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1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">
4 <title>Gentoo Linux 1.4 Installation Instructions</title>
5 <author title="Chief Architect">
6 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
7 </author>
8 <author title="Author">Chris Houser</author>
9 <author title="Author">Jerry Alexandratos</author>
10 <author title="Ghost">
11 <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor">
14 <mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail>
15 </author>
16 <author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="Pierre-Henri.Jondot@wanadoo.fr">Pierre-Henri Jondot</mail>
18 </author>
19 <author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
21 </author>
22 <author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="rajiv@gentoo.org">Rajiv Manglani</mail>
24 </author>
25 <author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="seo@gentoo.org">Jungmin Seo</mail>
27 </author>
28 <author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
30 </author>
31 <author title="Editor">
32 <mail link="jhhudso@gentoo.org">Jared Hudson</mail>
33 </author>
34 <author title="Editor">Colin Morey</author>
35 <author title="Editor">
36 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
37 </author>
38 <author title="Editor">
39 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
40 </author>
41 <author title="Editor, Reviewer">
42 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
43 </author>
44 <author title="Editor">
45 <mail link="avenj@gentoo.org">Jon Portnoy</mail>
46 </author>
47 <author title="Editor">
48 <mail link="klasikahl@gentoo.org">Zack Gilburd</mail>
49 </author>
50 <author title="Reviewer">
51 <mail link="gerrynjr@gentoo.org">Gerald J. Normandin Jr.</mail>
52 </author>
53 <author title="Reviewer">
54 <mail link="spyderous@gentoo.org">Donnie Berkholz</mail>
55 </author>
57 <abstract>
58 These instructions step you through the process of installing Gentoo
59 Linux 1.4, release version (not _rc versions). The Gentoo Linux installation
60 process supports various installation approaches, depending upon how much of
61 the system you want to custom-build from scratch.
62 </abstract>
64 <license/>
66 <version>2.6.4</version>
67 <date>8th of August 2003</date>
69 <chapter>
70 <title>About the Install</title>
71 <section>
72 <body>
74 <p>
75 First, if you are new to this, welcome to Gentoo Linux! Gentoo
76 Linux can be installed in many different ways. Those who are looking
77 for a rapid install can use pre-built packages, while those who want
78 the ultimate in customizability can compile Gentoo Linux entirely
79 from the original source code. The method you choose is up to
80 you.
81 </p>
83 <p>
84 One significant change in relation to the official 1.4 release is
85 our new 2-CD installation set, which can be ordered from <uri
86 link="http://store.gentoo.org">The Gentoo Linux Store</uri>, in
87 addition to being available on our mirrors. We currently have 2-CD
88 installation sets for x86 (486 and above), i686 (Pentium Pro,
89 Pentium II, Athlon/Duron and above), Pentium III, Pentium 4 and Athlon XP.
90 To see what 2-CD set is right for you, read the detailed
91 descriptions of each product in the <uri
92 link="http://store.gentoo.org">store</uri>. The store descriptions
93 contain fairly comprehensive CPU compatibility information.
94 </p>
96 <p>So, about the 2 CD set -- here's what's on each CD. The first
97 CD ("CD 1") is called "Live CD Installation" and is a bootable CD-ROM,
98 meaning that you can put "CD 1" in your drive and run Gentoo Linux
99 directly from the CD. You can then use this CD-based version of
100 Gentoo to install Gentoo Linux 1.4 to your hard disk. In addition
101 to containing a bootable Gentoo Linux environment, CD 1
102 contains everything you need to install Gentoo Linux quickly, even
103 without a connection to the Internet. In addition, several
104 pre-compiled packages are also included on CD 1, such as the
105 ever-important XFree86 X server. If you have an ISO CD-ROM image
106 file for CD 1, its name will end in "<path>-cd1.iso</path>".
107 </p>
109 <p>
110 In contrast, the second CD ("CD 2") isn't bootable and contains
111 lots of pre-built packages for your system. Included on this CD are
112 optimized versions of packages such as KDE, GNOME, OpenOffice,
113 Mozilla, Evolution and others. CD 2 is <e>optional</e> and is
114 intended for those people who are interested in installing Gentoo
115 Linux very quickly. The packages included on CD 2 typically take
116 about 36 hours to compile from source on a typical modern
117 single-processor system. If you have an ISO CD-ROM image file for CD
118 2, its name will end in "<path>-cd2.iso</path>".
119 </p>
121 <note>
122 A complete Gentoo Linux 2-CD set contains the Gentoo Reference
123 Platform, which is a complete pre-built Gentoo Linux system including GNOME,
124 KDE, Mozilla and OpenOffice. The Gentoo Reference Platform ("GRP")
125 was created to allow rapid Gentoo Linux package installations
126 for those who need this capability. The "compile from
127 source" functionality, which is the cornerstone of Gentoo Linux,
128 will always be a fully-supported installation option as well. The
129 purpose of the GRP is to make Gentoo Linux more convenient for some
130 users, without impacting Gentoo's powerful "compile from source"
131 installation process in any way.
132 </note>
134 <p>
135 In addition to our 2-CD set, we also have a very small "basic"
136 Live CD that you can use to boot your system. Once your system has
137 booted, you can configure a connection to the Internet and then
138 install Gentoo over the network. The advantage of this "basic" CD is
139 that it is small and thus the ISO CD-ROM image file can be
140 downloaded quickly. If you're an advanced user who wants to install
141 the most up-to-date version of Gentoo Linux available and have a
142 fast network connection, then you may prefer this option. If you
143 have an ISO CD-ROM image file for our "basic" Live CD, its name will
144 end in "<path>-basic.iso</path>".
145 </p>
147 <p>
148 To use any Gentoo Linux CD-based installation method, you will
149 need to have a 486+ processor and ideally at least 64 Megabytes of
150 RAM. (Gentoo Linux has been successfully built with 64MB of RAM +
151 64MB of swap space, but the build process is awfully slow under
152 those conditions.)
153 </p>
155 <p>
156 Once you boot one of our Live CDs, you have even more options.
157 Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three &quot;stage&quot;
158 tarball files. The one you choose depends on how much of the system
159 you want to compile yourself. The stage1 tarball is used when you
160 want to bootstrap and build the entire system from scratch. The
161 stage2 tarball is used for building the entire system from a
162 bootstrapped "semi-compiled" state. The stage3 tarball already
163 contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has been built for
164 you. If you are interested in doing a "GRP" install, then the
165 stage3 tarball should be used.
166 </p>
168 <p>
169 <b>If you're not doing a GRP install, should you start from a stage1, stage2, or
170 stage3 tarball?</b> Here is some information that should help you
171 make this decision.
172 </p>
174 <p>
175 Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total
176 control over the optimization settings and optional build-time
177 functionality that is initially enabled on your system. This makes
178 stage1 installs good for power users who know what they are doing.
179 It is also a great installation method for those who would like to
180 know more about the inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
181 </p>
183 <p>
184 Stage2 installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process and doing
185 this is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we
186 chose for your particular stage2 tarball.
187 </p>
189 <p>
190 And choosing to go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
191 Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
192 settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings and were
193 carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
194 stability). Since major releases of Gentoo Linux have stage3's
195 specifically optimized for various popular processors, starting
196 from a stage3 can offer the best of all worlds -- a fast install
197 and a system that is well-optimized.
198 </p>
200 <p>
201 <b>If you're installing Gentoo Linux for the first time, consider using a
202 stage3 tarball for installation, or a stage3 with GRP.</b>
203 </p>
205 <note>
206 <b>Advanced users:</b> If you use a stage3 install, you should not
207 change the default CHOST setting in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If you need
208 to make such a change, you should start with a stage1 tarball and build up
209 your system with the desired CHOST setting. The CHOST setting
210 typically looks something like this: <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c>.
211 </note>
213 <impo>
214 If you encounter a problem with any part of the install and wish to
215 report it as a bug, report it to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. If the bug
216 needs to be sent upstream to the original software developers (e.g. the KDE
217 team) the <e>Gentoo Linux developers</e> will take care of that for you.
218 </impo>
220 <note>
221 The installation instructions in the LiveCD may not be as up-to-date as our
222 Web documentation at <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</uri>.
223 Refer to our Web documentation for the most up-to-date installation
224 instructions.
225 </note>
227 <p>
228 Now, let us quickly review the install process. First, we will download, burn
229 CD(s) and boot a LiveCD. After getting a root prompt, we will create
230 partitions, create our filesystems and extract either a stage1, stage2 or
231 stage3 tarball. If we are using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, we will take
232 the appropriate steps to get our system to stage3. Once our system is at
233 stage3, we can configure it (customize configuration files, install a boot
234 loader, etc.), boot it and have a fully-functional Gentoo Linux system. After
235 your basic Gentoo Linux system is running, you can optionally use "CD 2" of
236 our 2-CD set and install any number of pre-built packages such as KDE, GNOME,
237 OpenOffice, Mozilla, or others that you'd like on your system.
238 </p>
240 <p>
241 Depending on what stage of the build process you're starting from, here is
242 what is required for installation:
243 </p>
245 <table>
246 <tr>
247 <th>Stage Tarball</th>
248 <th>Internet Access Required</th>
249 <th>Media Required</th>
250 <th>Steps</th>
251 </tr>
252 <tr>
253 <ti>1</ti>
254 <ti>Yes</ti>
255 <ti><e>basic</e> or <e>CD 1</e></ti>
256 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, bootstrap, emerge system, final config</ti>
257 </tr>
258 <tr>
259 <ti>2</ti>
260 <ti>Yes</ti>
261 <ti><e>basic</e> or <e>CD 1</e></ti>
262 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync, emerge system, final config</ti>
263 </tr>
264 <tr>
265 <ti>3</ti>
266 <ti>No if using <e>CD 1</e>, Yes otherwise</ti>
267 <ti><e>basic</e> or <e>CD 1</e></ti>
268 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, emerge sync (not required if using <e>CD 1</e>), final config</ti>
269 </tr>
270 <tr>
271 <ti>3+GRP</ti>
272 <ti>No</ti>
273 <ti><e>CD 1</e>, <e>CD 2</e> optionally</ti>
274 <ti>partition/filesystem setup, final config, install CD 1 pre-built packages (optional), reboot, install extra pre-built packages like KDE and GNOME (if using "CD 2")</ti>
275 </tr>
276 </table>
278 <note>
279 Hardware ATA RAID users should read the section about ATA RAID on the bottom
280 of this document before proceeding.
281 </note>
283 </body>
284 </section>
285 </chapter>
287 <chapter>
288 <title>Booting</title>
289 <section>
290 <body>
292 <warn>
293 Read this whole section before proceeding, especially the available boot
294 options. Ignoring this could lead to wrong keyboard settings, unstarted
295 pcmcia services etc..
296 </warn>
298 <p>
299 Start by booting your Live CD of choice. You should see a fancy
300 boot screen with the Gentoo Linux logo on it. At this screen, you
301 can hit Enter to begin the boot process, or boot the LiveCD with
302 custom boot options by specifying a kernel followed by boot options
303 and then hitting Enter. For example: <c>gentoo nousb nohotplug</c>.
304 If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with more than one
305 processor ("SMP"), then you should type <c>smp</c> instead of
306 <c>gentoo</c> at the prompt. This will allow the LiveCD to see all
307 the processors in your system, not just the first one.
308 </p>
310 <p>
311 Consult the following table for a partial list of available kernels and
312 options or press F2 and F3 to view the help screens.
313 </p>
315 <table>
316 <tr><th>Available kernels</th><th>Description</th></tr>
317 <tr><ti>gentoo</ti><ti>standard gentoo kernel (default)</ti></tr>
318 <tr><ti>nofb</ti><ti>framebuffer mode disabled</ti></tr>
319 <tr><ti>smp</ti><ti>loads a smp kernel in noframebuffer mode</ti></tr>
320 <tr><ti>acpi</ti><ti>enables acpi=on + loads acpi modules during init</ti></tr>
321 <tr><ti>memtest</ti><ti>boots the memory testing program</ti></tr>
322 </table>
324 <table>
325 <tr><th>Available boot options</th><th>Description</th></tr>
326 <tr><ti>doataraid</ti><ti>loads ide raid modules from initrd</ti></tr>
327 <tr><ti>dofirewire</ti><ti>modprobes firewire modules in initrd (for firewire cdroms,etc.)</ti></tr>
328 <tr><ti>dokeymap</ti><ti>enable keymap selection for non-us keyboard layouts</ti></tr>
329 <tr><ti>dopcmcia</ti><ti>starts pcmcia service</ti></tr>
330 <tr><ti>doscsi</ti><ti>scan for scsi devices (breaks some ethernet cards)</ti></tr>
331 <tr><ti>noapm</ti><ti>disables apm module load</ti></tr>
332 <tr><ti>nodetect</ti><ti>causes hwsetup/kudzu and hotplug not to run</ti></tr>
333 <tr><ti>nodhcp</ti><ti>dhcp does not automatically start if nic detected</ti></tr>
334 <tr><ti>nohotplug</ti><ti>disables loading hotplug service</ti></tr>
335 <tr><ti>noraid</ti><ti>disables loading of evms modules</ti></tr>
336 <tr><ti>nousb</ti><ti>disables usb module load from initrd, disables hotplug</ti></tr>
337 <tr><ti>ide=nodma</ti><ti>force disabling of dma for malfunctioning ide devices</ti></tr>
338 <tr><ti>cdcache</ti><ti>cache the entire runtime portion of cd in ram. This uses 40mb of RAM, but allows you to umount <path>/mnt/cdrom</path> and mount another cdrom</ti></tr>
339 </table>
341 <p>
342 Once you hit Enter, you will be greeted with an even fancier boot
343 screen and progress bar.
344 </p>
346 <!--
347 <figure link="/images/install/livecd-1.4-boot.png" caption="The Gentoo
348 Linux Live CD booting" />
349 -->
351 <p>
352 Once the boot process completes, you will be automatically logged in
353 to the "Live" Gentoo Linux as "<e>root</e>", the "super user". You should
354 have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
355 to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one
356 you started on by pressing Alt-F1.
357 </p>
359 <!--
361 <figure link="/images/install/livecd-1.4-con.png" caption="The Gentoo
362 Linux Live CD console" />
363 -->
365 <note>
366 <b>Advanced users:</b> When the Live CD boots, the Live CD root password is
367 set to a random string for security purposes. If you plan to start
368 <c>sshd</c> to allow remote logins to your Live CD, you should set the Live
369 CD root password now by typing <c>passwd</c> and following the prompts.
370 Otherwise, you will not know the proper password for logging into the Live
371 CD over the network.
372 </note>
374 <p>
375 You've probably also noticed that above your # prompt is a bunch of
376 help text that explains how to do things like configure your Linux networking
377 and telling you where you can find the Gentoo Linux stage tarballs and packages
378 on your CD.
379 </p>
381 </body>
382 </section>
383 </chapter>
385 <chapter>
386 <title>Optional hardware configuration</title>
387 <section>
388 <body>
390 <p>
391 When the Live CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware
392 devices and loads the appropiate kernel modules to support your
393 hardware. In the vast majority of cases, it does a very good job.
394 However, in some cases, it may not auto-load the kernel modules
395 you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's hardware, you
396 will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
397 To view a list of all available network card modules, type <c>ls
398 /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net/*</c>. To load a particular module,
399 type:
400 </p>
402 <pre caption="PCI Modules Configuration">
403 # <i>modprobe pcnet32</i>
404 <comment>(replace pcnet32 with your NIC module)</comment>
405 </pre>
407 <p>
408 Likewise, if you want to be able to access any SCSI hardware that wasn't
409 detected during the initial boot autodetection process, you will need to
410 load the appropriate modules from <path>/lib/modules</path>, again using
411 <c>modprobe</c>:
412 </p>
414 <pre caption="Loading SCSI Modules">
415 # <i>modprobe aic7xxx</i>
416 <comment>(replace aic7xxx with your SCSI adapter module)</comment>
417 # <i>modprobe sd_mod</i>
418 <comment>(sd_mod is the module for SCSI disk support)</comment>
419 </pre>
421 <note>
422 Support for SCSI CD-ROMs and disks are built-in in the kernel.
423 </note>
425 <note>
426 <b>Advanced users:</b> The Gentoo LiveCD should have enabled DMA
427 on your disks so that disk transfers are as fast as possible, but if it did not,
428 <c>hdparm</c> can be used to set DMA on your drives as follows:
429 <pre caption="Setting DMA">
430 <comment>(Replace hdX with your disk device)</comment>
431 # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hdX</i>
432 <comment>(Enables DMA)</comment>
433 # <i>hdparm -d1 -A1 -m16 -u1 -a64 /dev/hdX</i>
434 <comment>(Enables DMA and other safe performance-enhancing options)</comment>
435 # <i>hdparm -X66 /dev/hdX</i>
436 <comment>(Force-enables Ultra-DMA -- dangerous -- may cause some drives to mess up)</comment>
437 </pre>
438 </note>
441 </body>
442 </section>
443 </chapter>
444 <chapter>
445 <title>Optional Networking configuration</title>
446 <section>
447 <title>Maybe it just works?</title>
448 <body>
450 <p>
451 If your system is plugged into an Ethernet network, it is very
452 likely that your networking configuration has already been
453 set up automatically for you. If so, you should be able to take advantage of
454 the many included network-aware commands on the LiveCD such as <c>ssh</c>,
455 <c>scp</c>, <c>ping</c>, <c>irssi</c>, <c>wget</c> and <c>lynx</c>, among
456 others.
457 </p>
459 <p>
460 If networking has been configured for you, the <c>/sbin/ifconfig</c> command
461 should list some internet interfaces besides lo, such as eth0:
462 </p>
464 <pre caption="/sbin/ifconfig for a working network card">
465 eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:BA:8F:61:7A
466 inet addr: Bcast: Mask:
467 inet6 addr: fe80::50:ba8f:617a/10 Scope:Link
469 RX packets:1498792 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
470 TX packets:1284980 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
471 collisions:1984 txqueuelen:100
472 RX bytes:485691215 (463.1 Mb) TX bytes:123951388 (118.2 Mb)
473 Interrupt:11 Base address:0xe800
474 </pre>
476 <p>
477 You may want to also try pinging your ISP's DNS server (found in
478 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>) and a Web site of choice, just to make sure
479 that your packets are reaching the net, DNS name resolution is working
480 correctly, etc..
481 </p>
483 <pre caption="Further Network Testing">
484 # <i>ping -c 3 www.yahoo.com</i>
485 </pre>
487 <p>
488 Are you able to use your network? If so, you can skip the rest of this
489 section.
490 </p>
492 </body>
493 </section>
494 <section>
495 <title>PPPoE configuration</title>
496 <body>
498 <p>
499 Assuming you need PPPoE to connect to the internet, the LiveCD (any version)
500 has made things easy for you by including <c>rp-pppoe</c>. Use the provided
501 <c>adsl-setup</c> script to configure your connection. You will be prompted
502 for the ethernet device that is connected to your adsl modem, your username
503 and password, the IPs of your DNS servers and if you need a basic firewall
504 or not.
505 </p>
507 <pre caption="Configuring PPPoE">
508 # <i> adsl-setup </i>
509 # <i> adsl-start </i>
510 </pre>
512 <p>
513 If something goes wrong, double-check that you correctly typed your username
514 and password by looking at <path>/etc/ppp/pap-secrets</path> or
515 <path>/etc/ppp/chap-secrets</path> and make sure you are using the right
516 ethernet device.
517 </p>
519 </body>
520 </section>
522 <section>
523 <title>Automatic Network Configuration </title>
524 <body>
526 <p>
527 The simplest way to set up networking if it didn't get configured
528 automatically is to run the <c>net-setup</c> script:
529 </p>
531 <pre caption="Net-Setup Script">
532 # <i>net-setup eth0</i>
533 </pre>
535 <p>
536 Of course, if you prefer, you may still set up networking manually. This is
537 covered next.
538 </p>
540 </body>
541 </section>
542 <section>
543 <title>Manual DHCP Configuration</title>
544 <body>
546 <p>
547 Network configuration is simple with DHCP; If your ISP is not using
548 DHCP, skip down to the static configuration section below.
549 </p>
551 <pre caption="Network configuration with DHCP">
552 # <i>dhcpcd eth0</i>
553 </pre>
555 <note>
556 Some ISPs require you to provide a hostname. To do that, add a
557 <c>-h myhostname</c> flag to the dhcpcd command line above.
558 </note>
560 <p>
561 If you receive <e>dhcpConfig</e> warnings, don't panic; the errors are most
562 likely cosmetic. Skip down to Network testing below.
563 </p>
565 </body>
566 </section>
567 <section>
568 <title>Manual Static Configuration</title>
569 <body>
571 <p>
572 We need to setup just enough networking so that we can download sources for
573 the system build, as well as the required localhost interface. The needed
574 information is explained in the next table.
575 </p>
577 <table>
578 <tr><th>Information</th><th>Description</th><th>Example value</th></tr>
579 <tr><ti>IP address</ti><ti>The IP address you want to assign to your network card</ti><ti></ti></tr>
580 <tr><ti>Broadcast address</ti><ti>The IP address which will broadcast the packets to all the hosts in the network</ti><ti></ti></tr>
581 <tr><ti>Network mask</ti><ti>The mask which is used together with the IP address to see what part of the address is for network-identification and host-identification</ti><ti></ti></tr>
582 <tr><ti>Gateway</ti><ti>The IP address of the computer which will forward the packets that are not meant for the local network (most of the time the computer which shares the internet connection)</ti><ti></ti></tr>
583 </table>
585 <p>
586 Type in the following commands, replacing <c>$IFACE</c> with your network
587 interface (typically <c>eth0</c>), <c>$IPNUM</c> with your IP address,
588 <c>$BCAST</c> with your broadcast address and <c>$NMASK</c> with your network
589 mask. For the <c>route</c> command, replace <c>$GTWAY</c> with your default
590 gateway.
591 </p>
593 <pre caption="Static IP Network Configuration">
594 # <i>ifconfig $IFACE $IPNUM broadcast $BCAST netmask $NMASK</i>
595 # <i>route add -net default gw $GTWAY netmask metric 1 $IFACE</i>
596 </pre>
598 <p>
599 Now it is time to create the <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> file so that name
600 resolution (finding Web/FTP sites by name, rather than just by IP address)
601 will work. You can use <c>nano -w /etc/resolv.conf</c> to create
602 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. <c>nano</c> is a small and easy-to-use
603 editor.
604 </p>
606 <p>
607 Here is a template to follow for creating your <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>
608 file:
609 </p>
611 <pre caption="/etc/resolv.conf template">
612 domain mydomain.com
613 nameserver
614 nameserver
615 </pre>
617 <p>
618 Replace <c></c> and <c></c> with the IP addresses of your
619 primary and secondary DNS servers respectively.
620 </p>
622 </body>
623 </section>
625 <section>
626 <title>Proxy Configuration</title>
627 <body>
629 <p>
630 If you are behind a proxy, it could be necessary to configure your proxy
631 before you continue. We will export some variables to set up the proxy
632 accordingly.
633 </p>
635 <pre caption="Setting a Proxy">
636 <comment>If the proxy restricts HTTP traffic:</comment>
637 # <i>export http_proxy="machine.company.com:1234"</i>
638 <comment>If the proxy restricts FTP traffic:</comment>
639 # <i>export ftp_proxy="machine.company.com"</i>
640 <comment>If the proxy restricts RSYNC traffic:</comment>
641 # <i>export RSYNC_PROXY="machine.company.com"</i>
642 </pre>
644 </body>
645 </section>
647 <section>
648 <title>Networking is go!</title>
649 <body>
651 <p>
652 Networking should now be configured and usable. You should be able to use the
653 included <c>ssh</c>, <c>scp</c>, <c>lynx</c>, <c>irssi</c> and <c>wget</c>
654 commands to connect to other machines on your LAN or the Internet.
655 </p>
657 </body>
658 </section>
659 </chapter>
661 <chapter>
662 <title>Setting your system's date and time</title>
663 <section>
664 <body>
666 <p>
667 Now you need to set your system's date and time. You can do this using the
668 <c>date</c> command.
669 </p>
671 <pre caption="Setting your system's date">
672 # <i>date</i>
673 Thu Feb 27 09:04:42 CST 2003
674 <comment>(If your date is wrong, set your date with this next command)</comment>
675 # <i>date 022709042003</i>
676 <comment>(date MMDDhhmmCCYY)</comment>
677 </pre>
679 </body>
680 </section>
681 </chapter>
683 <chapter>
684 <title>Filesystems, partitions and block devices</title>
685 <section>
686 <title>Introduction to block devices</title>
687 <body>
689 <p>
690 In this section, we'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo
691 Linux and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block
692 devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
693 filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions
694 and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux installation.
695 </p>
697 <p>
698 To begin, I'll introduce "block devices". The most famous block device is
699 probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system:
700 </p>
702 <pre caption="/dev/hda, the block device representing the primary master IDE drive in your system">
703 /dev/hda
704 </pre>
706 <p>
707 If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard drive will be:
708 </p>
710 <pre caption="/dev/sda, the block device representing the first logical SCSI drive in your system">
711 /dev/sda
712 </pre>
714 <p>
715 The block devices above represent an <e>abstract</e> interface to the disk.
716 User programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without
717 worrying about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The
718 program can simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
719 randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
720 </p>
722 </body>
723 </section>
724 <section>
725 <title>Partitions and fdisk</title>
726 <body>
728 <p>
729 Under Linux, we create filesystems by using a special command called
730 <c>mkfs</c> (or <c>mke2fs</c>, <c>mkreiserfs</c>, etc.), specifying a particular
731 block device as a command-line argument.
732 </p>
734 <p>
735 However, although it is theoretically possible to use a "whole disk" block
736 device (one that represents the <e>entire</e> disk) like <path>/dev/hda</path>
737 or <path>/dev/sda</path> to house a single filesystem, this is almost never
738 done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices are split up into smaller,
739 more manageable block devices called "partitions". Partitions are created
740 using a tool called <c>fdisk</c>, which is used to create and edit the
741 partition table that's stored on each disk. The partition table defines
742 exactly how to split up the full disk.
743 </p>
745 <p>
746 We can take a look at a disk's partition table by running <c>fdisk</c>,
747 specifying a block device that represents a full disk as an argument:
748 </p>
750 <note>
751 Alternate interfaces to the disk's partition table include <c>cfdisk</c>,
752 <c>parted</c> and <c>partimage</c>. We recommend <c>fdisk</c> because it's
753 more powerful and well known in the Unix/Linux world.
754 </note>
756 <pre caption="Starting up fdisk">
757 # <i>fdisk /dev/hda</i>
758 </pre>
760 <p>
761 or
762 </p>
764 <pre caption="Starting up fdisk to look at the partition table on /dev/sda">
765 # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
766 </pre>
768 <impo>
769 Note that you should <e>not</e> save or make any changes to a disk's
770 partition table if any of its partitions contain filesystems that are in use or
771 contain important data. Doing so will generally cause data on the disk to be
772 lost.
773 </impo>
775 <p>
776 Once in <c>fdisk</c>, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like this:
777 </p>
779 <pre caption="The fdisk prompt">
780 Command (m for help):
781 </pre>
783 <p>
784 Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
785 </p>
787 <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
788 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
790 Disk /dev/hda: 240 heads, 63 sectors, 2184 cylinders
791 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 bytes
793 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
794 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
795 /dev/hda2 15 49 264600 82 Linux swap
796 /dev/hda3 50 70 158760 83 Linux
797 /dev/hda4 71 2184 15981840 5 Extended
798 /dev/hda5 71 209 1050808+ 83 Linux
799 /dev/hda6 210 348 1050808+ 83 Linux
800 /dev/hda7 349 626 2101648+ 83 Linux
801 /dev/hda8 627 904 2101648+ 83 Linux
802 /dev/hda9 905 2184 9676768+ 83 Linux
804 Command (m for help):
805 </pre>
807 <p>
808 This particular disk is configured to house seven Linux filesystems (each
809 with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a swap partition
810 (listed as "Linux swap").
811 </p>
813 <p>
814 Notice the name of the corresponding partition block
815 devices on the left hand side, starting with <path>/dev/hda1</path> and going
816 up to <path>/dev/hda9</path>. In the early days of the PC, partitioning
817 software only allowed a maximum of four partitions (called "primary"
818 partitions). This was too limiting, so a workaround called <e>extended
819 partitioning</e> was created. An extended partition is very similar to a
820 primary partition and counts towards the primary partition limit of four.
821 However, extended partitions can hold any number of so-called <e>logical</e>
822 partitions inside them, providing an effective means of working around the
823 four partition limit.
824 </p>
826 <p>
827 All partitions <path>/dev/hda5</path> and higher are logical partitions.
828 The numbers 1 through 4 are reserved for primary or extended partitions.
829 </p>
831 <p>
832 So, In our example, <path>/dev/hda1</path> through <path>/dev/hda3</path> are
833 primary partitions. <path>/dev/hda4</path> is an extended partition that
834 contains logical partitions <path>/dev/hda5</path> through
835 <path>/dev/hda9</path>. You would never actually <e>use</e>
836 <path>/dev/hda4</path> for storing any filesystems directly -- it simply
837 acts as a container for partitions <path>/dev/hda5</path> through
838 <path>/dev/hda9</path>.
839 </p>
841 <p>
842 Also, notice that each partition has an "Id", also called a "partition
843 type". Whenever you create a new partition, you should ensure that the
844 partition type is set correctly. '83' is the correct partition type for
845 partitions that will be housing Linux filesystems, '82' is the correct
846 partition type for Linux swap partitions and 'fd' is the recommended partition
847 type for Software RAID partitions. You set the partition type using the
848 <c>t</c> option in <c>fdisk</c>. The Linux kernel uses the partition type
849 setting to auto-detect filesystems and swap devices on the disk at boot-time.
850 </p>
852 </body>
853 </section>
855 <section>
856 <title>Using fdisk to set up partitions</title>
857 <body>
859 <p>
860 Now that you've had your introduction to the way disk partitioning is
861 done under Linux, it's time to walk you through the process of setting up disk
862 partitions for your Gentoo Linux installation. After we walk you through the
863 process of creating partitions on your disk, your partition configuration will
864 look like this:
865 </p>
867 <pre caption="The partition configuration that you will have after following these steps">
868 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
869 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
870 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
872 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
873 /dev/hda1 * 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
874 /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
875 /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
877 Command (m for help):
878 </pre>
880 <p>
881 In our suggested "newbie" partition configuration, we have three partitions.
882 The first one (<path>/dev/hda1</path>) at the beginning of the disk is a small
883 partition called a boot partition. The boot partition's purpose is to hold all
884 the critical data related to booting -- GRUB boot loader information (if you
885 will be using GRUB) as well as your Linux kernel(s). The boot partition gives
886 us a safe place to store everything related to booting Linux. During normal
887 day-to-day Gentoo Linux use, your boot partition should remain <e>unmounted</e>
888 for safety. If you are setting up a SCSI system, your boot partition will
889 likely end up being <path>/dev/sda1</path>.
890 </p>
892 <p>
893 It's recommended to have boot partitions (containing everything necessary for
894 the boot loader to work) at the beginning of the disk. While not necessarily
895 required anymore, it is a useful tradition from the days when the lilo boot
896 loader wasn't able to load kernels from filesystems that extended beyond disk
897 cylinder 1024.
898 </p>
900 <p>
901 The second partition (<path>/dev/hda2</path>) is used to for swap space. The
902 kernel uses swap space as virtual memory when RAM becomes low. This partition,
903 relatively speaking, isn't very big either, typically somewhere around 512MB.
904 If you're setting up a SCSI system, this partition will likely end up
905 being called <path>/dev/sda2</path>.
906 </p>
908 <p>
909 The third partition (<path>/dev/hda3</path>) is quite large and takes up the
910 rest of the disk. This partition is called our "root" partition and will be
911 used to store your main filesystem that houses Gentoo Linux itself. On a SCSI
912 system, this partition would likely end up being <path>/dev/sda3</path>.
913 </p>
915 <p>
916 Before we partition the disk, here's a quick technical overview of the
917 suggested partition and filesystem configuration to use when installing Gentoo
918 Linux:
919 </p>
921 <table>
922 <tr>
923 <th>Partition</th>
924 <th>Size</th>
925 <th>Type</th>
926 <th>example device</th>
927 </tr>
928 <tr>
929 <ti>boot partition, containing kernel(s) and boot information</ti>
930 <ti>32 Megabytes</ti>
931 <ti>ext2/3 highly recommended (easiest); if ReiserFS then mount with <c>-o notail</c>. If you will be using ext3 or ReiserFS, you must add the size of the journal to the partitionsize; in these cases 64 Megabytes is recommended</ti>
932 <ti><path>/dev/hda1</path></ti>
933 </tr>
934 <tr>
935 <ti>swap partition (no longer a 128 Megabyte limit, now 2GB)</ti>
936 <ti>Generally, configure a swap area that is between one and two times the size of the physical RAM in your system</ti>
937 <ti>Linux swap</ti>
938 <ti><path>/dev/hda2</path></ti>
939 </tr>
940 <tr>
941 <ti>root partition, containing main filesystem (/usr, /home, etc.)</ti>
942 <ti>&gt;=1.5 Gigabytes</ti>
943 <ti>ReiserFS, ext3 recommended; ext2 ok</ti>
944 <ti><path>/dev/hda3</path></ti>
945 </tr>
946 </table>
948 <p>
949 OK, now to create the partitions as in the example and table above. First,
950 enter fdisk by typing <c>fdisk /dev/hda</c> or <c>fdisk /dev/sda</c>,
951 depending on whether you're using IDE or SCSI. Then, type <c>p</c> to view your
952 current partition configuration. Is there anything on the disk that you need
953 to keep? If so, <b>stop now</b>. If you continue with these directions, <b>all
954 existing data on your disk will be erased</b>.
955 </p>
957 <impo>
958 Following these instructions below will cause all prior data on your disk
959 to <b>be erased</b>! If there is anything on your drive, please be sure that it
960 is non-critical information that you don't mind losing. Also make sure that you
961 <b>have selected the correct drive</b> so that you don't mistakenly wipe data
962 from the wrong drive.
963 </impo>
965 <p>
966 Now, it's time to delete any existing partitions. To do this, type <c>d</c>
967 and hit Enter. You will then be prompted for the partition number you would like
968 to delete. To delete a pre-existing <path>/dev/hda1</path>, you would type:
969 </p>
971 <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
972 Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
973 Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
974 </pre>
976 <p>
977 The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up if
978 you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have been
979 saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your changes,
980 type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will not be
981 deleted.
982 </p>
984 <p>
985 Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on your
986 system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing and then type
987 <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it. Eventually, you'll end up
988 with a partition table with nothing in it:
989 </p>
991 <pre caption="An empty partition table">
992 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
993 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
994 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
996 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
998 Command (m for help):
999 </pre>
1001 <p>
1002 Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create a
1003 boot partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a new partition, then
1004 <c>p</c> to tell fdisk you want a primary partition. Then type <c>1</c> to
1005 create the first primary partition. When prompted for the first cylinder, hit
1006 enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+32M</c> to create a
1007 partition 32MB in size. You can see output from these steps below:
1008 </p>
1010 <note>
1011 Journaled filesystems require extra space for their journal. Default settings
1012 require about 33 Megabytes of space. Therefore, if you are using a journaled
1013 filesystem for <path>/boot</path>, you should type <c>+64M</c> when prompted
1014 for the last cylinder.
1015 </note>
1017 <pre caption="Steps to create our boot partition">
1018 Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
1019 Command action
1020 e extended
1021 p primary partition (1-4)
1022 <i>p</i>
1023 Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
1024 First cylinder (1-3876, default 1): <comment>(Hit Enter)</comment>
1025 Using default value 1
1026 Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-3876, default 3876): <i>+32M</i>
1027 </pre>
1029 <p>
1030 Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition
1031 printout:
1032 </p>
1034 <pre caption="Our first partition has been created">
1035 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
1037 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1038 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1039 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1041 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1042 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
1043 </pre>
1045 <p>
1046 Next, let's create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create a
1047 new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary partition.
1048 Then type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition,
1049 <path>/dev/hda2</path> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder,
1050 hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type <c>+512M</c> to create
1051 a partition 512MB in size. After you've done this, type <c>t</c> to set the
1052 partition type, <c>2</c> to select the partition you just created and then
1053 type in <c>82</c> to set the partition type to "Linux Swap". After completing
1054 these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks
1055 similar to this:
1056 </p>
1058 <pre caption="Our swap partition has been created">
1059 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
1061 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1062 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1063 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1065 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1066 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
1067 /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
1068 </pre>
1070 <p>
1071 Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
1072 create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
1073 partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary partition,
1074 <path>/dev/hda3</path> in our case. When prompted for the first cylinder,
1075 hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, hit enter to create a
1076 partition that takes up the rest of the remaining space on your disk. After
1077 completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should display a partition table that
1078 looks similar to this:
1079 </p>
1081 <pre caption="Our root partition has been created">
1082 Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
1084 Disk /dev/hda: 30.0 GB, 30005821440 bytes
1085 240 heads, 63 sectors/track, 3876 cylinders
1086 Units = cylinders of 15120 * 512 = 7741440 bytes
1088 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
1089 /dev/hda1 1 14 105808+ 83 Linux
1090 /dev/hda2 15 81 506520 82 Linux swap
1091 /dev/hda3 82 3876 28690200 83 Linux
1092 </pre>
1094 <p>
1095 Finally, we need to set the "bootable" flag on our boot partition and then write
1096 our changes to disk. To tag <path>/dev/hda1</path> as a "bootable" partition,
1097 type <c>a</c> at the menu and then type in <c>1</c> for the partition number.
1098 If you type <c>p</c> now, you'll now see that <path>/dev/hda1</path> has a
1099 <c>*</c> in the "Boot" column. Now, let's write our changes to disk. To do
1100 this, type <c>w</c> and hit enter. Your disk partitions are now properly
1101 configured for a Gentoo Linux install.
1102 </p>
1104 <note>
1105 If <c>fdisk</c> or <c>cfdisk</c> instruct you to do so, please reboot to
1106 allow your system to detect the new partition configuration.
1107 </note>
1109 </body>
1110 </section>
1112 <section>
1113 <title>Creating filesystems</title>
1114 <body>
1116 <p>
1117 Now that the partitions have been created, it's time to set up filesystems on
1118 the boot and root partitions so that they can be mounted and used to store
1119 data. We will also configure the swap partition to serve as swap storage.
1120 </p>
1122 <p>
1123 Gentoo Linux supports a variety of different types of filesystems; each type has
1124 its strengths and weaknesses and its own set of performance characteristics.
1125 Currently, we support the creation of ext2, ext3, XFS, JFS and ReiserFS
1126 filesystems.
1127 </p>
1129 <p>
1130 ext2 is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
1131 journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
1132 be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
1133 <e>journaled</e> filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly
1134 and are thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts.
1135 Journaled filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your
1136 filesystem happens to be in an <e>inconsistent</e> state.
1137 </p>
1139 <p>
1140 ext3 is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
1141 journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes
1142 like full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
1143 filesystem. It offers generally decent performance under most conditions.
1144 Because it does not extensively employ the use of "trees" in its internal
1145 design, it doesn't scale very well, meaning that it is not an ideal choice for
1146 very large filesystems, or situations where you will be handling very large
1147 files or large quantities of files in a single directory. But when used within
1148 its design parameters, ext3 is an excellent filesystem.
1149 </p>
1151 <p>
1152 ReiserFS is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
1153 performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
1154 files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
1155 extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
1156 now rock-solid and highly recommended for use both as a general-purpose
1157 filesystem and for extreme cases such as the creation of large filesystems, the
1158 use of many small files, very large files and directories containing tens of
1159 thousands of files. ReiserFS is the filesystem we recommend by default for all
1160 non-boot partitions.
1161 </p>
1163 <p>
1164 XFS is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported under
1165 Gentoo Linux's <c>xfs-sources</c> kernel. It comes with a robust
1166 feature-set and is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this
1167 filesystem on Linux systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and
1168 a uninterruptible power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data
1169 in RAM, improperly designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions
1170 when writing files to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good
1171 deal of data if the system goes down unexpectedly.
1172 </p>
1174 <p>
1175 JFS is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
1176 become production-ready and there hasn't been a sufficient track record to
1177 comment positively nor negatively on its general stability at this
1178 point.
1179 </p>
1181 <p>
1182 If you're looking for the most rugged journaling filesystem, use ext3. If
1183 you're looking for a good general-purpose high-performance filesystem with
1184 journaling support, use ReiserFS; both ext3 and ReiserFS are mature,
1185 refined and recommended for general use.
1186 </p>
1188 <p>
1189 Based on our example above, we will use the following commands to initialize
1190 all our partitions for use:
1191 </p>
1193 <pre caption="Initializing our partitions (example)">
1194 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda1</i>
1195 # <i>mkswap /dev/hda2</i>
1196 # <i>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</i>
1197 </pre>
1199 <p>
1200 We choose ext3 for our <path>/dev/hda1</path> boot partition because it is a
1201 robust journaling filesystem supported by all major boot loaders. We used
1202 <c>mkswap</c> for our <path>/dev/hda2</path> swap partition -- the choice is
1203 obvious here. And for our main root filesystem on <path>/dev/hda3</path> we
1204 choose ReiserFS, since it is a solid journaling filesystem offering excellent
1205 performance. Now, go ahead and initialize your partitions.
1206 </p>
1208 <p>
1209 For your reference, here are the various <c>mkfs</c>-like commands available
1210 during the installation process:
1211 </p>
1213 <p>
1214 <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
1215 </p>
1217 <pre caption="Initializing Swap">
1218 # <i>mkswap /dev/hda2</i>
1219 </pre>
1221 <p>
1222 You can use the <c>mke2fs</c> command to create ext2 filesystems:
1223 </p>
1225 <pre caption="Creating an ext2 Filesystem">
1226 # <i>mke2fs /dev/hda1</i>
1227 </pre>
1229 <p>
1230 If you would like to use ext3, you can create ext3 filesystems using
1231 <c>mke2fs -j</c>:
1232 </p>
1234 <pre caption="Creating an ext3 Filesystem">
1235 # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/hda3</i>
1236 </pre>
1238 <note>
1239 You can find out more about using ext3 under Linux 2.4 at
1240 <uri>http://www.zip.com.au/~akpm/linux/ext3/ext3-usage.html</uri>.
1241 </note>
1243 <p>
1244 To create ReiserFS filesystems, use the <c>mkreiserfs</c> command:
1245 </p>
1247 <pre caption="Creating a ReiserFS Filesystem">
1248 # <i>mkreiserfs /dev/hda3</i>
1249 </pre>
1251 <p>
1252 To create an XFS filesystem, use the <c>mkfs.xfs</c> command:
1253 </p>
1255 <pre caption="Creating a XFS Filesystem">
1256 # <i>mkfs.xfs /dev/hda3</i>
1257 </pre>
1259 <note>
1260 You may want to add a couple of additional flags to the <c>mkfs.xfs</c>
1261 command: <c>-d agcount=3 -l size=32m</c>. The <c>-d agcount=3</c> command
1262 will lower the number of allocation groups. XFS will insist on using at
1263 least 1 allocation group per 4 GB of your partition, so, for example, if
1264 you have a 20 GB partition you will need a minimum agcount of 5. The
1265 <c>-l size=32m</c> command increases the journal size to 32 Mb, increasing
1266 performance.
1267 </note>
1269 <p>
1270 To create JFS filesystems, use the <c>mkfs.jfs</c> command:
1271 </p>
1273 <pre caption="Creating a JFS Filesystem">
1274 # <i>mkfs.jfs /dev/hda3</i>
1275 </pre>
1277 </body>
1278 </section>
1279 </chapter>
1281 <chapter>
1282 <title>Mount Partitions</title>
1283 <section>
1284 <body>
1286 <p>
1287 Now, we will activate our newly-initialized swap volume, since we may need
1288 the additional virtual memory that it provides later:
1289 </p>
1291 <pre caption="Activating Swap">
1292 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
1293 </pre>
1295 <p>
1296 Next, we will create the <path>/mnt/gentoo/boot</path> mount point,
1297 and we will mount our filesystems to the mount points. Once our boot and
1298 root filesystems are mounted, any files we copy or create inside
1299 <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> will be placed on our new filesystems.
1300 Note that if you are setting up Gentoo Linux with separate
1301 <path>/usr</path> or <path>/var</path> filesystems, these would get mounted to
1302 <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path> and <path>/mnt/gentoo/var</path> respectively.
1303 </p>
1305 <impo>
1306 If your <path>/boot</path> partition (the one holding the kernel) is ReiserFS,
1307 be sure to mount it with the <c>-o notail</c> option so GRUB gets properly
1308 installed. Make sure that <c>notail</c> ends up in your new
1309 <path>/etc/fstab</path> boot partition entry, too.
1310 We will get to that in a bit. If you are going to use LILO with ReiserFS,
1311 then the <c>-o notail</c> is not needed. It's always safe to specify the
1312 <c>-o notail</c> option with ReiserFS if you're not sure what to do.
1313 </impo>
1315 <pre caption="Creating Mount Points">
1316 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
1317 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
1318 # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
1319 </pre>
1321 <impo>
1322 If you are having problems mounting your boot partition with ext2, try using
1323 <c>mount /dev/hXX /mnt/gentoo/boot -t ext2</c>
1324 </impo>
1326 </body>
1327 </section>
1328 </chapter>
1331 <chapter>
1332 <title>Stage tarballs and chroot</title>
1333 <section>
1334 <title>Selecting the desired stage tarball</title>
1335 <body>
1337 <p>
1338 Now, you need to decide which one you would like to use as a
1339 basis for the install if you haven't already. The stages on the Live CD are
1340 in <path>/mnt/cdrom/stages/</path> and you can type <c>ls
1341 /mnt/cdrom/stages/</c> to see what's available on your CD.
1342 </p>
1344 <p>
1345 <b>GRP users</b> should use the <path>stage3-xx-yy.tar.bz2</path> tarball.
1346 </p>
1348 <p>
1349 If you would like to perform an install using a stage tarball that is
1350 <e>not</e> on your CD (which will likely be the case if you're using our
1351 "basic" Live CD), this is still possible, but you'll need to download the
1352 stage you want using the following instructions. If you already have the stage
1353 tarball you want to use (which most users will have), then proceed to the
1354 "Extracting the stage tarball" section.
1355 </p>
1357 <pre caption="Downloading Required Stages">
1358 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
1359 <comment>Use lynx to get the URL for your tarball:</comment>
1360 # <i>lynx http://gentoo.oregonstate.edu/releases/x86/1.4/</i>
1361 <comment>Use <c>Up</c> and <c>Down</c> arrows keys (or the <c>TAB</c> key) to go to the right directory
1362 Highlight the appropriate stage you want to download
1363 Press <c>d</c> which will initiate the download
1364 Save the file and quit the browser
1366 <b>OR</b> use wget from the command line:</comment>
1367 # <i>wget </i><comment>(insert URL to the required stage tarball here)</comment>
1368 </pre>
1370 </body>
1371 </section>
1372 <section>
1373 <title>Extracting the stage tarball</title>
1374 <body>
1376 <p>
1377 Now it is time to extract the compressed stage tarball of your choice to
1378 <path>/mnt/gentoo/</path>. Remember, you only need to unpack <b>one</b> stage
1379 tarball, either a stage1, stage2 or stage3. So, if you wanted to perform a
1380 stage3 install of Gentoo, then you would just unpack the stage3 tarball.
1381 Unpack the stage tarball as follows:
1382 </p>
1384 <impo>
1385 Be sure to use the <c>p</c> option with <c>tar</c>. Forgetting to do this will
1386 cause certain files to have incorrect permissions.
1387 </impo>
1389 <pre caption="Unpacking the Stages">
1390 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo</i>
1391 <comment>Change "stage3" to "stage2" or "stage1" if you want to start from these stages instead.</comment>
1392 <comment>If you downloaded your stage tarball, change the path below to begin with "/mnt/gentoo/"
1393 instead of "/mnt/cdrom/stages/".</comment>
1394 # <i>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/stages/stage3-*.tar.bz2</i>
1395 </pre>
1397 <p>
1398 If you downloaded your stage tarball to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>, you can now
1399 delete it by typing <c>rm /mnt/gentoo/stage*.tar.bz2</c>.
1400 </p>
1402 </body>
1403 </section>
1405 <section>
1406 <title>GRP package/snapshot steps</title>
1407 <body>
1409 <impo>
1410 The following instructions are for GRP users only.
1411 </impo>
1413 <p>
1414 <b>GRP Users</b>: There is a Portage snapshot on the Live CD. You will
1415 need to use this snapshot so that you can skip the <c>emerge sync</c> step
1416 later in this document, since <c>emerge sync</c> requires a network
1417 connection. Untar this snapshot as follows:
1418 </p>
1420 <pre caption="Using Portage snapshot">
1421 <comment>Replace yyyymmdd with the datestamp in the filename.</comment>
1422 # <i>tar -xvjf /mnt/cdrom/snapshots/portage-yyyymmdd.tar.bz2 -C /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
1423 </pre>
1425 <p>
1426 This will extract a snapshot of the Portage tree to your fresh Gentoo
1427 install. Now you won't need to connect to the Internet and use <c>emerge
1428 sync</c> to download a Portage tree. Now, copy distfiles and packages
1429 from the Live CD into place:
1430 </p>
1432 <pre caption="Copying GRP files">
1433 # <i>cp -R /mnt/cdrom/distfiles /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</i>
1434 # <i>cp -a /mnt/cdrom/packages/ /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/packages/</i>
1435 </pre>
1437 <p>
1438 All relevant files are now in place for using GRP. You should now have
1439 everything copied over and unpacked that you'll need to install Gentoo Linux
1440 -- even without a network connection.
1441 </p>
1443 </body>
1444 </section>
1446 <section>
1447 <title>Selecting Mirrors (Optional)</title>
1448 <body>
1450 <p>
1451 <c>mirrorselect</c> is a tool designed to automatically pick the fastest
1452 mirrors based on your location, or manually pick a mirror from a list.
1453 Unfortunately, <c>mirrorselect</c> does not work well behind all routers.
1454 </p>
1456 <pre caption="Using mirrorselect">
1457 <comment>To select a mirror automatically:</comment>
1458 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
1459 <comment>To select a mirror interactively:</comment>
1460 # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
1461 </pre>
1463 <p>
1464 If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails you should be able to
1465 continue with this guide since no changes are made.
1466 </p>
1468 </body>
1469 </section>
1470 <section>
1471 <title>Entering the chroot</title>
1472 <body>
1474 <p>
1475 Next, we will <c>chroot</c> over to the new Gentoo Linux build installation to
1476 "enter" the new Gentoo Linux system:
1477 </p>
1479 <note>
1480 You may receive a notice during <c>env-update</c> telling you that
1481 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path> isn't available: ignore it. We are
1482 going to issue <c>emerge sync</c> later on in this document, which will resolve
1483 the problem.
1484 </note>
1486 <pre caption="Prepping and entering the chroot environment">
1487 # <i>mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
1488 # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
1489 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
1490 # <i>env-update</i>
1491 Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
1492 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
1493 <comment>(The above points your shell to the new paths and updated binaries)</comment>
1494 </pre>
1496 <p>
1497 After you execute these commands, you will be "inside" your new Gentoo Linux
1498 environment in <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>. We can perform the rest of the
1499 installation process inside the chroot.
1500 </p>
1502 </body>
1503 </section>
1504 </chapter>
1506 <chapter>
1507 <title>Getting the Current Portage Tree using sync</title>
1508 <section>
1509 <body>
1511 <impo>
1512 If you are doing a GRP install then you can ignore the following section on
1513 <c>emerge sync</c>.
1514 </impo>
1516 <p>
1517 Now, you will need to run <c>emerge sync</c>. This command tells Portage
1518 to download the most recent copy of the Gentoo Linux Portage tree from the
1519 Internet. If you extracted a Portage tree snapshot from <e>CD 1</e> earlier,
1520 you can safely skip this step. The Portage tree contains all the scripts
1521 (called ebuilds) used to build every package under Gentoo Linux. Currently,
1522 we have ebuild scripts for close to 4000 packages. Once <c>emerge sync</c>
1523 completes, you will have a complete Portage tree in
1524 <path>/usr/portage</path>:
1525 </p>
1527 <pre caption="Updating Using sync">
1528 # <i>emerge sync</i>
1529 </pre>
1531 </body>
1532 </section>
1533 </chapter>
1535 <chapter>
1536 <title>Setting Gentoo optimizations (make.conf)</title>
1537 <section>
1538 <body>
1540 <p>
1541 Now that you have a working copy of the Portage tree, it is time to
1542 customize the optimization and optional build-time settings to use on your
1543 Gentoo Linux system. Portage will use these settings when compiling any
1544 programs for you. To do this, edit the file <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. In
1545 this file, you should set your USE flags, which specify optional
1546 functionality that you would like to be built into packages if available;
1547 generally, the defaults (an <e>empty</e> or unset USE variable) are
1548 fine. More information on USE flags can be found <uri
1549 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/use-howto.xml">here</uri>. A complete list
1550 of current USE flags can be found <uri
1551 link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/use-index.xml">here</uri>.
1552 </p>
1554 <p>
1555 If you are starting from a stage1 tarball, You also should set appropriate
1556 CHOST, CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings for the kind of system that you are
1557 creating (commented examples can be found further down in the file). If you
1558 are using a stage2 or stage3 tarball, these settings will already be configured
1559 optimally and should not require any modification.
1560 </p>
1562 <impo>
1563 <b>Advanced users:</b> The CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings are used to tell the
1564 C and C++ compiler how to optimize the code that is generated on your system.
1565 It is common for users with Athlon XP processors to specify a
1566 "-march=athlon-xp" setting in their CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS settings so that all
1567 packages built will be optimized for the instruction set and performance
1568 characteristics of their CPU, for example. The <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1569 file contains a general guide for the proper settings of CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS.
1570 </impo>
1572 <!-- needs qa
1573 <note>
1574 <b>Advanced users:</b>If you are building from a stage1 and don't want
1575 to manually configure CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS, you can use the <c>genflags</c>
1576 utility, which will try to guess accurate flags for your CPU architecture.
1577 Simply type <c>emerge -O genflags</c> and then execute
1578 <c>info2flags</c>. <c>info2flags</c> will suggest CHOST, CFLAGS and
1579 CXXFLAGS settings, which you can then add to
1580 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.
1581 </note>
1582 -->
1584 <p>
1585 If necessary, you can also set proxy information here if you are behind a
1586 firewall. Use the following command to edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path>
1587 using <c>nano</c>, a simple visual editor:
1588 </p>
1590 <pre caption="Setting make.conf Options">
1591 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
1592 </pre>
1594 <note>
1595 <b>Advanced users:</b> People who need to substantially customize the build
1596 process should take a look at the <path>/etc/make.globals</path> file. This
1597 file comprises gentoo defaults and should never be touched. If the defaults
1598 do not suffice, then new values should be put in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>,
1599 as entries in <path>make.conf</path> <e>override</e> the entries
1600 in <path>make.globals</path>. If you're interested in customizing USE
1601 settings, look in <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1602 If you want to turn off any USE settings found here, add an appropriate
1603 <c>USE="-foo"</c> in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to turn off any <c>foo</c>
1604 USE setting enabled by default in <path>/etc/make.globals</path> or
1605 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>.
1606 </note>
1608 <warn>
1609 Make sure not to add '<c>static</c>' to your USE variables until after
1610 stage1.
1611 </warn>
1613 </body>
1614 </section>
1615 </chapter>
1617 <chapter>
1618 <title>Starting from Stage1</title>
1619 <section>
1620 <body>
1622 <note>
1623 If you are not starting from a stage1 tarball, skip this section.
1624 </note>
1626 <p>
1627 The stage1 tarball is for complete customization and optimization. If you
1628 have picked this tarball, you are most likely looking to have an
1629 uber-optimized and up-to-date system. Have fun! Installing from a stage1
1630 takes a lot of time, but the result is a system that has been optimized
1631 from the ground up for your specific machine and needs.
1632 </p>
1634 <p>
1635 Now, it is time to start the "bootstrap" process. This process takes
1636 about two hours on a 1200MHz AMD Athlon system. During this time, the GNU
1637 C library, compiler suite and other key system programs will be built. Start
1638 the bootstrap as follows:
1639 </p>
1641 <pre caption="Bootstrapping">
1642 # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
1643 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
1644 </pre>
1646 <p>
1647 The "bootstrap" process will now begin.
1648 </p>
1650 <note>
1651 <c>bootstrap.sh</c> now supports the <c>--fetchonly</c> option. Dial-up
1652 users will find this especially handy. It will download all bootstrap related
1653 files in one go for later compilation. See <c>bootstrap.sh -h</c> for more
1654 information.
1655 </note>
1657 <note>
1658 Portage by default uses <path>/var/tmp</path> during package building,
1659 often using several hundred megabytes of temporary storage. If you would
1660 like to change where Portage stores these temporary files, set a new
1661 PORTAGE_TMPDIR <e>before</e> starting the bootstrap process, as follows:
1662 <pre caption="Changing Portage's Storage Path">
1663 # <i>export PORTAGE_TMPDIR="/otherdir/tmp"</i>
1664 </pre>
1665 </note>
1667 <p>
1668 <c>bootstrap.sh</c> will build <c>binutils</c>, <c>gcc</c>, <c>gettext</c>,
1669 and <c>glibc</c>, rebuilding <c>gettext</c> after <c>glibc</c>. Needless to
1670 say, this process takes a while. Once this process completes, your system
1671 will be equivalent to a "stage2" system, which means you can now move on to
1672 the stage2 instructions.
1673 </p>
1675 </body>
1676 </section>
1677 </chapter>
1679 <chapter>
1680 <title>Starting from Stage2 and continuing Stage1</title>
1681 <section>
1682 <body>
1684 <note>
1685 This section is for those continuing a stage1 install or starting at stage2. If
1686 this is not you (ie. you're using a stage3), then skip this section.
1687 </note>
1689 <warn>
1690 If you start from stage2, don't change the CHOST variable in
1691 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Doing so results in strange and
1692 broad compilation failures.
1693 </warn>
1695 <p>
1696 The stage2 tarball already has the bootstrapping done for you. All that you
1697 have to do is install the rest of the system:
1698 </p>
1700 <note>
1701 If you are starting from a pre-built stage2 and want to ensure
1702 that your compiler toolchain is fully up-to-date, add the <c>-u</c>
1703 option to the commands below. If you don't know what this means, it's
1704 safe to skip this suggestion.
1705 </note>
1707 <pre caption="Installing the rest of the system">
1708 # <i>emerge -p system</i>
1709 <comment>(lists the packages to be installed)</comment>
1710 # <i>emerge system</i>
1711 </pre>
1713 <p>
1714 It is going to take a while to finish building the entire base system.
1715 Your reward is that it will be thoroughly optimized for your system.
1716 The drawback is that you have to find a way to keep yourself occupied for
1717 some time to come. The author suggests "Star Wars - Super Bombad Racing"
1718 for the PS2.
1719 </p>
1721 <p>
1722 Building is now complete. Go ahead and skip down to the "Setting
1723 your time zone" section.
1724 </p>
1726 </body>
1727 </section>
1728 </chapter>
1731 <chapter>
1732 <title>Starting from Stage3</title>
1733 <section>
1734 <body>
1736 <note>
1737 This section is for those <b>starting</b> with stage3 and not for those who
1738 have started with stage1 or stage2 who should skip this section. GRP users
1739 should skip ahead to the next section.
1740 </note>
1742 <warn>
1743 Remember, if you start from stage3, don't change the CHOST variable in
1744 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Doing so can result in compilation failures.
1745 </warn>
1747 <p>
1748 The stage3 tarball provides a fully-functional basic Gentoo system,
1749 so no building is required.
1750 </p>
1752 <note>
1753 <b>Advanced users:</b> However, since the stage3 tarball is pre-built, it
1754 may be slightly out-of-date. If this is a concern for you, you can
1755 automatically update your existing stage3 to contain the most up-to-date
1756 versions of all system packages by typing <c>export CONFIG_PROTECT="-*
1757 /etc/make.conf" emerge -u system</c> (this requires a network connection).
1758 Note that this could take a long time if your stage3 is very old;
1759 otherwise, this process will generally be quick and will allow you to benefit
1760 from the very latest Gentoo updates and fixes. In any case, feel free to skip
1761 these steps and proceed to the next section if you like.
1762 </note>
1764 </body>
1765 </section>
1766 </chapter>
1769 <chapter>
1770 <title>Setting your time zone</title>
1771 <section>
1772 <body>
1774 <p>
1775 Now you need to set your time zone.
1776 </p>
1778 <p>
1779 Look for your time zone (or GMT if you are using Greenwich Mean Time)
1780 in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. Then, make a symbolic link to
1781 <path>/etc/localtime</path> by typing:
1782 </p>
1784 <pre caption="Creating a symbolic link for time zone">
1785 # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/path/to/timezonefile /etc/localtime</i>
1786 </pre>
1788 </body>
1789 </section>
1790 </chapter>
1792 <chapter>
1793 <title>Modifying /etc/fstab for your machine</title>
1794 <section>
1795 <body>
1797 <impo>
1798 To edit files, remember to use <c>nano -w "filename"</c>.
1799 </impo>
1801 <p>
1802 Your Gentoo Linux system is almost ready for use. All we need to do now is
1803 configure a few important system files and install the boot loader.
1804 The first file we need to configure is <path>/etc/fstab</path>. Remember
1805 that you should use the <c>notail</c> option for your boot partition if
1806 you chose to create a ReiserFS filesystem on it. Remember to specify
1807 <c>ext2</c>, <c>ext3</c> or <c>reiserfs</c> filesystem types as appropriate.
1808 </p>
1810 <p>
1811 Use something like the <path>/etc/fstab</path> listed below, but of course be
1812 sure to replace "BOOT", "ROOT" and "SWAP" with the actual block devices you
1813 are using (such as <c>hda1</c>, etc.):
1814 </p>
1816 <pre caption="Editing fstab">
1817 <comment># /etc/fstab: static file system information.
1818 #
1819 # noatime turns off atimes for increased performance (atimes normally aren't
1820 # needed; notail increases performance of ReiserFS (at the expense of storage
1821 # efficiency). It is safe to drop the noatime options if you want and to
1822 # switch between notail and tail freely.
1824 # &lt;fs&gt; &lt;mount point&gt; &lt;type&gt; &lt;opts&gt; &lt;dump/pass&gt;
1826 # NOTE: If your BOOT partition is ReiserFS, add the notail option to opts.
1827 </comment>
1828 /dev/BOOT /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
1829 /dev/ROOT / ext3 noatime 0 1
1830 /dev/SWAP none swap sw 0 0
1831 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
1832 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
1833 </pre>
1835 <warn>
1836 Please notice that <path>/boot</path> is <e>not</e> mounted at boot time. This
1837 is to protect the data in <path>/boot</path> from corruption. If you need to
1838 access <path>/boot</path>, please mount it!
1839 </warn>
1841 </body>
1842 </section>
1843 </chapter>
1846 <chapter>
1847 <title>Installing the kernel and system logger</title>
1848 <section>
1849 <title>Kernel selections</title>
1850 <body>
1852 <p>
1853 There are two options for installing a kernel. You can either configure your
1854 own kernel or use the <c>genkernel</c> utility to configure and compile your
1855 kernel automatically.
1856 </p>
1858 <p>
1859 Whether configuring a kernel by hand or using <c>genkernel</c>,
1860 you'll need to merge the Linux kernel sources you'd like to use.
1861 Gentoo provides several kernel ebuilds; a list can be found
1862 <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">here</uri>. If you are uncertain
1863 which kernel sources to choose, we advise using <c>gentoo-sources</c>.
1864 If you want XFS support, you should choose <c>xfs-sources</c> or
1865 <c>gs-sources</c>. Gentoo's LiveCD uses <c>gs-sources</c> and
1866 <c>xfs-sources</c>. There is also a <c>gaming-sources</c> kernel optimized
1867 for game-playing responsiveness that works wonderfully for this purpose when
1868 the "Preemptible kernel" option is enabled.
1869 </p>
1871 <p>
1872 Choose a kernel and then merge as follows:
1873 </p>
1875 <pre caption="Emerging Kernel Sources">
1876 # <i>emerge -k sys-kernel/gentoo-sources</i>
1877 </pre>
1879 <p>
1880 The <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symbolic link will point to your
1881 newly-installed kernel source tree. Portage uses the
1882 <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symbolic link for a special purpose. Any ebuilds
1883 you install that contain kernel modules will be configured to work with the
1884 kernel source tree pointed to by <path>/usr/src/linux</path>.
1885 <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is created when you emerge your first kernel
1886 source package, but after it exists, Portage does not modify this symbolic
1887 link.
1888 </p>
1890 </body>
1891 </section>
1892 <section>
1893 <title>Using genkernel to compile your kernel</title>
1894 <body>
1896 <p>
1897 Now that your kernel source tree is installed, it's now time to compile your
1898 kernel. There are two ways to do this. The first way is to use our new
1899 <c>genkernel</c> script to automatically build a kernel for you.
1900 <c>genkernel</c> works by configuring a kernel nearly identically to the way
1901 our LiveCD kernel is configured. This means that when you use <c>genkernel</c>
1902 to build your kernel, your system will generally detect all your hardware at
1903 boot-time, just like our Live CD does. Because genkernel doesn't require any
1904 manual kernel configuration, it is an ideal solution for those users who may
1905 not be comfortable compiling their own kernels.
1906 </p>
1908 <p>
1909 Now, let's see how to use genkernel. First, emerge the genkernel ebuild:
1910 </p>
1912 <pre caption="Emerging genkernel">
1913 # <i>emerge -k genkernel</i>
1914 </pre>
1916 <p>
1917 Now, compile your kernel sources by running <c>genkernel</c>:
1918 </p>
1920 <note>
1921 <b>Advanced users:</b> you can type <c>genkernel --config</c> instead,
1922 which will cause genkernel to allow you to tweak the default kernel
1923 configuration before building begins.
1924 </note>
1926 <pre caption="Running genkernel">
1927 <comment>If you're using genkernel 1.2 (included in the 1.4-20030803 x86/i686 GRP set), use the following:</comment>
1928 # <i>genkernel gentoo-sources</i>
1929 <comment>If you're using genkernel 1.4 or newer, there's no need to specify a kernel:</comment>
1930 # <i>genkernel</i>
1931 Gentoo Linux genkernel, version 1.4
1932 Copyright 2003 Gentoo Technologies, Inc., Bob Johnson, Daniel Robbins
1933 Distributed under the GNU General Public License version 2
1935 Settings:
1936 compile optimization: 1 processor(s)
1937 source tree: /usr/src/linux-2.4.20-gaming-r3
1938 config: gentoo (customized)
1939 config loc: /etc/kernels/config-2.4.20-gaming-r3
1940 initrd config: (default) /etc/kernels/settings
1942 * Running "make oldconfig"... [ ok ]
1943 * Logging to /var/log/genkernel.log... [ ok ]
1944 * Starting 2.4.20-gaming-r3 build... [ ok ]
1945 * Running "make dep"... [ ok ]
1946 * Running "make bzImage"... [ ok ]
1947 * Running "make modules"... [ ok ]
1948 * Running "make modules_install"... [ ok ]
1949 * Moving bzImage to /boot/kernel-2.4.20-gaming-r3... [ ok ]
1950 * Building busybox... [ ok ]
1951 * Creating initrd... [ ok ]
1953 * Build completed successfully!
1955 * Please specify /boot/kernel-2.4.20-gaming-r3 and /boot/initrd-2.4.20-gaming-r3
1956 * when customizing your boot loader configuration files.
1957 </pre>
1959 <p>
1960 Once <c>genkernel</c> completes, a kernel, full set of modules and
1961 <e>initial root disk</e> (initrd) will be created. We will use the kernel
1962 and initrd when configuring a boot loader later in this document. The
1963 initrd will be started immediately after booting to perform hardware
1964 autodetection (just like on the Live CD) before your "real" system starts
1965 up.
1966 </p>
1968 <p>
1969 Now, let's perform one more step to get our system to be more like the Live
1970 CD -- let's emerge <c>hotplug</c>. While the initrd autodetects hardware that
1971 is needed to boot your system, <c>hotplug</c> autodetects everything else.
1972 To emerge and enable <c>hotplug</c>, type the following:
1973 </p>
1975 <pre caption="Emerging and enabling hotplug">
1976 # <i>emerge -k hotplug</i>
1977 # <i>rc-update add hotplug default</i>
1978 </pre>
1980 <p>
1981 Finally, you should emerge ebuilds for any additional hardware that is on
1982 your system. Here is a list of kernel-related ebuilds that you could emerge:
1983 </p>
1985 <table>
1986 <tr>
1987 <th>Ebuild</th>
1988 <th>Purpose</th>
1989 <th>Command</th>
1990 </tr>
1991 <tr>
1992 <ti>nvidia-kernel</ti>
1993 <ti>Accelerated NVIDIA graphics for XFree86</ti>
1994 <ti><c>emerge -k nvidia-kernel</c></ti>
1995 </tr>
1996 <tr>
1997 <ti>nforce-net</ti>
1998 <ti>On-board ethernet controller on NVIDIA NForce(2) motherboards</ti>
1999 <ti><c>emerge nforce-net</c></ti>
2000 </tr>
2001 <tr>
2002 <ti>nforce-audio</ti>
2003 <ti>On-board audio on NVIDIA NForce(2) motherboards</ti>
2004 <ti><c>emerge nforce-audio</c></ti>
2005 </tr>
2006 <tr>
2007 <ti>e100</ti>
2008 <ti>Intel e100 Fast Ethernet Adapters</ti>
2009 <ti><c>emerge e100</c></ti>
2010 </tr>
2011 <tr>
2012 <ti>e1000</ti>
2013 <ti>Intel e1000 Gigabit Ethernet Adapters</ti>
2014 <ti><c>emerge e1000</c></ti>
2015 </tr>
2016 <tr>
2017 <ti>emu10k1</ti>
2018 <ti>Creative Sound Blaster Live!/Audigy support</ti>
2019 <ti><c>emerge emu10k1</c></ti>
2020 </tr>
2021 <tr>
2022 <ti>ati-drivers</ti>
2023 <ti>Accelerated ATI Radeon 8500+/FireGL graphics for XFree86</ti>
2024 <ti><c>emerge ati-drivers</c></ti>
2025 </tr>
2026 <tr>
2027 <ti>xfree-drm</ti>
2028 <ti>Accelerated graphics for ATI Radeon up to 9200, Rage128, Matrox, Voodoo and other cards for XFree86</ti>
2029 <ti><c>VIDEO_CARDS="yourcard" emerge xfree-drm</c></ti>
2030 </tr>
2031 </table>
2033 <p>
2034 The <c>nvidia-kernel</c>, <c>ati-drivers</c> and <c>xfree-drm</c> packages
2035 will require additional configuration to be enabled. All other ebuilds listed
2036 above should be auto-detected at boot-time by the <c>hotplug</c> package.
2037 </p>
2039 <p>
2040 Now that you've run and configured your system to use <c>genkernel</c>, you
2041 can skip the "manual kernel configuration" section below.
2042 </p>
2044 </body>
2045 </section>
2046 <section>
2047 <title>Manual kernel configuration</title>
2048 <body>
2050 <p>
2051 If you opted not to use genkernel to compile your kernel, this section
2052 will guide you through the process of configuring and compiling a kernel by
2053 hand. Please note that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> is a symlink to your
2054 current emerged kernel source package and is set automatically by Portage at
2055 emerge time. If you have multiple kernel source packages, it is necessary to
2056 set the <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink to the correct one before
2057 proceeding.
2058 </p>
2060 <warn>
2061 If you are configuring your own kernel, be careful with the <i>grsecurity</i>
2062 option. Being too aggressive with your security settings can cause certain
2063 programs (such as X) to not run properly. If in doubt, leave it out.
2064 </warn>
2066 <note>
2067 If you want to use the same configuration as the LiveCD kernel or base
2068 your configuration on it, you should execute <c>cd /usr/src/linux &amp;&amp; cat /proc/config > .config &amp;&amp; make oldconfig</c>.
2069 If you aren't using <c>xfs-sources</c>, this will ask some questions
2070 about differences between your kernelchoice and <c>xfs-sources</c>.
2071 </note>
2073 <pre caption="Configuring the Linux Kernel">
2074 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
2075 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
2076 </pre>
2078 <warn>
2079 For your kernel to function properly, there are several options that you will
2080 need to ensure are in the kernel proper -- that is, they should <e>be enabled
2081 and not compiled as modules</e>. Be sure to enable &quot;ReiserFS&quot; if you
2082 have any ReiserFS partitions; the same goes for &quot;Ext3&quot;. If you're
2083 using XFS, enable the &quot;SGI XFS filesystem support&quot; option. It's
2084 always a good idea to leave ext2 enabled whether you are using it or not.
2085 </warn>
2087 <p>
2088 Below are some common options that you will need:
2089 </p>
2091 <pre caption="make menuconfig options">
2092 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
2093 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers&quot;
2094 <comment>(You need this to enable some of the options below)</comment>
2095 ...
2097 File systems ---&gt;
2098 &lt;*&gt; Reiserfs support
2099 <comment>(Only needed if you are using reiserfs)</comment>
2100 ...
2101 &lt;*&gt; Ext3 journalling file system support
2102 <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext3)</comment>
2103 ...
2104 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
2105 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux)</comment>
2106 ...
2107 &lt;*&gt; JFS filesystem support
2108 <comment>(Only needed if you are using JFS)</comment>
2109 ...
2110 [*] /proc file system support
2111 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux)</comment>
2112 [*] /dev file system support (EXPERIMENTAL)
2113 [*] Automatically mount at boot
2114 <comment>(Required for Gentoo Linux)</comment>
2115 [ ] /dev/pts file system for Unix98 PTYs
2116 <comment>(Uncheck this, it is NOT needed)</comment>
2117 ...
2118 &lt;*&gt; Second extended fs support
2119 <comment>(Only needed if you are using ext2)</comment>
2120 ...
2121 &lt;*&gt; XFS filesystem support
2122 <comment>(Only needed if you are using XFS)</comment>
2123 </pre>
2125 <p>
2126 If you use PPPoE to connect to Internet, you will need the following
2127 options in the kernel (built-in or as preferably as modules) : &quot;PPP
2128 (point-to-point protocol) support&quot;, &quot;PPP support for async serial
2129 ports&quot;, &quot;PPP support for sync tty ports&quot;. The two compression
2130 options won't harm but are not definitely needed, neither does the &quot;PPP
2131 over Ethernet&quot; option, that might only be used by <c>rp-pppoe</c> when
2132 configured to do kernel mode PPPoE.
2133 </p>
2135 <p>
2136 If you have an IDE cd burner, then you need to enable SCSI emulation in the
2137 kernel. Turn on &quot;ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support&quot; ---&gt; &quot;IDE, ATA
2138 and ATAPI Block devices&quot; ---&gt; &quot;SCSI emulation support&quot;
2139 (I usually make it a module), then under &quot;SCSI support&quot; enable
2140 &quot;SCSI support&quot;, &quot;SCSI CD-ROM support&quot; and &quot;SCSI
2141 generic support&quot; (again, I usually compile them as modules). If you
2142 also choose to use modules, then <c>echo -e &quot;ide-scsi\nsg\nsr_mod&quot;
2143 &gt;&gt; /etc/modules.autoload</c> to have them automatically added at boot
2144 time.
2145 </p>
2147 <p>
2148 If you require it, don't forget to include support in the kernel for your
2149 ethernet card.
2150 </p>
2152 <note>
2153 For those who prefer it, it is possible to install Gentoo Linux with a 2.2
2154 kernel. However, doing this comes at a price: you will lose many of the nifty
2155 features that are new to the 2.4 series kernels (such as XFS and tmpfs
2156 filesystems, iptables and more), although the 2.2 kernel sources can be
2157 patched with ReiserFS and devfs support.
2158 Gentoo linux boot scripts require either tmpfs or ramdisk support in the
2159 kernel, so 2.2 kernel users need to make sure that ramdisk support is compiled
2160 in (ie, not a module). It is <comment>vital</comment> that a
2161 <e>gentoo=notmpfs</e> flag be added to the kernel line in
2162 <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> or to the append line in
2163 <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path> for the 2.2 kernel so that a ramdisk is mounted
2164 for the boot scripts instead of tmpfs. If you choose not to use devfs, then
2165 <e>gentoo=notmpfs,nodevfs</e> should be used instead.
2166 </note>
2168 <pre caption = "Compiling and Installing the kernel">
2169 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</i>
2170 # <i>cp /usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
2171 </pre>
2173 </body>
2174 </section>
2175 <section>
2176 <title>Installing a system logger</title>
2177 <body>
2179 <p>
2180 Your new custom kernel (and modules) are now installed. Now you need to choose
2181 a system logger that you would like to install. We offer sysklogd, which is
2182 the traditional set of system logging daemons. We also have msyslog and
2183 syslog-ng as well as metalog. Power users seem to gravitate away from
2184 sysklogd (not very good performance) and towards the newer alternatives.
2185 If in doubt, you may want to try metalog, since it seems to be quite popular.
2186 To merge your logger of choice, type <e>one</e> of the next four command
2187 sets:
2188 </p>
2190 <pre caption="Emerging System Logger of Choice">
2191 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/sysklogd</i>
2192 # <i>rc-update add sysklogd default</i>
2193 <comment>or</comment>
2194 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/syslog-ng</i>
2195 # <i>rc-update add syslog-ng default</i>
2196 <comment>or</comment>
2197 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/metalog</i>
2198 # <i>rc-update add metalog default</i>
2199 <comment>or</comment>
2200 # <i>emerge -k app-admin/msyslog</i>
2201 # <i>rc-update add msyslog default</i>
2202 </pre>
2204 <impo>
2205 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
2206 recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
2207 performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
2208 system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
2209 turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
2210 <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
2211 expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
2212 disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
2213 METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
2214 <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
2215 <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
2216 # <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
2217 <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
2218 # <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
2219 </pre>
2220 </impo>
2222 <p>
2223 Now, you may optionally choose a cron package that you would like to use.
2224 Right now, we offer dcron, fcron and vcron. If you do not know which one to
2225 choose, you might as well grab vcron.
2226 </p>
2228 <pre caption="Choosing a CRON Daemon">
2229 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/dcron</i>
2230 # <i>rc-update add dcron default</i>
2231 # <i>crontab /etc/crontab</i>
2232 <comment>or</comment>
2233 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/fcron</i>
2234 # <i>rc-update add fcron default</i>
2235 # <i>crontab /etc/crontab</i>
2236 <comment>or</comment>
2237 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/vcron</i>
2238 # <i>rc-update add vcron default</i>
2239 <comment>You do not need to run <i>crontab /etc/crontab</i> if using vcron.</comment>
2240 </pre>
2242 <p>
2243 For more information on starting programs and daemons at startup, see the
2244 <uri link="/doc/en/rc-scripts.xml">rc-script guide</uri>.
2245 </p>
2247 </body>
2248 </section>
2249 </chapter>
2251 <chapter>
2252 <title>Installing miscellaneous necessary packages</title>
2253 <section>
2254 <body>
2256 <p>
2257 If you need rp-pppoe to connect to the net, be aware that at this point
2258 it has not been installed. It would be the good time to do it:
2259 </p>
2261 <pre caption="Installing rp-pppoe">
2262 # <i>USE="-X" emerge rp-pppoe</i>
2263 <comment>GRP users should type the following:</comment>
2264 # <i>USE="-X bindist" emerge -K rp-pppoe</i>
2265 </pre>
2267 <note>
2268 The <i>USE="-X"</i> prevents pppoe from installing its optional X interface,
2269 which is a good thing, because X and its dependencies would also be emerged.
2270 You can always recompile <i>rp-pppoe</i> with X support later.
2271 </note>
2273 <note>
2274 Please note that the rp-pppoe is built but not configured. You will have to
2275 do it again using <c>adsl-setup</c> when you boot into your Gentoo system
2276 for the first time.
2277 </note>
2279 <p>
2280 You may need to install some additional packages in the Portage tree
2281 if you are using any optional features like XFS, ReiserFS or LVM. If you're
2282 using XFS, you should emerge the <c>xfsprogs</c> package:
2283 </p>
2285 <pre caption="Emerging Filesystem Tools">
2286 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/xfsprogs</i>
2287 <comment>If you would like to use ReiserFS, you should emerge the ReiserFS tools: </comment>
2288 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/reiserfsprogs</i>
2289 <comment>If you would like to use JFS, you should emerge the JFS tools: </comment>
2290 # <i>emerge -k jfsutils</i>
2291 <comment>If you're using LVM, you should emerge the <c>lvm-user</c> package: </comment>
2292 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/lvm-user</i>
2293 </pre>
2295 <p>
2296 If you're a laptop user and wish to use your PCMCIA slots on your first
2297 real reboot, you will want to make sure you install the <i>pcmcia-cs</i>
2298 package.
2299 </p>
2301 <pre caption="Emerging PCMCIA-cs">
2302 # <i>emerge -k sys-apps/pcmcia-cs</i>
2303 </pre>
2305 <!-- fix the bug or fix the docs, don't send the user in circles
2306 (drobbins)
2307 <warn>You will have to re-emerge <i>pcmcia-cs</i> after installation to get PCMCIA
2308 to work.
2309 </warn>
2310 -->
2312 </body>
2313 </section>
2314 </chapter>
2316 <chapter>
2317 <title>User Management</title>
2318 <section>
2319 <title>Setting a root password</title>
2320 <body>
2322 <p>
2323 Before you forget, set the root password by typing:
2324 </p>
2326 <pre caption="Setting the root Password">
2327 # <i>passwd</i>
2328 </pre>
2330 </body>
2331 </section>
2332 <section>
2333 <title>Adding a user for day-to-day use</title>
2334 <body>
2336 <p>
2337 Working as root on a Unix/Linux system is <e>dangerous</e> and
2338 should be avoided as much as possible. Therefor it is <e>strongly</e>
2339 recommended to add a user for day-to-day use:
2340 </p>
2342 <pre caption = "Adding a user">
2343 # <i>useradd your_user -m -G users,wheel,audio -s /bin/bash</i>
2344 # <i>passwd your_user</i>
2345 </pre>
2347 <p>
2348 Substitute <c>your_user</c> with your username.
2349 </p>
2351 <p>
2352 Whenever you need to perform some task that only root can handle,
2353 use <c>su -</c> to change your privileges to root-privileges, or take
2354 a look at the <c>sudo</c> package.
2355 </p>
2357 </body>
2358 </section>
2359 </chapter>
2361 <chapter>
2362 <title>Setting your Hostname</title>
2363 <section>
2364 <body>
2366 <p>
2367 Edit <path>/etc/hostname</path> so that it contains your hostname
2368 on a single line, i.e. <c>mymachine</c>.
2369 </p>
2371 <pre caption="Configuring Hostname">
2372 # <i>echo mymachine &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
2373 </pre>
2375 <p>
2376 Then edit <path>/etc/dnsdomainname</path> so that it contains your DNS
2377 domainname, i.e. <c>mydomain.com</c>.
2378 </p>
2380 <pre caption="Configuring Domainname">
2381 # <i>echo mydomain.com &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
2382 </pre>
2384 <p>
2385 If you have a NIS domain, you should set it in
2386 <path>/etc/nisdomainname</path>.
2387 </p>
2389 <pre caption="Configuring NIS Domainname">
2390 # <i>echo nis.mydomain.com &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
2391 </pre>
2393 </body>
2394 </section>
2395 </chapter>
2398 <chapter>
2399 <title>Modifying /etc/hosts</title>
2400 <section>
2401 <body>
2403 <p>
2404 This file contains a list of IP addresses and their associated hostnames.
2405 It is used by the system to resolve the IP addresses of any hostnames that
2406 may not be in your nameservers. Here is a template for this file:
2407 </p>
2409 <pre caption="Hosts Template">
2410 localhost
2411 <comment># the next line contains your IP for your local LAN and your associated machine name</comment>
2412 mymachine.mydomain.com mymachine
2413 </pre>
2415 <note>
2416 If you are on a DHCP network, it might be helpful to add your
2417 machine's actual hostname after <i>localhost</i>. This will help
2418 GNOME and many other programs in name resolution.
2419 </note>
2421 </body>
2422 </section>
2423 </chapter>
2426 <chapter>
2427 <title>Final Network Configuration</title>
2428 <section>
2429 <body>
2431 <p>
2432 Add the names of any modules that are necessary for the proper functioning of
2433 your system to <path>/etc/modules.autoload</path> file (you can also add any
2434 options you need to the same line). When Gentoo Linux boots, these modules
2435 will be automatically loaded. Of particular importance is your ethernet
2436 card module, if you happened to compile it as a module:
2437 </p>
2439 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload">
2440 <comment>This is assuming that you are using a 3com card.
2441 Check <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net</path> for your card. </comment>
2442 3c59x
2443 </pre>
2445 <p>
2446 Edit the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> script to get your network configured
2447 for your first boot:
2448 </p>
2450 <pre caption="Boot time Network Configuration">
2451 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
2452 # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
2453 </pre>
2455 <p>
2456 If you have multiple network cards or tokenring interfaces, you need to create
2457 additional <path>net.eth<comment>x</comment></path> or
2458 <path>net.tr<comment>x</comment></path> scripts respectively for each one
2459 (<comment>x</comment> = 1, 2, ...):
2460 </p>
2462 <pre caption="Multiple Network Interfaces">
2463 # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
2464 # <i>cp net.eth0 net.eth<comment>x</comment></i>
2465 # <i>rc-update add net.eth<comment>x</comment> default</i>
2466 </pre>
2468 <p>
2469 If you have a PCMCIA card installed, have a quick look into
2470 <path>/etc/init.d/pcmcia</path> to verify that things seem all right for
2471 your setup, then add this line to the top of <path>/etc/init.d/net.ethx</path>:
2472 </p>
2474 <pre caption="PCMCIA depend in /etc/init.d/net.ethx">
2475 depend() {
2476 need pcmcia
2477 }
2478 </pre>
2480 <p>
2481 This makes sure that the PCMCIA drivers are autoloaded whenever your network
2482 is loaded.
2483 </p>
2485 </body>
2486 </section>
2487 </chapter>
2489 <chapter>
2490 <title>Final steps: Configure Basic Settings (including the international keymap setting)</title>
2491 <section>
2492 <body>
2494 <pre caption="Basic Configuration">
2495 # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
2496 </pre>
2498 <p>
2499 Follow the directions in the file to configure the basic settings. All users
2500 will want to make sure that CLOCK is set to his/her liking. International
2501 keyboard users will want to set the KEYMAP variable (browse
2502 <path>/usr/share/keymaps</path> to see the various possibilities).
2503 </p>
2505 </body>
2506 </section>
2507 </chapter>
2509 <chapter>
2510 <title>Configure a Bootloader</title>
2511 <section>
2512 <title>Notes</title>
2513 <body>
2515 <p>
2516 In the spirit of Gentoo, users now have more than one bootloader to choose
2517 from. Using our virtual package system, users are now able to choose between
2518 both GRUB and LILO as their bootloaders.
2519 </p>
2521 <p>
2522 Please keep in mind that having both bootloaders installed is not necessary.
2523 In fact, it can be a hindrance, so please only choose one.
2524 </p>
2526 <p>
2527 In addition, you will need to configure our bootloader differently depending
2528 upon whether you are using <c>genkernel</c> (with kernel and initrd) or a
2529 kernel you compiled by hand. Be sure to take note of the important
2530 differences.
2531 </p>
2533 <impo>
2534 If you are installing Gentoo Linux on a system with an NVIDIA nForce or
2535 nForce2 chipset with an integrated GeForce graphics card, you should use
2536 LILO and avoid GRUB. With on-board video enabled, the low memory area of your
2537 RAM may be used as video RAM. Since GRUB also uses low memory at boot time,
2538 it may experience an "out of memory" condition. So, if you have an nForce
2539 or potentially other board with on-board video, use LILO. Even if you're using
2540 off-board video right now, it would be nice to be able to remove the graphics
2541 card and use the on-board video in a pinch, wouldn't it? :)
2542 </impo>
2544 </body>
2545 </section>
2546 <section>
2547 <title>Configuring GRUB</title>
2548 <body>
2550 <p>
2551 The most critical part of understanding GRUB is getting comfortable with how
2552 GRUB refers to hard drives and partitions. Your Linux partition
2553 <path>/dev/hda1</path> is called <path>(hd0,0)</path> under GRUB. Notice the
2554 parenthesis around the hd0,0 - they are required. Hard drives count from zero
2555 rather than "a" and partitions start at zero rather than one. Be aware too
2556 that with the hd devices, only hard drives are counted, not atapi-ide devices
2557 such as cdrom players, burners and that the same construct can be used with
2558 scsi drives. (Normally they get higher numbers than ide drives except when the
2559 bios is configured to boot from scsi devices.) Assuming you have a hard drive
2560 on <path>/dev/hda</path>, a cdrom player on <path>/dev/hdb</path>, a burner on
2561 <path>/dev/hdc</path>, a second hard drive on <path>/dev/hdd</path> and no
2562 SCSI hard drive, <path>/dev/hdd7</path> gets translated to
2563 <path>(hd1,6)</path>. It might sound tricky and tricky it is indeed, but as
2564 we will see, GRUB offers a tab completion mechanism that comes handy for
2565 those of you having a lot of hard drives and partitions and who are a little
2566 lost in the GRUB numbering scheme. Having gotten the feel for that, it is
2567 time to install GRUB.
2568 </p>
2570 <p>
2571 The easiest way to install GRUB is to simply type <c>grub</c> at your chrooted
2572 shell prompt:
2573 </p>
2575 <pre caption="Installing GRUB">
2576 # <i>emerge -k grub</i>
2577 # <i>grub</i>
2578 </pre>
2580 <p>
2581 You will be presented with the <e>grub&gt;</e> grub command-line prompt.
2582 Now, you need to type in the right commands to install the GRUB boot record
2583 onto your hard drive. In my example configuration, I want to install the GRUB
2584 boot record on my hard drive's MBR (master boot record), so that the first
2585 thing I see when I turn on the computer is the GRUB prompt. In my case, the
2586 commands I want to type are:
2587 </p>
2589 <pre caption="GRUB on the MBR">
2590 grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i> <comment>(Your boot partition)</comment>
2591 grub&gt; <i>setup (hd0)</i> <comment>(Where the boot record is installed; here, it is the MBR)</comment>
2592 </pre>
2594 <pre caption="GRUB not on the MBR">
2595 <comment>Alternatively, if you wanted to install the bootloader somewhere other than the MBR:</comment>
2596 grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i> <comment>(Your boot partition)</comment>
2597 grub&gt; <i>setup (hd0,4)</i> <comment>(Where the boot record is installed; here it is /dev/hda5)</comment>
2598 grub&gt; <i>quit</i>
2599 </pre>
2601 <p>
2602 Here is how the two commands work. The first <c>root ( )</c> command tells
2603 GRUB the location of your boot partition (in our example,
2604 <path>/dev/hda1</path> or <path>(hd0,0)</path> in GRUB terminology. Then, the
2605 second <c>setup ( )</c> command tells GRUB where to install the boot record -
2606 it will be configured to look for its special files at the <c>root ( )</c>
2607 location that you specified. In my case, I want the boot record on the MBR
2608 of the hard drive, so I simply specify <path>/dev/hda</path> (also known as
2609 <path>(hd0)</path>). If I were using another boot loader and wanted to set up
2610 GRUB as a secondary boot-loader, I could install GRUB to the boot record of
2611 a particular partition. In that case, I would specify a particular partition
2612 rather than the entire disk. Once the GRUB boot record has been successfully
2613 installed, you can type <c>quit</c> to quit GRUB.
2614 </p>
2616 <note>
2617 The tab completion mechanism of GRUB can be used from within GRUB,
2618 assuming you wrote <c> root (</c> and that you hit the TAB key, you would
2619 be prompted with a list of the available devices (not only hard drives),
2620 hitting the TAB key having written <c> root (hd</c>, GRUB would print the
2621 available hard drives and hitting the TAB key after writing <c> root (hd0,</c>
2622 would make GRUB print the list of partitions on the first hard drive.
2623 Checking the syntax of the GRUB location with completion should really help
2624 to make the right choice.
2625 </note>
2627 <p>
2628 Gentoo Linux is now installed, but we need to create the
2629 <path>/boot/grub/grub.conf</path> file so that we get a nice GRUB boot menu
2630 when the system reboots. Here is how to do it.
2631 </p>
2633 <impo>
2634 To ensure backwards compatibility with GRUB, make sure to make a link from
2635 <path>grub.conf</path> to <path>menu.lst</path>. You can do this by typing
2636 <c>ln -s /boot/grub/grub.conf /boot/grub/menu.lst</c>.
2637 </impo>
2639 <p>
2640 Now, create the <path>grub.conf</path> file (<c>nano -w
2641 /boot/grub/grub.conf</c>) and add the following to it:
2642 </p>
2644 <pre caption="grub.conf for GRUB">
2645 default 0
2646 timeout 30
2647 splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
2649 <comment># If you compiled your own kernel, use something like this:</comment>
2650 title=My example Gentoo Linux
2651 root (hd0,0)
2652 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/hda3
2654 <comment># If you're using genkernel, use something like this instead:</comment>
2655 title=My example Gentoo Linux (genkernel)
2656 root (hd0,0)
2657 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/kernel-KV root=/dev/hda3
2658 initrd (hd0,0)/boot/initrd-KV
2660 <comment># Below needed only for people who dual-boot</comment>
2661 title=Windows XP
2662 root (hd0,5)
2663 chainloader (hd0,5)+1
2664 </pre>
2666 <p>
2667 Substitute <c>KV</c> with the kernel version you have installed.
2668 </p>
2670 <note>
2671 (hd0,0) should be written without any spaces inside the parentheses.
2672 </note>
2674 <impo>
2675 If you set up SCSI emulation for an IDE cd burner earlier, then to get it to
2676 actually work you need to add an <c>hdx=ide-scsi</c> fragment to the kernel
2677 line in <path>grub.conf</path> (where "hdx" should be the device for your cd
2678 burner).
2679 </impo>
2681 <p>
2682 After saving this file, Gentoo Linux installation is complete. Selecting the
2683 first option will tell GRUB to boot Gentoo Linux without a fuss. The second
2684 part of the <path>grub.conf</path> file is optional and shows you how to use
2685 GRUB to boot a bootable Windows partition.
2686 </p>
2688 <note>
2689 Above, <path>(hd0,0)</path> should point to your "boot" partition
2690 (<path>/dev/hda1</path> in our example config) and <path>/dev/hda3</path>
2691 should point to your root filesystem. <path>(hd0,5)</path> contains the NT
2692 boot loader.
2693 </note>
2695 <note>
2696 The path to the kernel image is relative to the boot partition. If for
2697 example you have separated boot partition <path>(hd0,0)</path> and root
2698 partition <path>(hd0,1)</path>, all paths in the <path>grub.conf</path> file
2699 above will become <path>/bzImage</path>.
2700 </note>
2702 <p>
2703 If you need to pass any additional options to the kernel, simply add them to
2704 the end of the <c>kernel</c> command. We're already passing one option
2705 (<c>root=/dev/hda3</c>), but you can pass others as well. In particular, you
2706 can turn off devfs by default (not recommended unless you know what you're
2707 doing) by adding the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> option to the <c>kernel</c>
2708 command.
2709 </p>
2711 <note>
2712 Unlike in earlier versions of Gentoo Linux, you no longer have to add
2713 <c>devfs=mount</c> to the end of the <c>kernel</c> line to enable devfs.
2714 Now devfs is enabled by default.
2715 </note>
2717 </body>
2718 </section>
2719 <section>
2720 <title>Configuring LILO</title>
2721 <body>
2723 <p>
2724 While GRUB may be the new alternative for most people, it is not always the
2725 best choice. LILO, the LInuxLOader, is the tried and true workhorse of Linux
2726 bootloaders. Here is how to install LILO if you would like to use it instead
2727 of GRUB.
2728 </p>
2730 <p>
2731 The first step is to emerge LILO:
2732 </p>
2734 <pre caption="Emerging LILO">
2735 # <i>emerge -k lilo</i>
2736 </pre>
2738 <p>
2739 Now it is time to configure LILO. Here is a sample configuration file
2740 <path>/etc/lilo.conf</path>:
2741 </p>
2743 <pre caption="Example lilo.conf">
2744 boot=/dev/hda
2745 map=/boot/map
2746 install=/boot/boot.b
2747 prompt
2748 timeout=50
2749 lba32
2750 default=linux
2752 <comment># Use something like the following 4 lines if you compiled your kernel yourself</comment>
2753 image=/boot/bzImage
2754 label=linux
2755 read-only
2756 root=/dev/hda3
2758 <comment># If you used genkernel, use something like this:</comment>
2759 image=/boot/kernel-KV
2760 label=gk_linux
2761 root=/dev/hda3
2762 initrd=/boot/initrd-KV
2763 append="root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc"
2766 <comment># For dual booting windows/other OS</comment>
2767 other=/dev/hda1
2768 label=dos
2769 </pre>
2771 <p>
2772 Substitute <c>KV</c> with the kernel version you have installed.
2773 </p>
2775 <ul>
2776 <li><c>boot=/dev/hda</c> tells LILO to install itself on the first hard disk on the first IDE controller.</li>
2777 <li><c>map=/boot/map</c> states the map file. In normal use, this should not be modified. </li>
2778 <li><c>install=/boot/boot.b</c> tells LILO to install the specified file as the new boot sector. In normal use, this should not be altered. If the install line is missing, LILO will assume a default of <path>/boot/boot.b</path> as the file to be used. </li>
2779 <li>The existence of <c>prompt</c> tells LILO to display the classic <e>lilo:</e> prompt at bootup. While it is not recommended that you remove the prompt line, if you do remove it, you can still get a prompt by holding down the [Shift] key while your machine starts to boot. </li>
2780 <li><c>timeout=50</c> sets the amount of time that LILO will wait for user input before proceeding with booting the default line entry. This is measured in tenths of a second, with 50 as the default. </li>
2781 <li><c>lba32</c> describes the hard disk geometry to LILO. Another common entry here is linear. You should not change this line unless you are very aware of what you are doing. Otherwise, you could put your system in an unbootable state. </li>
2782 <li><c>default=linux</c> refers to the default operating system for LILO to boot from the options listed below this line. The name linux refers to the label line below in each of the boot options. </li>
2783 <li><c>image=/boot/bzImage</c> specifies the linux kernel to boot with this particular boot option. </li>
2784 <li><c>label=linux</c> names the operating system option in the LILO screen. In this case, it is also the name referred to by the default line. </li>
2785 <li><c>read-only</c> specifies that the root partition (see the root line below) is read-only and cannot be altered during the boot process. </li>
2786 <li><c>root=/dev/hda3</c> tells LILO what disk partition to use as the root partition. </li>
2787 </ul>
2789 <p>
2790 After you have edited your <path>lilo.conf</path> file, it is time to run LILO
2791 to load the information into the MBR:
2792 </p>
2794 <pre caption="Running LILO">
2795 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
2796 </pre>
2798 <p>
2799 LILO is configured and now your machine is ready to boot into Gentoo Linux!
2800 </p>
2802 </body>
2803 </section>
2805 <section>
2806 <title>Using framebuffer</title>
2807 <body>
2809 <p>
2810 People who have selected framebuffer in their kernel should add <c>vga=xxx</c>
2811 to their bootloader configuration file. <c>xxx</c> is one of the values in the
2812 following table:
2813 </p>
2815 <table>
2816 <tr><ti></ti><th>640x480</th><th>800x600</th><th>1024x768</th><th>1280x1024</th></tr>
2817 <tr><th>8 bpp</th><ti>769</ti><ti>771</ti><ti>773</ti><ti>775</ti></tr>
2818 <tr><th>16 bpp</th><ti>785</ti><ti>788</ti><ti>791</ti><ti>794</ti></tr>
2819 <tr><th>32 bpp</th><ti>786</ti><ti>789</ti><ti>792</ti><ti>795</ti></tr>
2820 </table>
2822 <p>
2823 LILO-users will have to add <c>vga=xxx</c> on top of their configuration
2824 file.
2825 </p>
2827 <p>
2828 GRUB-users will have to append <c>vga=xxx</c> to the <c>kernel
2829 (hd0,0)...</c> line.
2830 </p>
2832 </body>
2833 </section>
2834 </chapter>
2836 <chapter>
2837 <title>Creating Bootdisks</title>
2838 <section>
2839 <title>GRUB Bootdisks</title>
2840 <body>
2842 <impo>
2843 Don't forget to insert a floppy in your floppydrive before proceeding.
2844 </impo>
2846 <p>
2847 It is always a good idea to make a boot disk the first
2848 time you install any Linux distribution. This is a security
2849 blanket and generally not a bad thing to do. If your hardware doesn't
2850 let you install a working bootloader from the chrooted environment,
2851 you may <e>need</e> to make a GRUB boot disk.
2852 If you are in this camp, make a GRUB boot disk and when you reboot
2853 the first time you can install GRUB to the MBR. Make your bootdisks
2854 like this:
2855 </p>
2857 <pre caption="Creating a GRUB Bootdisk">
2858 # <i>cd /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/</i>
2859 # <i>cat stage1 stage2 > /dev/fd0</i>
2860 </pre>
2862 <p>
2863 Now reboot and load the floppy. At the floppy's <c>grub&gt;</c> prompt, you
2864 can now execute the necessary <c>root</c> and <c>setup</c> commands.
2865 </p>
2867 </body>
2868 </section>
2869 <section>
2870 <title>LILO Bootdisks</title>
2871 <body>
2873 <impo>
2874 Don't forget to insert a floppy in your floppydrive before proceeding.
2875 </impo>
2877 <p>
2878 If you are using LILO, it is also a good idea to make a bootdisk:
2879 </p>
2881 <pre caption="Making a Bootdisk">
2882 # <i>dd if=/boot/your_kernel of=/dev/fd0 </i>
2883 <comment>(This will only work if your kernel is smaller than 1.4MB)</comment>
2884 </pre>
2886 </body>
2887 </section>
2888 </chapter>
2890 <chapter>
2891 <title>Using GRP</title>
2892 <section>
2893 <body>
2895 <p>
2896 GRP users can, at this point, install binary packages:
2897 </p>
2899 <pre caption="Installing from GRP">
2900 # <i>USE="bindist" emerge -k xfree</i>
2901 <codenote>(USE="bindist" must be set while installing GRP packages that use XFree86)</codenote>
2902 </pre>
2904 <p>
2905 CD 1 contains enough applications to install a working system with XFree86.
2906 Additionally, CD2 of the 2-CD GRP set contains other applications including
2907 KDE, GNOME, Mozilla and others. To install these packages, you will need to
2908 reboot into your new Gentoo system first (covered in the "Installation
2909 complete!" section near the end of this document). After you are running your
2910 basic Gentoo system from the hard drive, you can mount the second CD and copy
2911 files:
2912 </p>
2914 <pre caption="Loading binary packages from CD2">
2915 # <i>mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom</i>
2916 # <i>cp -a /mnt/cdrom/packages/ /usr/portage/</i>
2917 </pre>
2919 <p>
2920 Now various other applications can be installed the same way. For example:
2921 </p>
2923 <pre caption="Installing KDE from GRP">
2924 # <i>USE="bindist" emerge -k kde</i>
2925 </pre>
2927 </body>
2928 </section>
2929 </chapter>
2931 <chapter>
2932 <title>Installation Complete!</title>
2933 <section>
2934 <body>
2936 <p>
2937 Now, Gentoo Linux is installed. The only remaining step is to update necessary
2938 configuration files, exit the chrooted shell, safely unmount your partitions
2939 and reboot the system:
2940 </p>
2942 <warn>
2943 <c>etc-update</c> can provide you with a list of configuration files
2944 that have newer versions at your disposal. Verify that none of the
2945 configuration files have a big impact (such as <path>/etc/fstab</path>,
2946 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, ...). Merge the
2947 files that don't have such a big impact, remove the updates of the
2948 others or view the diff and manually update the configuration file.
2949 </warn>
2951 <pre caption="Rebooting the System">
2952 # <i>etc-update</i>
2953 # <i>exit</i>
2954 <comment>(This exits the chrooted shell; you can also type <i>^D</i>)</comment>
2955 # <i>cd / </i>
2956 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
2957 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
2958 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo</i>
2959 # <i>reboot</i>
2960 <comment>(Don't forget to remove the bootable CD)</comment>
2961 </pre>
2963 <note>
2964 After rebooting, it is a good idea to run the <c>update-modules</c> command to
2965 create the <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> file. Instead of modifying this
2966 file directly, you should generally make changes to the files in
2967 <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
2968 </note>
2970 <p>
2971 If you have any questions or would like to get involved with Gentoo Linux
2972 evelopment, consider joining our gentoo-user and gentoo-dev mailing lists
2973 (more information on our <uri
2974 link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">mailing lists</uri> page).
2975 We also have a handy <uri
2976 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">Desktop configuration
2977 guide</uri> that will help you to continue configuring your new Gentoo Linux
2978 system and a useful <uri
2979 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage user guide</uri>
2980 to help familiarize you with Portage basics. You can find the rest of the
2981 Gentoo Documentation <uri
2982 link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>. If you have any
2983 other questions involving installation or anything for that matter, please
2984 check the Gentoo Linux <uri
2985 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/faq.xml">FAQ</uri>. Enjoy and welcome to
2986 Gentoo Linux!
2987 </p>
2989 </body>
2990 </section>
2991 </chapter>
2993 <chapter>
2994 <title>Gentoo-Stats</title>
2995 <section>
2996 <body>
2998 <p>
2999 The Gentoo Linux usage statistics program was started as an attempt to give
3000 the developers a way to find out about their user base. It collects information
3001 about Gentoo Linux usage to help us in set priorities our development.
3002 Installing it is completely optional and it would be greatly appreciated if
3003 you decide to use it. Compiled statistics can be viewed at
3004 <uri>http://stats.gentoo.org/</uri>.
3005 </p>
3007 <p>
3008 The gentoo-stats server will assign a unique ID to your system.
3009 This ID is used to make sure that each system is counted only once. The ID
3010 will not be used to individually identify your system, nor will it be matched
3011 against an IP address or other personal information. Every precaution has been
3012 taken to assure your privacy in the development of this system. The following
3013 are the things that we are monitoring right now through our "gentoo-stats"
3014 program:
3015 </p>
3017 <ul>
3018 <li>installed packages and their version numbers</li>
3019 <li>CPU information: speed (MHz), vendor name, model name, CPU flags (like "mmx" or "3dnow")</li>
3020 <li>memory information (total available physical RAM, total available swap space)</li>
3021 <li>PCI cards and network controller chips</li>
3022 <li>the Gentoo Linux profile your machine is using (that is, where the <path>/etc/make.profile</path> link is pointing to).</li>
3023 </ul>
3025 <p>
3026 We are aware that disclosure of sensitive information is a threat to most
3027 Gentoo Linux users (just as it is to the developers).
3028 </p>
3030 <ul>
3031 <li>Unless you modify the gentoo-stats program, it will never transmit sensitive information such as your passwords, configuration data, shoe size...</li>
3032 <li>Transmission of your e-mail addresses is optional and turned off by default.</li>
3033 <li>The IP address your data transmission originates from will never be logged in such a way that we can identify you. There are no "IP address/system ID" pairs.</li>
3034 </ul>
3036 <p>
3037 The installation is easy - just run the following commands:
3038 </p>
3040 <pre caption="Installing gentoo-stats">
3041 # <i>emerge gentoo-stats</i> <comment>(Installs gentoo-stats)</comment>
3042 # <i>gentoo-stats --new</i> <comment>(Obtains a new system ID)</comment>
3043 </pre>
3045 <p>
3046 The second command above will request a new system ID and enter it into
3047 <path>/etc/gentoo-stats/gentoo-stats.conf</path> automatically. You can view
3048 this file to see additional configuration options.
3049 </p>
3051 <p>
3052 After that, the program should be run on a regular schedule (gentoo-stats does
3053 not have to be run as root). Add this line to your <path>crontab</path>:
3054 </p>
3056 <pre caption="Updating gentoo-stats with cron">
3057 0 0 * * 0,4 /usr/sbin/gentoo-stats --update &gt; /dev/null
3058 </pre>
3060 <p>
3061 The <c>gentoo-stats</c> program is a simple perl script which can be
3062 viewed with your favorite pager or editor: <path>/usr/sbin/gentoo-stats</path>.
3063 </p>
3065 </body>
3066 </section>
3067 </chapter>
3069 <chapter>
3070 <title>Gentoo On Less-Common Hardware</title>
3071 <section>
3072 <title>Hardware ATA RAID</title>
3073 <body>
3075 <p>
3076 Users who want to install Gentoo on Hardware ATA RAID must pay
3077 attention to the next steps in order for them to succesfully
3078 install Gentoo Linux:
3079 </p>
3081 <ul>
3082 <li>Be sure to start the LiveCD with the <c>doataraid</c> kerneloption.</li>
3083 <li>If you've forgotten to select <c>doataraid</c> during bootup, or the modules mysteriously didn't load, load them as needed:
3084 <pre caption = "Loading RAID modules">
3085 # <i>modprobe ataraid</i>
3086 <comment>For Promise Raid Controllers:</comment>
3087 # <i>modprobe pdcraid</i>
3088 <comment>For Highpoint Raid Controllers:</comment>
3089 # <i>modprobe hptraid</i>
3090 </pre></li>
3091 <li>Some ATA RAID Controllers require you to reboot after partitioning; formatting will otherwise fail.</li>
3092 <li>Before chrooting, mount the devicetree into the new environment:
3093 <pre caption = "Mounting /dev into /mnt/gentoo/dev">
3094 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
3095 </pre></li>
3096 <li>During kernel configuration, select the required RAID options:
3097 <pre caption = "RAID in the Linux Kernel Configuration">
3098 <comment>For Highpoint RAID controllers:</comment>
3099 ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
3100 [*] HPT36X/37X chipset support
3101 [*] Support for IDE Raid controllers
3102 [*] Highpoint 370 software RAID
3103 <comment>For Promise RAID controllers:</comment>
3104 ATA/IDE/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
3105 [*] PROMISE PDC202{46|62|65|67} support
3106 <comment>and/or</comment>
3107 [*] PROMISE PDC202{68|69|70|71|75|76|77} support
3108 [*] Support for IDE Raid controllers
3109 [*] Support Promise software RAID (Fasttrak(tm))
3110 </pre></li>
3111 <li>When using GRUB add <c>--stage2=/boot/grub/stage2</c> when running <c>grub</c> to the <c>setup</c> command:
3112 <pre caption = "Installing GRUB for Hardware RAID systems">
3113 grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0)</i>
3114 grub&gt; <i>setup --stage2=/boot/grub/stage2 (hd0)</i>
3115 grub&gt; <i>quit</i>
3116 </pre>
3117 Also, in the GRUB configuration be sure to point the <c>root</c>
3118 to the appropriate RAID device:
3119 <pre caption = "grub.conf for RAID">
3120 title=My Gentoo Linux on RAID
3121 root (hd0,0)
3122 kernel (hd0,0)/boot/bzImage root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
3123 </pre></li>
3124 <li>LILO users should set the <c>root</c> option to the appropriate RAID device:
3125 <pre caption = "lilo.conf for RAID">
3126 image=/boot/bzImage
3127 label=linux
3128 read-only
3129 root=/dev/ataraid/dXpY
3130 </pre></li>
3131 </ul>
3133 <p>
3134 If you still have problems installing Gentoo Linux on your Hardware
3135 RAID, be sure to report them on <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>.
3136 </p>
3138 <p>
3139 Thanks for using Gentoo Linux, and have fun with your new installation!
3140 </p>
3143 </body>
3144 </section>
3145 </chapter>
3146 </guide>

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