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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.16 2004/12/14 00:58:15 pylon Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.47 2007/07/08 01:42:20 nightmorph Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 4
5<guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">
6<title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title>
7<author title="Author"> 7<author title="Author">
17 <mail link="pylon@gentoo.org">Lars Weiler</mail> 17 <mail link="pylon@gentoo.org">Lars Weiler</mail>
18</author> 18</author>
19<author title="Editor"> 19<author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="dertobi123@gentoo.org">Tobias Scherbaum</mail> 20 <mail link="dertobi123@gentoo.org">Tobias Scherbaum</mail>
21</author> 21</author>
22<author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="flammie@gentoo.org">Flammie Pirinen</mail>
22 25
23<abstract> 26<abstract>
24This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any 27This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any
25European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from 28European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from
26the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the Euro currency symbol. 29the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the euro currency symbol.
27</abstract> 30</abstract>
28 31
29<version>1.11</version> 32<version>1.35</version>
30<date>November 1, 2004</date> 33<date>2007-07-07</date>
31 34
32<chapter> 35<chapter>
33<title>Timezone</title> 36<title>Time zone</title>
34<section> 37<section>
35<body> 38<body>
36 39
38In order to keep time properly, <path>/etc/localtime</path> must point to
39the correct time zone data file. Look around in
40<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/</path> and pick your timezone or a near-by big city.
41</p> 40<p>
41In order to keep time properly, you need to select your timezone so that your
42system knows where it is located. Look for your timezone in
43<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. You then set your timezone in
44<path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>. Please avoid the
45<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
46indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact GMT+8.
42 48
43<pre caption="setting the timezone"> 49<pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
44# <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin /etc/localtime</i> 50# <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
51<comment>(Suppose you want to use Brussels)</comment>
52# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
45# <i>date</i> 55# <i>date</i>
46Sun Feb 16 08:26:44 CET 2003 56Wed Mar 8 00:46:05 CET 2006
47</pre> 57</pre>
48 58
49<note> 59<note>
50Make sure that the three-letter timezone indicator (in this case "CET") 60Make sure that the timezone indicator (in this case "CET")
51is correct for your area. 61is correct for your area.
52</note> 62</note>
53 63
54<note> 64<note>
55You can set the value of <c>TZ</c> to be everything after the 65You can set the value of <c>TZ</c> to be everything after the
61</body> 71</body>
62</section> 72</section>
63</chapter> 73</chapter>
64 74
65<chapter> 75<chapter>
66<title>System Clock</title> 76<title>Hardware Clock</title>
67<section> 77<section>
68<body> 78<body>
69 79
70<p> 80<p>
71In most Gentoo Linux installations, your system clock is set to 81In most Gentoo Linux installations, your hardware clock is set to
72UTC (or GMT, Greenwhich Mean Time) and then your timezone is 82UTC (or GMT, Greenwich Mean Time) and then your timezone is
73taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If, 83taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If,
74for some reason, you need your system clock not to be in UTC, 84for some reason, you need your hardware clock not to be in UTC,
75you will need to edit <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and change the 85you will need to edit <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> and change the
76value of <c>CLOCK</c>. 86value of <c>CLOCK</c> from <c>UTC</c> to <c>local</c>.
77</p> 87</p>
78 88
79<pre caption="local vs. GMT clock"> 89<pre caption="local vs. GMT clock">
80<codenote>recommended:</codenote> 90<comment>(recommended:)</comment>
82<codenote>or:</codenote> 92<comment>(or:)</comment>
83CLOCK="local" 93CLOCK="local"
84</pre> 94</pre>
85 95
86</body> 96</body>
87</section> 97</section>
88</chapter> 98</chapter>
89 99
90<chapter> 100<chapter>
91<title>POSIX Locale</title> 101<title>Locale system</title>
103<title>What are locales?</title>
107A Locale is a set of information that most programs use for determining
108country and language specific settings. The locales and their data
109are part of the system library and can be found
110at <path>/usr/share/locale</path> on most systems. A locale name is generally
111named <c>ab_CD</c> where <c>ab</c> is your two (or three) letter
112language code (as specified in ISO-639) and <c>CD</c> is your two letter country
113code (as specified in ISO-3166).
92<section> 117</section>
93<title>Using Existing Locales</title> 118<section id="variables">
119<title>Environment variables for locales</title>
94<body> 120<body>
95 121
97The next step is to set the <c>LANG</c> shell variable, which
98is used by your shell and window manager (and some other
99applications). Valid values can be found in
100<path>/usr/share/locale</path> and generally take the form
101<c>ab_CD</c>, where <c>ab</c> is your two letter language code
102and <c>CD</c> is your two letter country code. The <c>_CD</c>
103is left off if your language is only (or primarily) spoken in
104one country. <c>LANG</c> can be set in
105<path>/etc/profile</path> if you want it to take effect
106system-wide, or in <path>~/.bashrc</path> as a user-specific
108</p> 122<p>
123Locale settings are stored in environment variables. These are typically
124set in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> (for system-wide
125settings) and <path>~/.bashrc</path> (for user-specific settings) file.
126The variables controlling different aspects of locale settings
127are given in the table below, those with highest precedence (i.e. those
128that override settings below them) are at the top of the table. All variables
129take one name of a locale in <c>ab_CD</c> format given above.
109 131
110<pre caption="setting the POSIX locale"> 132<table>
134 <th>Variable name</th>
135 <th>Explanation</th>
138 <ti>LC_ALL</ti>
139 <ti>
140 Define all locale settings at once. This is the top level setting for
141 locales which will override any other setting.
142 </ti>
145 <ti>LC_COLLATE</ti>
146 <ti>
147 Define alphabetical ordering of strings. This affects e.g. output of sorted
148 directory listing.
149 </ti>
152 <ti>LC_CTYPE</ti>
153 <ti>
154 Define the character handling properties for the system. This determines
155 which characters are seen as part of alphabet, numeric and so on. This also
156 determines the character set used, if applicable.
157 </ti>
160 <ti>LC_MESSAGES</ti>
161 <ti>
162 Programs' localizations for applications that use message based localization
163 scheme (majority of Gnu programs, see next chapters for closer information
164 which do, and how to get the programs, that don't, to work).
165 </ti>
168 <ti>LC_MONETARY</ti>
169 <ti>Defines currency units and formatting of currency type numeric values.</ti>
172 <ti>LC_NUMERIC</ti>
173 <ti>
174 Defines formatting of numeric values which aren't monetary. Affects things
175 such as thousand separator and decimal separator.
176 </ti>
179 <ti>LC_TIME</ti>
180 <ti>Defines formatting of dates and times.</ti>
183 <ti>LC_PAPER</ti>
184 <ti>Defines default paper size.</ti>
187 <ti>LANG</ti>
188 <ti>
189 Defines all locale settings at once. This setting can be overridden by
190 individual LC_* settings above or even by LC_ALL.
191 </ti>
196Even though most programs work with LC_ALL only, some of them misbehave if
197LC_ALL is set but LANG isn't. If you want to play safe, set them <e>both</e>.
201Most typically users only set the LANG variable and perhaps LC_CTYPE variable
202on user level by adding definitions to shells startup files defining
203the environment variable manually from command line:
206<pre caption="Setting the user locale in ~/.bashrc">
111export LANG="de_DE@euro" 207export LANG="de_DE@euro"
112</pre> 208</pre>
113 209
114<note> 210<note>
115Appended <c>@euro</c> to your locale if you want to use the new Euro 211Append <c>@euro</c> to your locale if you want to use the Euro
116currency symbol (&#8364;) 212currency symbol ()
117</note> 213</note>
216It is also possible to set a system-wide locale for all users and programs:
219<pre caption="Setting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale">
225A common practice is to use only per user locale settings and leave the
226default system locale unset. In this case system locale defaults to a
227special value <c>"C"</c>, which for historical reasons maps to the English
232For message based localization to work in programs that support it, you will
233probably need to have programs compiled with the <c>nls</c> (Native language
234support) USE flag set. Most of the programs using nls also need the gettext
235library to extract and use localized messages. Of course, Portage will
236automatically install it when needed.
240Once you have set the right locale, be sure to update your environment
241variables to make your system aware of the change:
244<pre caption="Update the environment">
245<comment>(For system-wide default locale:)</comment>
246# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
248<comment>(For user-specific locale:)</comment>
249$ <i>source ~/.bashrc</i>
253After this, you will need to kill your X server by pressing
254<c>Ctrl-Alt-Backspace</c>, log out, then log in as user.
258Now, verify that the changes have taken effect:
261<pre caption="Verify env changes">
262$ <i>env | grep -i LC_</i>
266There is also additional localisation variable called LINGUAS, which affects
267to localisation files that get installed in gettext-based programs, and decides
268used localisation for some specific software packages, such as
269<c>kde-base/kde-i18n</c> and <c>app-office/openoffice</c>. The variable
270takes in <e>space</e>-separated list of language codes, and suggested
271place to set it is <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
274<pre caption="Setting LINGUAS in make.conf">
275# <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
276<comment>(Add in the LINGUAS variable. For instance,
277for German, Finnish and English:)</comment>
278LINGUAS="de fi en"
118 281
119</body> 282</body>
120</section> 283</section>
121<section> 284<section>
122<title>Generating Specific Locales</title> 285<title>Generating Specific Locales</title>
138 301
139<pre caption="Exporting the LANG variable"> 302<pre caption="Exporting the LANG variable">
140# <i>export LANG="en_US.ISO-8859-15"</i> 303# <i>export LANG="en_US.ISO-8859-15"</i>
141</pre> 304</pre>
142 305
307Be sure to update the environment after the change:
310<pre caption="Update the environment">
311# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
315After this, you will need to kill your X server by pressing
316<c>Ctrl-Alt-Backspace</c>, log out, then log in as user.
143</body> 319</body>
145<section> 320</section>
146<title>The userlocales USE flag</title> 321<section>
322<title>Generating locales for glibc</title>
147<body> 323<body>
148 324
149<p> 325<p>
150You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now 326You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You can
151after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales has been
152created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag und specify
153only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>. 327specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
156<pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
157echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use
160<p> 328</p>
161Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
163 329
164<pre caption="nano -w /etc/locales.build"> 330<pre caption="Adding locales to /etc/locale.gen">
165en_US/ISO-8859-1 331en_GB ISO-8859-1
166en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8 332en_GB.UTF-8 UTF-8
167de_DE/ISO-8859-1 333de_DE ISO-8859-1
168de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15 334de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
169</pre> 335</pre>
170 336
338The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generate all the locales you
339have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
171<p> 340</p>
172The next step is to re-compile <c>glibc</c>. Of course you can defer this until 341
173the next <c>glibc</c> upgrade is available. 342<note>
343<c>locale-gen</c> is available in <c>glibc-2.3.6-r4</c> and newer. If you have
344an older version of glibc, you should update it now.
348You can verify that your selected locales are available by running <c>locale
174</p> 350</p>
175 351
176</body> 352</body>
177</section> 353</section>
178</chapter> 354</chapter>
182<section> 358<section>
183<body> 359<body>
184 360
185<p> 361<p>
186The keyboard layout used by the console is set in 362The keyboard layout used by the console is set in
187<path>/etc/rc.conf</path> by the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. 363<path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> by the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable.
188Valid values can be found in 364Valid values can be found in
189<path>/usr/share/keymaps/<c>{arch}</c>/</path>. 365<path>/usr/share/keymaps/<c>{arch}</c>/</path>.
190<path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout 366<path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout
191(<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some 367(<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some
192languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment 368languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment
193to decide which one fits your needs best. 369to decide which one fits your needs best.
194</p> 370</p>
195 371
196<pre caption="setting the console keymap"> 372<pre caption="Setting the console keymap">
197KEYMAP="de" 373KEYMAP="de"
198KEYMAP="de-latin1" 374KEYMAP="de-latin1"
199KEYMAP="de-latin1-nodeadkeys" 375KEYMAP="de-latin1-nodeadkeys"
200</pre> 376</pre>
201 377
208<section> 384<section>
209<body> 385<body>
210 386
211<p> 387<p>
212The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified 388The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified
213in <path>/etc/X11/XF86Config</path> by the <c>XkbLayout</c> 389in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> by the <c>XkbLayout</c>
214option. 390option.
215</p> 391</p>
216 392
217<pre caption="setting the X keymap"> 393<pre caption="Setting the X keymap">
218 Section "InputDevice" 394 Section "InputDevice"
219 Identifier "Keyboard1" 395 Identifier "Keyboard1"
220 ... 396 ...
221 Option "XkbLayout" "de" 397 Option "XkbLayout" "de"
222 # Option "XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys" 398 #Option "XkbModel" "pc105" <comment>## this is for international keyboards.</comment>
399 # Option "XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys" <comment>## this would be used for xterm input</comment>
223 ... 400 ...
224</pre> 401</pre>
225 402
404If you have an international keyboard layout, you should set the option
405<c>XkbModel</c> to <c>pc102</c> or <c>pc105</c>, as this will allow mapping of the
406additional keys specific to your keyboard.
410Deadkeys allow you to press keys that will not show immediately but will be
411combined with another letter to produce a single character such as é,è,á,à,
412etc. Setting <c>XkbVariant</c> to <c>nodeadkeys</c> allows input these special
413characters into X terminals.
417If you would like to switch between more than one keyboard layout (for example
418English and Russian), all you have to do is add a few lines to
419<path>xorg.conf</path> that specify the desired layouts and the shortcut
423<pre caption="Switching between two keyboard layouts">
424 Section "InputDevice"
425 Identifier "Keyboard1"
426 ...
427 Option "XkbLayout" "us,ru"
428 Option "XkbOptions" "grp:alt_shift_toggle,grp_led:scroll"
432Here, <c>XkbOptions</c> allows you to toggle between keyboard layouts by simply
433pressing <c>Alt-Shift</c>. This will also toggle the Scroll Lock light on or
434off, thanks to the <c>grp_led:scroll</c> option. This is a handy visual
435indicator of which keyboard layout you are using at the moment.
226</body> 438</body>
227</section> 439</section>
228</chapter> 440</chapter>
229 441
230<chapter> 442<chapter>
231<title>KDE</title> 443<title>KDE</title>
232<section> 444<section>
233<body> 445<body>
234 446
235<p> 447<p>
236For KDE you have to install the kde-i18n package with the appropriate 448For KDE you have to install the <c>kde-base/kde-i18n</c> package. Kde-i18n
237LINGUAS environment variable set:</p> 449respects <uri link="#variables">LINGUAS variable</uri> described earlier.
239<pre caption="Install localized KDE">
240# <i>LINGUAS="de" emerge kde-i18n</i>
241</pre> 450</p>
242 451
243</body> 452</body>
244</section> 453</section>
245</chapter> 454</chapter>
246 455
250<body> 459<body>
251 460
252<p> 461<p>
253In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you 462In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you
254will need to set <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> in 463will need to set <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> in
255<path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to a file found in 464<path>/etc/conf.d/consolefont</path> to a file found in
256<path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the 465<path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the
257<c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat9w-16</c> has the Euro symbol. 466<c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat9w-16</c> has the Euro symbol.
258</p> 467</p>
259 468
260<pre caption="setting the console font"> 469<pre caption="Setting the console font">
261CONSOLEFONT="lat9w-16" 470CONSOLEFONT="lat9w-16"
262</pre> 471</pre>
263 472
474You should verify that <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> is in the boot runlevel:
477<pre caption="Verify the proper runlevel">
478# <i>rc-update -v show | grep -i consolefont</i>
482If no runlevel is displayed for <c>CONSOLEFONT</c>, then add it to the proper level:
485<pre caption="Add consolefont to boot">
486# <i>rc-update add consolefont boot</i>
264</body> 489</body>
265</section> 490</section>
266</chapter> 491</chapter>
267 492
268<chapter> 493<chapter>
270<section> 495<section>
271<title>Most Applications</title> 496<title>Most Applications</title>
272<body> 497<body>
273 498
274<p> 499<p>
275Getting the Euro symbol to work properly in X is a little 500Getting the Euro symbol to work properly in X is a little bit tougher. The
276bit tougher. The first thing you should do is change the <c>fixed</c> 501first thing you should do is change the <c>fixed</c> and <c>variable</c>
277and <c>variable</c> definitions in 502definitions in <path>/usr/share/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end in
278<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end
279in <c>iso8859-15</c> instead of <c>iso8859-1</c>. 503<c>iso8859-15</c> instead of <c>iso8859-1</c>.
280</p> 504</p>
281 505
282<pre caption="setting default X fonts"> 506<pre caption="Setting default X fonts">
283fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15 507fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15
284variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15 508variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
285</pre> 509</pre>
286 510
287<p> 511<p>
288Some applications use their own font, and you will have to 512Some applications use their own font, and you will have to tell them separately
289tell them separately to use a font with the Euro symbol. You 513to use a font with the Euro symbol. You can do this at a user-specific level in
290can do this at a user-specific level in
291<path>.Xdefaults</path> (you can copy this file to 514<path>.Xdefaults</path> (you can copy this file to <path>/etc/skel/</path> for
292<path>/etc/skel/</path> for use by new users), or at a global 515use by new users), or at a global level for any application with a resource file
293level for any application with a resource file in
294<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/</path> (like xterm). In 516in <path>/usr/share/X11/app-defaults/</path> (like xterm). In these files you
295these files you generally have to change an existing line, 517generally have to change an existing line, rather than adding a new one. To
296rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for 518change our xterm font, for instance:
298</p> 519</p>
299 520
300<pre caption="setting fonts for xterm"> 521<pre caption="Setting fonts for xterm">
301<codenote>(in your home directory)</codenote> 522<comment>(in your home directory)</comment>
302# <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i> 523$ <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i>
303# <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i> 524$ <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i>
304</pre> 525</pre>
305 526
306</body> 527</body>
307</section> 528</section>
308<section> 529<section>
322For XEmacs (not plain Emacs), you have to do a little 543For XEmacs (not plain Emacs), you have to do a little
323more. In <path>/home/user/.xemacs/init.el</path>, add: 544more. In <path>/home/user/.xemacs/init.el</path>, add:
324</p> 545</p>
325 546
326<pre caption="setting the font for xemacs"> 547<pre caption="setting the font for xemacs">
327(define-key global-map '(EuroSign) '[&#8364;]) 548(define-key global-map '(EuroSign) '[])
328</pre> 549</pre>
329 550
330<note> 551<note>
331The symbol in the []s is the Euro symbol. 552The symbol in the []s is the Euro symbol.
332</note> 553</note>
333 554
334</body> 555</body>
335</section> 556</section>
336<section> 557<section>
337<title>Language for OpenOffice</title> 558<title>OpenOffice.Org</title>
338<body> 559<body>
339 560
341Customized default language is not available for openoffice-bin ebuild. The
342default language in the openoffice-bin is ENUS.
346The default language for OpenOffice is set as "ENUS"(01). If you wish to
347change the default language for OpenOffice, check the ebuild for the
348default language code.
349</p> 561<p>
350 562The current stable <c>app-office/openoffice</c> and
351<pre caption="emerge openoffice with desired default language"> 563<c>app-office/openoffice-bin</c> ebuilds support the <uri
352# <i>LANGUAGE="01" emerge openoffice</i> 564link="#variables">LINGUAS variable</uri> for selecting installed GUI language
353<comment>01 is the ENUS language code for openoffice</comment> 565packs. To see the status of GUI translation, hyphenation, spell checking and
566other localisations on your language, please refer to <uri
567link="http://l10n.openoffice.org/languages.html">OpenOffice.Org localisation
568web site</uri>.
354</pre> 569</p>
355 570
356</body> 571</body>
357</section> 572</section>
358</chapter> 573</chapter>
359 574

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