>
218     # <i>ee /etc/make.conf</i>
219     <comment>(Please make sure you add at least the following entries:)</comment>
220 cam 1.4 CHOST="i686-gentoo-freebsd5.4"
221     ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86-fbsd ~x86"
222 neysx 1.1 FEATURES="-sandbox collision-protect"
223 jkt 1.7 PORTDIR_OVERLAY="/usr/local/portage/portage-alt-overlay"
224 neysx 1.1 </pre>
225    
226     <p>
227     Now, you have to obtain a copy of the main Gentoo Portage tree, which depending
228     on your connection might take quite a while.
229     </p>
230    
231     <pre caption="Obtaining the portage tree">
232     # <i>emerge --sync</i>
233     </pre>
234    
235     <p>
236     Congratulations, by the time you have reached this step you should have a
237     running Gentoo/FreeBSD system! If you want, you can now rebuild the system's
238     core packages.
239     </p>
240    
241     <pre caption="Rebuilding the FreeBSD core packages">
242     # <i>emerge -e system</i>
243     </pre>
244    
245     <impo>
246     Please make absolutely sure you add your new Gentoo/FreeBSD installation to the
247 fox2mike 1.2 configuration of your bootloader, otherwise you won't be able to boot your newly
248     installed system! If you don't have another bootloader installed, you should use
249     <c>boot0</c>, as it is currently the only one supported by FreeBSD.
250 neysx 1.1 </impo>
251    
252 fox2mike 1.2 <pre caption="Installing and setting up boot0">
253     # <i>emerge boot0</i>
254     <comment>(Leave the chroot environment)</comment>
255     # <i>exit</i>
256     <comment>(Issued from outside the chroot)</comment>
257     # <i>fdisk -b -B /mnt/gfbsd/boot/boot0 /dev/adX</i>
258     # <i>chroot /mnt/gfbsd /bin/bash</i>
259     # <i>disklabel -B adXsY</i>
260     </pre>
261    
262     <p>
263     If you need additonal information on setting up <c>boot0</c>, please consult
264     <uri link="http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/boot.html">
265     chapter 12</uri> of the FreeBSD handbook.
266     </p>
267    
268     <p>
269     When you did <c>emerge system</c>, the sources for the FreeBSD kernel got
270     installed to <path>/usr/src/sys</path>. Configuring and compiling a custom
271     kernel is really different from compiling Linux, so if you are not familiar with
272     the process we encourage you to have a look at <uri
273     link="http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/kernelconfig.html">
274     chapter 8</uri> of the FreeBSD handbook.
275     </p>
276    
277     <p>
278     Please note that currently only the "Traditional" way of building the kernel is
279     supported on Gentoo/FreeBSD! Also note that <c>make install</c> will probably
280     ask you for a <path>/boot/device.hints</path> file. A default version can be
281     found in the <path>conf</path> subdirectory of the <c>GENERIC</c> configuration
282     and is called <path>GENERIC.hints</path>
283     </p>
284    
285 neysx 1.1 </body>
286     </section>
287     </chapter>
288    
289     <chapter>
290     <title>Developing for Gentoo/FreeBSD</title>
291     <section>
292 cam 1.4 <title>How to help</title>
293 neysx 1.1 <body>
294    
295     <p>
296     There are many things you could help with, depending on your skill level and
297     spare time:
298     </p>
299    
300     <ul>
301     <li>
302     We need GCC and binutils hackers who are able to port FreeBSD's patches to
303 cam 1.4 the original versions of these tools provided by our main Portage tree.
304 neysx 1.1 </li>
305     <li>
306 jkt 1.5 Working on current ebuilds: this means working closely with ebuild maintainers
307     in order to create patches or modify ebuilds in a way that can be accepted
308     into the main tree.
309 neysx 1.1 </li>
310     <li>
311     Security: if you are into security, we need you! Although security
312     advisories from the FreeBSD project are tracked and fixed, we can always
313 cam 1.4 use help in this area.
314 neysx 1.1 </li>
315     <li>
316     Contacts: we need people who can get in touch with FreeBSD developers to
317     maintain contacts between us and the original project to exchange patches
318     and discuss various problems and their solutions. Note that this should
319 cam 1.4 never involve any kind of spamming of mailing lists or IRC channels.
320 neysx 1.1 </li>
321     <li>
322     Testing: the more people are actively using Gentoo/FreeBSD, the more bugs
323     will be discovered, which helps us improving the quality of the port. If
324     you are good at describing bugs or problems, we definitely want to hear
325 cam 1.4 from you.
326 neysx 1.1 </li>
327     <li>
328     Other areas where we need help include: system ebuilds, baselayout,
329     creation of installation CDs, documentation, kernel hacking.
330     </li>
331     </ul>
332    
333     </body>
334     </section>
335     <section>
336     <title>Building the system and dealing with issues</title>
337     <body>
338    
339     <p>
340     Although Linux and FreeBSD both are Unix-like operating systems, there are some
341     important differences you have to know about if you want to contribute to our
342     development effort:
343     </p>
344    
345     <ul>
346     <li>
347     FreeBSD doesn't use the GNU autotools (autoconf, automake, autoheader).
348     Instead, it uses its own implementation of <c>make</c>, putting
349     configuration options in external files and some .mk files that are
350     included with each Makefile. Although a lot of work has been put into
351 cam 1.4 those .mk files, it is not hard to find some installations failing due to
352 neysx 1.1 a missing <c>${INSTALL}&nbsp;-d</c> somewhere. The easy way to deal with
353     this kind of problem is to read the Makefile to find the accompanying .mk
354     file, then open that file and try to figure out which part failed (this is
355     not really hard once you figure out where in the installation process it
356 cam 1.4 stopped).
357 neysx 1.1 </li>
358     <li>
359     Besides, due to the fact that FreeBSD is a complete operating system, you
360     won't find things like a FreeBSD kernel tarball for download on a web site.
361     The system is meant to be concise, thus whenever you start making an ebuild
362     for something that uses system sources, you are very likely to run into
363     problems when it tries to access non-existent files or directories. This
364     generally occurs when a Makefile points to <path>${.CURDIR}/../sys</path>,
365     or when a Makefile has a source dependency on another system package. There
366     is no default rule on dealing with such issues, but generally one of the
367     following procedures helps:
368     <ul>
369     <li>
370     If the ebuild is trying to access kernel sources, patch it to point to
371     <path>/usr/src/sys</path>
372     </li>
373     <li>
374     If it's trying to access some other source that is provided by the
375     system, it's easier to add it to <c>$SRC_URI</c> and unpack it to
376     <c>$WORKDIR</c>
377     </li>
378     </ul>
379     </li>
380     <li>
381     In order to maintain a concise buildsystem, we have several tarballs which
382     are grouped by their functionality. This means that system libraries can be
383     found in the freebsd-lib tarball, which contains the sources you would
384     usually find in /usr/src/lib. On the other hand, freebsd-usrsbin contains
385     <path>/usr/sbin/*</path> tools and consists of sources from
386     <path>/usr/src/usr.sbin</path>.
387     </li>
388     </ul>
389    
390     </body>
391     </section>
392     <section>
393     <title>Known issues</title>
394     <body>
395    
396     <p>
397     At the moment, there are still quite a lot of known issues. Here are the ones
398     really worth noting:
399     </p>
400    
401     <ul>
402     <li>
403     Some init scripts depend on the clock service which we don't provide right
404     now. You can just remove it from the dependencies of the script and report
405     that on our <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/">bugzilla</uri>. Please
406 cam 1.4 remember to use the "Gentoo BSD" product for your submission.
407 neysx 1.1 </li>
408     <li>glib and gnome in general need a lot of fixes to be backported.</li>
409     </ul>
410    
411     </body>
412     </section>
413     </chapter>
414    
415     <chapter>
416     <title>Contact</title>
417     <section>
418     <body>
419    
420     <p>
421 cam 1.4 A list of Gentoo/FreeBSD developers can be found at the <uri
422 neysx 1.1 link="/proj/en/gentoo-alt/bsd/fbsd/">project page</uri>. Other ways to contact
423     Gentoo/FreeBSD developers include our IRC Channel <c>#gentoo-bsd</c> on
424 jkt 1.6 Freenode, as well as the <uri link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-bsd mailing
425     list</uri>.
426 neysx 1.1 </p>
427    
428     </body>
429     </section>
430     </chapter>
431     </guide>

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