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1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-freebsd.xml,v 1.10 2005/10/21 10:45:18 neysx Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-freebsd.xml">
6 <title>A short guide to Gentoo/FreeBSD</title>
8 <author title="Author">
9 <mail link="ignacio.arquelatour@gmail.com">Ignacio Arque-Latour</mail>
10 </author>
11 <author title="Author">
12 <mail link="citizen428@gentoo.org">Michael Kohl</mail>
13 </author>
14 <author title="Author">
15 <mail link="angusyoung@gentoo.org">Otavio R. Piske</mail>
16 </author>
17 <author title="Author">
18 <mail link="ka0ttic@gentoo.org">Aaron Walker</mail>
19 </author>
21 <abstract>
22 This document gives some general information on FreeBSD, as well as
23 installation instructions for Gentoo/FreeBSD. It also includes some reference
24 for people interested in helping out with development.
25 </abstract>
27 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
28 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
29 <license/>
31 <version>1.9</version>
32 <date>2005-12-06</date>
34 <chapter>
35 <title>Introduction to FreeBSD</title>
36 <section>
37 <title>What is FreeBSD?</title>
38 <body>
40 <p>
41 <uri link="http://www.freebsd.org/">FreeBSD</uri> is a free (<uri
42 link="http://www.freebsd.org/copyright/freebsd-license.html">license</uri>)
43 Unix-like operating system. Back in 1993 when development of <uri
44 link="http://www.386bsd.org/">386BSD</uri> stopped, two projects were born:
45 <uri link="http://www.netbsd.org/">NetBSD</uri>, commonly known to run on a
46 huge number of architetures, and FreeBSD which focuses mainly on the x86
47 platform. FreeBSD is renowned for its stability, performance and security, thus
48 being used from small to huge companies all over the world. FreeBSD's current
49 production release version is 5.4, which is also used as the foundation for the
50 Gentoo/FreeBSD project.
51 </p>
53 </body>
54 </section>
55 <section>
56 <title>What is Gentoo/FreeBSD?</title>
57 <body>
59 <p>
60 Gentoo/FreeBSD is an effort to provide a fully-capable FreeBSD operating system
61 with Gentoo's design sensibilities. The long-term goal of the Gentoo/BSD project
62 is to allow users to choose any combination of *BSD or Linux kernels, *BSD or
63 GNU libc, and *BSD or GNU userland tools.
64 </p>
66 </body>
67 </section>
68 <section>
69 <title>FreeBSD and Linux</title>
70 <body>
72 <p>
73 Users migrating from Linux to FreeBSD commonly consider the two operating
74 systems "almost the same". In fact, FreeBSD really shares a lot of similarities
75 with Linux distributions in general. Nevertheless, it has some key differences
76 that are worth noting:
77 </p>
79 <ul>
80 <li>
81 Contrary to Linux, which actually only refers to the kernel, FreeBSD is a
82 complete operating system, consisting of a C library, userland tools and
83 much more. This development approach makes the overall system very
84 consistent.
85 </li>
86 <li>
87 Contrary to the Linux kernel, FreeBSD development is not led by one person,
88 but instead managed by a small group of people called the <uri
89 link="http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributors/staff-core.html">Core
90 Team</uri>.
91 </li>
92 </ul>
94 <p>
95 Besides, FreeBSD also has some technical differences which set it apart
96 from Linux. Some of them are very important to know, even if you don't plan on
97 joining the Gentoo/FreeBSD development effort:
98 </p>
100 <ul>
101 <li>
102 To get run-time dynamic linking functions like <c>dlopen()</c>, programs do
103 not need to be linked against libdl like on GNU/Linux. Instead they are
104 linked against libc.
105 </li>
106 <li>
107 FreeBSD doesn't have an official tool for kernel compilation, thus you'll
108 have to resolve feature dependencies on your own.
109 </li>
110 <li>
111 FreeBSD uses UFS/UFS-2 as its filesystems and has no official support for
112 e.g. ReiserFS or XFS. However, there are projects for adding read-only
113 support for these filesystems. Accessing ext2/ext3 partitions is already
114 possible, but you cannot install your system on them.
115 </li>
116 </ul>
118 </body>
119 </section>
120 </chapter>
122 <chapter>
123 <title>Installing Gentoo/FreeBSD</title>
124 <section>
125 <title>Installation instructions</title>
126 <body>
128 <p>
129 After this short introduction, it's about time to finally install
130 Gentoo/FreeBSD. Unfortunately, we currently lack our own installation media, so
131 you have to choose between two alternative installation methods. The first
132 would be to use an existing FreeBSD installation to partition your hard drive
133 and use it as a base for installing Gentoo/FreeBSD. Alternatively, you can also
134 use the excellent <uri link="http://www.freesbie.org/">FreeSBIE LiveCD</uri> as
135 an installation medium for Gentoo/FreeBSD.
136 </p>
138 <p>
139 Before you can begin with the installation, you have to setup a hard disk for
140 use with Gentoo/FreeBSD. This can either be done via <c>sysinstall</c>
141 (available from a current FreeBSD installation as well as from within FreeSBIE)
142 or by manually using the commands <c>fdisk</c>, <c>disklabel</c> and
143 <c>newfs</c>. If you have never set up a FreeBSD system before,
144 <c>sysinstall</c> may be the better option for you. If you face difficulties
145 while partitioning or formatting your hard disks, have a look at the great
146 <uri link="http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/">FreeBSD
147 Handbook</uri> or hop onto <c>#gentoo-bsd</c> on the Freenode IRC server.
148 </p>
150 <p>
151 Once you're done setting up your disks, you have to create a mount point for
152 your Gentoo/FreeBSD installation and mount all the necessary partitions.
153 </p>
155 <pre caption="Creating a mount point and mounting partitions">
156 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
157 <comment>(Replace X with the correct numbers for your hard disk.)</comment>
158 # <i>mount /dev/adXsXa /mnt/gentoo</i>
159 </pre>
161 <p>
162 Now that you have mounted the target partition, it is time to fetch and unpack
163 a stage3 tarball.
164 </p>
166 <pre caption="Obtaining and unpacking a stage3 tarball">
167 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/</i>
168 <comment>(Any other Gentoo mirror which includes the experimental/ directory will also work.)</comment>
169 # <i>wget http://gentoo.osuosl.org/experimental/x86/freebsd/stages/stage3-x86-fbsd-20051020.tar.bz2</i>
170 # <i>tar -jxvpf stage3-x86-fbsd-20051020.tar.bz2</i>
171 <comment>(You can delete the tarball with the following command if you want to.)</comment>
172 # <i>rm stage3-x86-fbsd-20051020.tar.bz2</i>
173 </pre>
175 <p>
176 Before chrooting into the newly-extracted stage, you first must obtain an up-to-date
177 copy of the Gentoo/FreeBSD overlay. The easiest way to achieve this is to to get our latest
178 snapshot which you then extract to <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr/local/portage</path>
179 </p>
181 <pre caption="Getting the Gentoo/FreeBSD Portage overlay">
182 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/usr/local/portage</i>
183 # <i>wget http://gentoo.osuosl.org/experimental/snapshots/portage-alt-overlay-latest.tar.bz2</i>
184 # <i>tar -xjf portage-alt-overlay-latest.tar.bz2</i>
185 <comment>(You now can safely delete the snapshot with the following command.)</comment>
186 # <i>rm portage-alt-overlay-latest.tar.bz2</i>
187 </pre>
189 <p>
190 Alternatively, you can also use Subversion to check out the current version of
191 the overlay. If you are interested in this possibility, please refer to the
192 <uri link="/proj/en/gentoo-alt/overlay.xml">Gentoo/ALT overlay
193 documentation</uri>.
194 </p>
196 <p>
197 In order for your install to work, you need to mount the <path>/dev</path>
198 filesystem from the currently running system into the Gentoo/FreeBSD mount
199 point before proceeding with the chroot.
200 </p>
202 <pre caption="Mounting the /dev filesystem and chrooting">
203 # <i>mount -t devfs none /mnt/gentoo/dev/</i>
204 # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc</i>
205 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo/ /bin/bash</i>
206 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
207 </pre>
209 <p>
210 After you got hold of the Gentoo/FreeBSD overlay, it's time to link
211 <path>/etc/make.profile</path> to the correct profile and add get your
212 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> ready for Gentoo/FreeBSD.
213 </p>
215 <pre caption="Setting up the profile and editing /etc/make.conf">
216 # <i>ln -sf /usr/local/portage/portage-alt-overlay/profiles/default-bsd/fbsd/5.4/x86/ /etc/make.profile</i>
217 <comment>(FreeBSD's standard editor is ee, which is used to edit /etc/make.conf)</comment>
218 # <i>ee /etc/make.conf</i>
219 <comment>(Please make sure you add at least the following entries:)</comment>
220 CHOST="i686-gentoo-freebsd5.4"
221 ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86-fbsd ~x86"
222 FEATURES="-sandbox collision-protect"
223 PORTDIR_OVERLAY="/usr/local/portage/portage-alt-overlay"
224 </pre>
226 <p>
227 In order to boot correctly, you will need to create the <path>/proc</path> directory.
228 </p>
230 <pre caption="Creating the /proc directory">
231 # <i>mkdir /proc</i>
232 </pre>
234 <p>
235 Now, you have to obtain a copy of the main Gentoo Portage tree, which depending
236 on your connection might take quite a while.
237 </p>
239 <pre caption="Obtaining the Portage tree">
240 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
241 <comment>(It's also possible to retrieve the Portage tree in another way:)</comment>
242 # <i>cd /</i>
243 # <i>wget http://gentoo.osuosl.org/snapshots/portage-latest.tar.bz2</i>
244 # <i>tar -xjf portage-latest.tar.bz2 -C /usr/</i>
245 # <i>emerge --metadata</i>
246 </pre>
248 <p>
249 If you want, you can now rebuild the system's core packages.
250 </p>
252 <pre caption="Rebuilding the FreeBSD core packages (Optional)">
253 # <i>emerge -e system</i>
254 </pre>
256 <p>
257 When you did <c>emerge -e system</c>, the sources for the FreeBSD kernel got
258 installed to <path>/usr/src/sys</path>. If you skipped this step, you can get
259 them in the following way:
260 </p>
262 <pre caption="Geting the FreeBSD kernel sources">
263 # <i>emerge freebsd-sources</i>
264 </pre>
266 <p>
267 Configuring and compiling a custom kernel is really different from compiling Linux,
268 so if you are not familiar with the process we encourage you to have a look at
269 <uri link="http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/kernelconfig.html">
270 chapter 8</uri> of the FreeBSD handbook.
271 </p>
273 <p>
274 Please note that currently only the "Traditional" way of building the kernel is
275 supported on Gentoo/FreeBSD! Also note that <c>make install</c> will probably
276 ask you for a <path>/boot/device.hints</path> file. A default version can be
277 found in the <path>conf</path> subdirectory of the <c>GENERIC</c> configuration
278 and is called <path>GENERIC.hints</path>
279 </p>
281 <p>
282 Now is the time to do some basic system configuration and settings. First, we are
283 going to setup the filesystem mounting points in <path>/etc/fstab</path>
284 </p>
286 <pre caption="Editing the filesystem in /etc/fstab">
287 # <i>ee /etc/fstab</i>
288 <comment>(This is an example, replace X and Y with the correct numbers for your hard disk.)</comment>
289 #Device Mountpoint Fstype Options Dump Pass
290 /dev/adXsYb none swap sw 0 0
291 /dev/adXsYa / ufs rw 1 1
292 /dev/adXsYe /usr/home ufs rw 2 2
293 /dev/adXsYd /tmp ufs rw 2 2
294 /dev/acdX /cdrom cd9660 ro,noauto 0 0
295 </pre>
297 <p>
298 Now would also be a good time to set up your network connection before the final
299 reboot.
300 </p>
302 <pre caption="Setting up your network">
303 # <i>ee /etc/conf.d/net</i>
304 <comment>(This is just an example which you have to adjust for your network.)</comment>
305 ifconfig_rl0=(" netmask broadcast")
306 routes_rl0=("-net -host")
307 </pre>
309 <p>
310 To change your hostname you have to edit <path>/etc/hostname</path>.
311 </p>
313 <pre caption="Setting up the machine's hostname">
314 # <i>echo "YOUR_HOSTNAME_HERE" > /etc/hostname</i>
315 </pre>
317 <p>
318 In case you need to use another keyboard layout for your language, you have to set the
319 correct value in <path>/etc/conf.d/syscons</path>. The following example uses the Spanish
320 layout, so you'll have to adjust it to your need if you want to use another one.
321 </p>
323 <pre caption="Changing your keyboard layout (Optional)">
324 # <i>ee /etc/conf.d/syscons</i>
325 KEYMAP="spanish.iso.acc"
326 <comment>(Possible layouts can be found in /usr/share/syscons/keymaps).</comment>
327 </pre>
329 <impo>
330 Please make absolutely sure you add your new Gentoo/FreeBSD installation to the
331 configuration of your bootloader, otherwise you won't be able to boot your newly
332 installed system! If you don't have another bootloader installed, you should use
333 <c>boot0</c>, as it is currently the only one supported by FreeBSD. In this case
334 please don't forget to use your other operating systems to <c>boot0</c>'s
335 configuration.
336 </impo>
338 <pre caption="Installing and setting up boot0">
339 # <i>emerge boot0</i>
340 <comment>(Leave the chroot environment)</comment>
341 # <i>exit</i>
342 <comment>(Issued from outside the chroot)</comment>
343 # <i>fdisk -b -B /mnt/gentoo/boot/boot0 /dev/adX</i>
344 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
345 # <i>disklabel -B adXsY</i>
346 </pre>
348 <p>
349 If you need additonal information on setting up <c>boot0</c>, please consult
350 <uri link="http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/boot.html">
351 chapter 12</uri> of the FreeBSD handbook.
352 </p>
354 <p>
355 Now would be a good time to set a password for the <c>root</c> user and to add
356 another user account for your day-to-day work.
357 </p>
359 <pre caption="Changing the root password and adding a new user">
360 # <i>passwd</i>
361 <comment>(If you need help in adding a user please consult the FreeBSD handbook).</comment>
362 # <i>adduser</i>
363 </pre>
365 <p>
366 Congratulations, you have just finished your Gentoo/FreeBSD installation which you
367 can start exploring after the final reboot. Have fun!
368 </p>
370 <pre caption="Rebooting the system">
371 # <i>exit</i>
372 # <i>reboot</i>
373 </pre>
375 </body>
376 </section>
377 </chapter>
379 <chapter>
380 <title>Developing for Gentoo/FreeBSD</title>
381 <section>
382 <title>How to help</title>
383 <body>
385 <p>
386 There are many things you could help with, depending on your skill level and
387 spare time:
388 </p>
390 <ul>
391 <li>
392 We need GCC and binutils hackers who are able to port FreeBSD's patches to
393 the original versions of these tools provided by our main Portage tree.
394 </li>
395 <li>
396 Working on current ebuilds: this means working closely with ebuild maintainers
397 in order to create patches or modify ebuilds in a way that can be accepted
398 into the main tree.
399 </li>
400 <li>
401 Security: if you are into security, we need you! Although security
402 advisories from the FreeBSD project are tracked and fixed, we can always
403 use help in this area.
404 </li>
405 <li>
406 Contacts: we need people who can get in touch with FreeBSD developers to
407 maintain contacts between us and the original project to exchange patches
408 and discuss various problems and their solutions. Note that this should
409 never involve any kind of spamming of mailing lists or IRC channels.
410 </li>
411 <li>
412 Testing: the more people are actively using Gentoo/FreeBSD, the more bugs
413 will be discovered, which helps us improving the quality of the port. If
414 you are good at describing bugs or problems, we definitely want to hear
415 from you.
416 </li>
417 <li>
418 Other areas where we need help include: system ebuilds, baselayout,
419 creation of installation CDs, documentation, kernel hacking.
420 </li>
421 </ul>
423 </body>
424 </section>
425 <section>
426 <title>Building the system and dealing with issues</title>
427 <body>
429 <p>
430 Although Linux and FreeBSD both are Unix-like operating systems, there are some
431 important differences you have to know about if you want to contribute to our
432 development effort:
433 </p>
435 <ul>
436 <li>
437 FreeBSD doesn't use the GNU autotools (autoconf, automake, autoheader).
438 Instead, it uses its own implementation of <c>make</c>, putting
439 configuration options in external files and some .mk files that are
440 included with each Makefile. Although a lot of work has been put into
441 those .mk files, it is not hard to find some installations failing due to
442 a missing <c>${INSTALL}&nbsp;-d</c> somewhere. The easy way to deal with
443 this kind of problem is to read the Makefile to find the accompanying .mk
444 file, then open that file and try to figure out which part failed (this is
445 not really hard once you figure out where in the installation process it
446 stopped).
447 </li>
448 <li>
449 Besides, due to the fact that FreeBSD is a complete operating system, you
450 won't find things like a FreeBSD kernel tarball for download on a web site.
451 The system is meant to be concise, thus whenever you start making an ebuild
452 for something that uses system sources, you are very likely to run into
453 problems when it tries to access non-existent files or directories. This
454 generally occurs when a Makefile points to <path>${.CURDIR}/../sys</path>,
455 or when a Makefile has a source dependency on another system package. There
456 is no default rule on dealing with such issues, but generally one of the
457 following procedures helps:
458 <ul>
459 <li>
460 If the ebuild is trying to access kernel sources, patch it to point to
461 <path>/usr/src/sys</path>
462 </li>
463 <li>
464 If it's trying to access some other source that is provided by the
465 system, it's easier to add it to <c>$SRC_URI</c> and unpack it to
466 <c>$WORKDIR</c>
467 </li>
468 </ul>
469 </li>
470 <li>
471 In order to maintain a concise buildsystem, we have several tarballs which
472 are grouped by their functionality. This means that system libraries can be
473 found in the freebsd-lib tarball, which contains the sources you would
474 usually find in /usr/src/lib. On the other hand, freebsd-usrsbin contains
475 <path>/usr/sbin/*</path> tools and consists of sources from
476 <path>/usr/src/usr.sbin</path>.
477 </li>
478 </ul>
480 </body>
481 </section>
482 <section>
483 <title>Known issues</title>
484 <body>
486 <p>
487 At the moment, there are still quite a lot of known issues. Here are the ones
488 really worth noting:
489 </p>
491 <ul>
492 <li>
493 Some init scripts depend on the clock service which we don't provide right
494 now. You can just remove it from the dependencies of the script and report
495 that on our <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/">bugzilla</uri>. Please
496 remember to use the "Gentoo BSD" product for your submission.
497 </li>
498 <li>glib and gnome in general need a lot of fixes to be backported.</li>
499 </ul>
501 </body>
502 </section>
503 </chapter>
505 <chapter>
506 <title>Contact</title>
507 <section>
508 <body>
510 <p>
511 A list of Gentoo/FreeBSD developers can be found at the <uri
512 link="/proj/en/gentoo-alt/bsd/fbsd/">project page</uri>. Other ways to contact
513 Gentoo/FreeBSD developers include our IRC Channel <c>#gentoo-bsd</c> on
514 Freenode, as well as the <uri link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-bsd mailing
515 list</uri>.
516 </p>
518 </body>
519 </section>
520 </chapter>
521 </guide>

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