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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.15 2004/11/01 20:15:44 dertobi123 Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.43 2006/07/19 11:46:29 rane Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 4
5<guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">
6<title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title>
7<author title="Author"> 7<author title="Author">
8 <mail link="holler@gentoo.de">Alexander Holler</mail> 8 Alexander Holler
9</author> 9</author>
10<author title="Translator/Editor"> 10<author title="Translator/Editor">
11 <mail link="slucy@uchicago.edu">Steven Lucy</mail> 11 <mail link="slucy@uchicago.edu">Steven Lucy</mail>
12</author> 12</author>
13<author title="Editor"> 13<author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="pylon@gentoo.org">Lars Weiler</mail> 17 <mail link="pylon@gentoo.org">Lars Weiler</mail>
18</author> 18</author>
19<author title="Editor"> 19<author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="dertobi123@gentoo.org">Tobias Scherbaum</mail> 20 <mail link="dertobi123@gentoo.org">Tobias Scherbaum</mail>
21</author> 21</author>
22<author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="flammie@gentoo.org">Flammie Pirinen</mail>
22 25
23<abstract> 26<abstract>
24This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any 27This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any
25European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from 28European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from
26the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the Euro currency symbol. 29the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the euro currency symbol.
27</abstract> 30</abstract>
28 31
29<version>1.11</version> 32<version>1.31</version>
30<date>November 1, 2004</date> 33<date>2006-07-18</date>
31 34
32<chapter> 35<chapter>
33<title>Timezone</title> 36<title>Time zone</title>
34<section> 37<section>
35<body> 38<body>
36 39
37<p> 40<p>
38In order to keep time properly, <path>/etc/localtime</path> must point to 41In order to keep time properly, <path>/etc/localtime</path> must contain the
39the correct time zone data file. Look around in 42correct time zone data. Look around in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/</path>
40<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/</path> and pick your timezone or a near-by big city. 43and pick your timezone or a near-by big city. Please avoid the
44<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
45indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact GMT+8.
41</p> 46</p>
42 47
43<pre caption="setting the timezone"> 48<pre caption="Setting the timezone">
44# <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin /etc/localtime</i> 49# <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin /etc/localtime</i>
45# <i>date</i> 50# <i>date</i>
46Sun Feb 16 08:26:44 CET 2003 51Sun Feb 16 08:26:44 CET 2003
47</pre> 52</pre>
48 53
49<note> 54<note>
50Make sure that the three-letter timezone indicator (in this case "CET") 55Make sure that the timezone indicator (in this case "CET")
51is correct for your area. 56is correct for your area.
52</note> 57</note>
53 58
54<note> 59<note>
55You can set the value of <c>TZ</c> to be everything after the 60You can set the value of <c>TZ</c> to be everything after the
61</body> 66</body>
62</section> 67</section>
63</chapter> 68</chapter>
64 69
65<chapter> 70<chapter>
66<title>System Clock</title> 71<title>Hardware Clock</title>
67<section> 72<section>
68<body> 73<body>
69 74
70<p> 75<p>
71In most Gentoo Linux installations, your system clock is set to 76In most Gentoo Linux installations, your hardware clock is set to
72UTC (or GMT, Greenwhich Mean Time) and then your timezone is 77UTC (or GMT, Greenwich Mean Time) and then your timezone is
73taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If, 78taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If,
74for some reason, you need your system clock not to be in UTC, 79for some reason, you need your hardware clock not to be in UTC,
75you will need to edit <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and change the 80you will need to edit <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> and change the
76value of <c>CLOCK</c>. 81value of <c>CLOCK</c> from <c>UTC</c> to <c>local</c>.
77</p> 82</p>
78 83
79<pre caption="local vs. GMT clock"> 84<pre caption="local vs. GMT clock">
80<codenote>recommended:</codenote> 85<comment>(recommended:)</comment>
82<codenote>or:</codenote> 87<comment>(or:)</comment>
83CLOCK="local" 88CLOCK="local"
84</pre> 89</pre>
85 90
86</body> 91</body>
87</section> 92</section>
88</chapter> 93</chapter>
89 94
90<chapter> 95<chapter>
91<title>POSIX Locale</title> 96<title>Locale system</title>
98<title>What are locales?</title>
102A Locale is a set of information that most programs use for determining
103country and language specific settings. The locales and their data
104are part of the system library and can be found
105at <path>/usr/share/locale</path> on most systems. A locale name is generally
106named <c>ab_CD</c> where <c>ab</c> is your two (or three) letter
107language code (as specified in ISO-639) and <c>CD</c> is your two letter country
108code (as specified in ISO-3166).
92<section> 112</section>
93<title>Using Existing Locales</title> 113<section id="variables">
114<title>Environment variables for locales</title>
94<body> 115<body>
95 116
97The next step is to set the <c>LANG</c> shell variable, which
98is used by your shell and window manager (and some other
99applications). Valid values can be found in
100<path>/usr/share/locale</path> and generally take the form
101<c>ab_CD</c>, where <c>ab</c> is your two letter language code
102and <c>CD</c> is your two letter country code. The <c>_CD</c>
103is left off if your language is only (or primarily) spoken in
104one country. <c>LANG</c> can be set in
105<path>/etc/profile</path> if you want it to take effect
106system-wide, or in <path>~/.bashrc</path> as a user-specific
108</p> 117<p>
118Locale settings are stored in environment variables. These are typically
119set in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> (for system-wide
120settings) and <path>~/.bashrc</path> (for user-specific settings) file.
121The variables controlling different aspects of locale settings
122are given in the table below, those with highest precedence (i.e. those
123that override settings below them) are at the top of the table. All variables
124take one name of a locale in <c>ab_CD</c> format given above.
109 126
110<pre caption="setting the POSIX locale"> 127<table>
129 <th>Variable name</th>
130 <th>Explanation</th>
133 <ti>LC_ALL</ti>
134 <ti>
135 Define all locale settings at once. This is the top level setting for
136 locales which will override any other setting.
137 </ti>
140 <ti>LC_COLLATE</ti>
141 <ti>
142 Define alphabetical ordering of strings. This affects e.g. output of sorted
143 directory listing.
144 </ti>
147 <ti>LC_CTYPE</ti>
148 <ti>
149 Define the character handling properties for the system. This determines
150 which characters are seen as part of alphabet, numeric and so on. This also
151 determines the character set used, if applicable.
152 </ti>
155 <ti>LC_MESSAGES</ti>
156 <ti>
157 Programs' localizations for applications that use message based localization
158 scheme (majority of Gnu programs, see next chapters for closer information
159 which do, and how to get the programs, that don't, to work).
160 </ti>
163 <ti>LC_MONETARY</ti>
164 <ti>Defines currency units and formatting of currency type numeric values.</ti>
167 <ti>LC_NUMERIC</ti>
168 <ti>
169 Defines formatting of numeric values which aren't monetary. Affects things
170 such as thousand separator and decimal separator.
171 </ti>
174 <ti>LC_TIME</ti>
175 <ti>Defines formatting of dates and times.</ti>
178 <ti>LC_PAPER</ti>
179 <ti>Defines default paper size.</ti>
182 <ti>LANG</ti>
183 <ti>
184 Defines all locale settings at once. This setting can be overridden by
185 individual LC_* settings above or even by LC_ALL.
186 </ti>
191Even though most programs work with LC_ALL only, some of them misbehave if
192LC_ALL is set but LANG isn't. If you want to play safe, set them <e>both</e>.
196Most typically users only set the LANG variable and perhaps LC_CTYPE variable
197on user level by adding definitions to shells startup files defining
198the environment variable manually from command line:
201<pre caption="Setting the user locale in ~/.bashrc">
111export LANG="de_DE@euro" 202export LANG="de_DE@euro"
112</pre> 203</pre>
113 204
114<note> 205<note>
115Appended <c>@euro</c> to your locale if you want to use the new Euro 206Append <c>@euro</c> to your locale if you want to use the Euro
116currency symbol (&#8364;) 207currency symbol ()
117</note> 208</note>
211It is also possible to set a system-wide locale for all users and programs:
214<pre caption="Setting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale">
220A common practice is to use only per user locale settings and leave the
221default system locale unset. In this case system locale defaults to a
222special value <c>"C"</c>, which for historical reasons maps to the English
227For message based localization to work in programs that support it, you will
228probably need to have programs compiled with the <c>nls</c> (Native language
229support) USE flag set. Most of the programs using nls also need the gettext
230library to extract and use localized messages. Of course, Portage will
231automatically install it when needed.
235Once you have set the right locale, be sure to update your environment
236variables to make your system aware of the change:
239<pre caption="Update the environment">
240<comment>(For system-wide default locale:)</comment>
241# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
243<comment>(For user-specific locale:)</comment>
244$ <i>source ~/.bashrc</i>
248After this, you will need to kill your X server by pressing
249<c>Ctrl-Alt-Backspace</c>, log out, then log in as user.
253Now, verify that the changes have taken effect:
256<pre caption="Verify env changes">
257$ <i>env | grep -i LC_</i>
261There is also additional localisation variable called LINGUAS, which affects
262to localisation files that get installed in gettext-based programs, and decides
263used localisation for some specific software packages, such as
264<c>kde-base/kde-i18n</c> and <c>app-office/openoffice</c>. The variable
265takes in <e>space</e>-separated list of language codes, and suggested
266place to set it is <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
269<pre caption="Setting LINGUAS in make.conf">
270# <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
271<comment>(Add in the LINGUAS variable. For instance,
272for German, Finnish and English:)</comment>
273LINGUAS="de fi en"
118 276
119</body> 277</body>
120</section> 278</section>
121<section> 279<section>
122<title>Generating Specific Locales</title> 280<title>Generating Specific Locales</title>
138 296
139<pre caption="Exporting the LANG variable"> 297<pre caption="Exporting the LANG variable">
140# <i>export LANG="en_US.ISO-8859-15"</i> 298# <i>export LANG="en_US.ISO-8859-15"</i>
141</pre> 299</pre>
142 300
302Be sure to update the environment after the change:
305<pre caption="Update the environment">
306# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
310After this, you will need to kill your X server by pressing
311<c>Ctrl-Alt-Backspace</c>, log out, then log in as user.
143</body> 314</body>
145<section> 315</section>
146<title>The userlocales USE flag</title> 316<section>
317<title>Generating locales for glibc</title>
147<body> 318<body>
148 319
149<p> 320<p>
150You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now 321You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You can
151after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales has been
152created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag und specify
153only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>. 322specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
156<pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
157echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use
160<p> 323</p>
161Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
163 324
164<pre caption="nano -w /etc/locales.build"> 325<pre caption="Adding locales to /etc/locale.gen">
165en_US/ISO-8859-1 326en_GB ISO-8859-1
166en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8 327en_GB.UTF-8 UTF-8
167de_DE/ISO-8859-1 328de_DE ISO-8859-1
168de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15 329de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
169</pre> 330</pre>
170 331
172The next step is to re-compile <c>glibc</c>. Of course you can defer this until
173the next <c>glibc</c> upgrade is available.
174</p> 332<p>
333The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generate all the locales you
334have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
338<c>locale-gen</c> is available in <c>glibc-2.3.6-r4</c> and newer. If you have
339an older version of glibc, you should update it now.
175 341
176</body> 342</body>
177</section> 343</section>
178</chapter> 344</chapter>
179 345
182<section> 348<section>
183<body> 349<body>
184 350
185<p> 351<p>
186The keyboard layout used by the console is set in 352The keyboard layout used by the console is set in
187<path>/etc/rc.conf</path> by the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. 353<path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> by the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable.
188Valid values can be found in 354Valid values can be found in
189<path>/usr/share/keymaps/<c>{arch}</c>/</path>. 355<path>/usr/share/keymaps/<c>{arch}</c>/</path>.
190<path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout 356<path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout
191(<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some 357(<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some
192languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment 358languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment
193to decide which one fits your needs best. 359to decide which one fits your needs best.
194</p> 360</p>
195 361
196<pre caption="setting the console keymap"> 362<pre caption="Setting the console keymap">
197KEYMAP="de" 363KEYMAP="de"
198KEYMAP="de-latin1" 364KEYMAP="de-latin1"
199KEYMAP="de-latin1-nodeadkeys" 365KEYMAP="de-latin1-nodeadkeys"
200</pre> 366</pre>
201 367
208<section> 374<section>
209<body> 375<body>
210 376
211<p> 377<p>
212The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified 378The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified
213in <path>/etc/X11/XF86Config</path> by the <c>XkbLayout</c> 379in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> by the <c>XkbLayout</c>
214option. 380option.
215</p> 381</p>
216 382
217<pre caption="setting the X keymap"> 383<pre caption="Setting the X keymap">
218 Section "InputDevice" 384 Section "InputDevice"
219 Identifier "Keyboard1" 385 Identifier "Keyboard1"
220 ... 386 ...
221 Option "XkbLayout" "de" 387 Option "XkbLayout" "de"
222 # Option "XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys" 388 #Option "XkbModel" "pc105" <comment>## this is for international keyboards.</comment>
389 # Option "XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys" <comment>## this would be used for xterm input</comment>
223 ... 390 ...
224</pre> 391</pre>
225 392
394If you have an international keyboard layout, you should set the option
395<c>XkbModel</c> to <c>pc102</c> or <c>pc105</c>, as this will allow mapping of the
396additional keys specific to your keyboard.
400Deadkeys allow you to press keys that will not show immediately but will be
401combined with another letter to produce a single character such as é,è,á,à,
402etc. Setting <c>XkbVariant</c> to <c>nodeadkeys</c> allows input these special
403characters into X terminals.
407If you would like to switch between more than one keyboard layout (for example
408English and Russian), all you have to do is add a few lines to
409<path>xorg.conf</path> that specify the desired layouts and the shortcut
413<pre caption="Switching between two keyboard layouts">
414 Section "InputDevice"
415 Identifier "Keyboard1"
416 ...
417 Option "XkbLayout" "us,ru"
418 Option "XkbOptions" "grp:alt_shift_toggle,grp_led:scroll"
422Here, <c>XkbOptions</c> allows you to toggle between keyboard layouts by simply
423pressing <c>Alt-Shift</c>. This will also toggle the Scroll Lock light on or
424off, thanks to the <c>grp_led:scroll</c> option. This is a handy visual
425indicator of which keyboard layout you are using at the moment.
226</body> 428</body>
227</section> 429</section>
228</chapter> 430</chapter>
229 431
230<chapter> 432<chapter>
231<title>KDE</title> 433<title>KDE</title>
232<section> 434<section>
233<body> 435<body>
234 436
235<p> 437<p>
236For KDE you have to install the kde-i18n package with the appropriate 438For KDE you have to install the <c>kde-base/kde-i18n</c> package. Kde-i18n
237LINGUAS environment variable set:</p> 439respects <uri link="#variables">LINGUAS variable</uri> described earlier.
239<pre caption="Install localized KDE">
240# <i>LINGUAS="de" emerge kde-i18n</i>
241</pre> 440</p>
242 441
243</body> 442</body>
244</section> 443</section>
245</chapter> 444</chapter>
246 445
250<body> 449<body>
251 450
252<p> 451<p>
253In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you 452In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you
254will need to set <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> in 453will need to set <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> in
255<path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to a file found in 454<path>/etc/conf.d/consolefont</path> to a file found in
256<path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the 455<path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the
257<c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat9w-16</c> has the Euro symbol. 456<c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat9w-16</c> has the Euro symbol.
258</p> 457</p>
259 458
260<pre caption="setting the console font"> 459<pre caption="Setting the console font">
261CONSOLEFONT="lat9w-16" 460CONSOLEFONT="lat9w-16"
464You should verify that <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> is in the boot runlevel:
467<pre caption="Verify the proper runlevel">
468# <i>rc-update show | grep -i consolefont</i>
472If no runlevel is displayed for <c>CONSOLEFONT</c>, then add it to the proper level:
475<pre caption="Add consolefont to boot">
476# <i>rc-update add consolefont boot</i>
262</pre> 477</pre>
263 478
264</body> 479</body>
265</section> 480</section>
266</chapter> 481</chapter>
277and <c>variable</c> definitions in 492and <c>variable</c> definitions in
278<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end 493<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end
279in <c>iso8859-15</c> instead of <c>iso8859-1</c>. 494in <c>iso8859-15</c> instead of <c>iso8859-1</c>.
280</p> 495</p>
281 496
282<pre caption="setting default X fonts"> 497<pre caption="Setting default X fonts">
283fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15 498fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15
284variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15 499variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
285</pre> 500</pre>
286 501
287<p> 502<p>
295these files you generally have to change an existing line, 510these files you generally have to change an existing line,
296rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for 511rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for
297instance: 512instance:
298</p> 513</p>
299 514
300<pre caption="setting fonts for xterm"> 515<pre caption="Setting fonts for xterm">
301<codenote>(in your home directory)</codenote> 516<comment>(in your home directory)</comment>
302# <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i> 517$ <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i>
303# <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i> 518$ <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i>
304</pre> 519</pre>
305 520
306</body> 521</body>
307</section> 522</section>
308<section> 523<section>
322For XEmacs (not plain Emacs), you have to do a little 537For XEmacs (not plain Emacs), you have to do a little
323more. In <path>/home/user/.xemacs/init.el</path>, add: 538more. In <path>/home/user/.xemacs/init.el</path>, add:
324</p> 539</p>
325 540
326<pre caption="setting the font for xemacs"> 541<pre caption="setting the font for xemacs">
327(define-key global-map '(EuroSign) '[&#8364;]) 542(define-key global-map '(EuroSign) '[])
328</pre> 543</pre>
329 544
330<note> 545<note>
331The symbol in the []s is the Euro symbol. 546The symbol in the []s is the Euro symbol.
332</note> 547</note>
333 548
334</body> 549</body>
335</section> 550</section>
336<section> 551<section>
337<title>Language for OpenOffice</title> 552<title>OpenOffice.Org</title>
338<body> 553<body>
339 554
341Customized default language is not available for openoffice-bin ebuild. The
342default language in the openoffice-bin is ENUS.
346The default language for OpenOffice is set as "ENUS"(01). If you wish to
347change the default language for OpenOffice, check the ebuild for the
348default language code.
349</p> 555<p>
350 556The current stable <c>app-office/openoffice</c> and
351<pre caption="emerge openoffice with desired default language"> 557<c>app-office/openoffice-bin</c> ebuilds support the <uri
352# <i>LANGUAGE="01" emerge openoffice</i> 558link="#variables">LINGUAS variable</uri> for selecting installed GUI language
353<comment>01 is the ENUS language code for openoffice</comment> 559packs. To see the status of GUI translation, hyphenation, spell checking and
560other localisations on your language, please refer to <uri
561link="http://l10n.openoffice.org/languages.html">OpenOffice.Org localisation
562web site</uri>.
354</pre> 563</p>
355 564
356</body> 565</body>
357</section> 566</section>
358</chapter> 567</chapter>
359 568

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