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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.16 2004/12/14 00:58:15 pylon Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/guide-localization.xml,v 1.52 2009/02/15 07:16:17 rane Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 4
5<guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">
6<title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Localization Guide</title>
7<author title="Author"> 7<author title="Author">
17 <mail link="pylon@gentoo.org">Lars Weiler</mail> 17 <mail link="pylon@gentoo.org">Lars Weiler</mail>
18</author> 18</author>
19<author title="Editor"> 19<author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="dertobi123@gentoo.org">Tobias Scherbaum</mail> 20 <mail link="dertobi123@gentoo.org">Tobias Scherbaum</mail>
21</author> 21</author>
22<author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="flammie@gentoo.org">Flammie Pirinen</mail>
25<author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
22 28
23<abstract> 29<abstract>
24This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any 30This guide should help users localize their Gentoo Linux distribution to any
25European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from 31European locale. It uses Germany as a case-study, since it is translated from
26the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the Euro currency symbol. 32the German doc. Includes configuration for use of the euro currency symbol.
27</abstract> 33</abstract>
28 34
29<version>1.11</version> 35<version>1.39</version>
30<date>November 1, 2004</date> 36<date>2009-02-11</date>
31 37
32<chapter> 38<chapter>
33<title>Timezone</title> 39<title>Time zone</title>
34<section> 40<section>
35<body> 41<body>
36 42
38In order to keep time properly, <path>/etc/localtime</path> must point to
39the correct time zone data file. Look around in
40<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/</path> and pick your timezone or a near-by big city.
41</p> 43<p>
44In order to keep time properly, you need to select your timezone so that your
45system knows where it is located. Look for your timezone in
46<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. You then set your timezone in
47<path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>. Please avoid the
48<path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
49indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact GMT+8.
42 51
43<pre caption="setting the timezone"> 52<pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
53# <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
54<comment>(Suppose you want to use Brussels)</comment>
55<comment>(First copy the proper zone to localtime)</comment>
44# <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Berlin /etc/localtime</i> 56# <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/Europe/Brussels /etc/localtime</i>
57<comment>(Now specify your timezone)</comment>
58# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
45# <i>date</i> 61# <i>date</i>
46Sun Feb 16 08:26:44 CET 2003 62Wed Mar 8 00:46:05 CET 2006
47</pre> 63</pre>
48 64
49<note> 65<note>
50Make sure that the three-letter timezone indicator (in this case "CET") 66Make sure that the timezone indicator (in this case "CET")
51is correct for your area. 67is correct for your area.
52</note> 68</note>
53 69
54<note> 70<note>
55You can set the value of <c>TZ</c> to be everything after the 71You can set the value of <c>TZ</c> to be everything after the
61</body> 77</body>
62</section> 78</section>
63</chapter> 79</chapter>
64 80
65<chapter> 81<chapter>
66<title>System Clock</title> 82<title>Hardware Clock</title>
67<section> 83<section>
68<body> 84<body>
69 85
70<p> 86<p>
71In most Gentoo Linux installations, your system clock is set to 87In most Gentoo Linux installations, your hardware clock is set to
72UTC (or GMT, Greenwhich Mean Time) and then your timezone is 88UTC (or GMT, Greenwich Mean Time) and then your timezone is
73taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If, 89taken into account to determine the actual, local time. If,
74for some reason, you need your system clock not to be in UTC, 90for some reason, you need your hardware clock not to be in UTC,
75you will need to edit <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and change the 91you will need to edit <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> and change the
76value of <c>CLOCK</c>. 92value of <c>CLOCK</c> from <c>UTC</c> to <c>local</c>.
77</p> 93</p>
78 94
79<pre caption="local vs. GMT clock"> 95<pre caption="local vs. GMT clock">
80<codenote>recommended:</codenote> 96<comment>(recommended:)</comment>
82<codenote>or:</codenote> 98<comment>(or:)</comment>
83CLOCK="local" 99CLOCK="local"
84</pre> 100</pre>
85 101
86</body> 102</body>
87</section> 103</section>
88</chapter> 104</chapter>
89 105
90<chapter> 106<chapter>
91<title>POSIX Locale</title> 107<title>Locale system</title>
109<title>What are locales?</title>
113A Locale is a set of information that most programs use for determining country
114and language specific settings. The locales and their data are part of the
115system library and can be found at <path>/usr/share/locale</path> on most
116systems. A locale name is generally named <c>ab_CD</c> where <c>ab</c> is your
117two (or three) letter language code (as specified in ISO-639) and <c>CD</c> is
118your two letter country code (as specified in ISO-3166). Variants are often
119appended to locale names, e.g. <c>en_GB.utf8</c> or <c>de_DE@euro</c>. Please
120explore <uri link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Locale">Wikipedia</uri> to read
121more about locales and related articles.
92<section> 125</section>
93<title>Using Existing Locales</title> 126<section id="variables">
127<title>Environment variables for locales</title>
94<body> 128<body>
95 129
97The next step is to set the <c>LANG</c> shell variable, which
98is used by your shell and window manager (and some other
99applications). Valid values can be found in
100<path>/usr/share/locale</path> and generally take the form
101<c>ab_CD</c>, where <c>ab</c> is your two letter language code
102and <c>CD</c> is your two letter country code. The <c>_CD</c>
103is left off if your language is only (or primarily) spoken in
104one country. <c>LANG</c> can be set in
105<path>/etc/profile</path> if you want it to take effect
106system-wide, or in <path>~/.bashrc</path> as a user-specific
108</p> 130<p>
109 131Locale settings are stored in environment variables. These are typically
110<pre caption="setting the POSIX locale"> 132set in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> (for system-wide
111export LANG="de_DE@euro" 133settings) and <path>~/.bashrc</path> (for user-specific settings) file.
134The variables controlling different aspects of locale settings
135are given in the table below. All of them
136take one name of a locale in <c>ab_CD</c> format given above.
112</pre> 137</p>
141 <th>Variable name</th>
142 <th>Explanation</th>
145 <ti>LANG</ti>
146 <ti>
147 Defines all locale settings at once, while allowing further individual
148 customization via the LC_* settings below.
149 </ti>
152 <ti>LC_COLLATE</ti>
153 <ti>
154 Define alphabetical ordering of strings. This affects e.g. output of sorted
155 directory listing.
156 </ti>
159 <ti>LC_CTYPE</ti>
160 <ti>
161 Define the character handling properties for the system. This determines
162 which characters are seen as part of alphabet, numeric and so on. This also
163 determines the character set used, if applicable.
164 </ti>
167 <ti>LC_MESSAGES</ti>
168 <ti>
169 Programs' localizations for applications that use message based localization
170 scheme (majority of Gnu programs, see next chapters for closer information
171 which do, and how to get the programs, that don't, to work).
172 </ti>
175 <ti>LC_MONETARY</ti>
176 <ti>Defines currency units and formatting of currency type numeric values.</ti>
179 <ti>LC_NUMERIC</ti>
180 <ti>
181 Defines formatting of numeric values which aren't monetary. Affects things
182 such as thousand separator and decimal separator.
183 </ti>
186 <ti>LC_TIME</ti>
187 <ti>Defines formatting of dates and times.</ti>
190 <ti>LC_PAPER</ti>
191 <ti>Defines default paper size.</ti>
194 <ti>LC_ALL</ti>
195 <ti>
196 A special variable for overriding all other settings.
197 </ti>
113 200
114<note> 201<note>
115Appended <c>@euro</c> to your locale if you want to use the new Euro 202Some programs are written in such a way that they expect traditional English
116currency symbol (&#8364;) 203ordering of the alphabet, while some locales, most notably the Estonian one, use
204a different ordering. Therefore it's recommended to explicitly set LC_COLLATE to C
205when dealing with system-wide settings.
117</note> 206</note>
209For the same reason, using LC_ALL is strongly discouraged. Please use it only
210when testing and never set it in a startup file.
214Most typically users only set the LANG variable on the global basis:
217<pre caption="Setting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale">
223Append <c>@euro</c> to your locale if you want to use the Euro
224currency symbol (€)
228It's also possible, and pretty common especially in a more traditional UNIX
229environment, to leave the global settings unchanged, i.e. in the "<c>C</c>"
230locale. Users can still specify their preferred locale in their own shell RC
234<pre caption="Setting the user locale in ~/.bashrc">
235export LANG="de_DE.utf8@euro"
236export LC_COLLATE="C"
240Another way of configuring system is to leave it in the default C locale, but
241enable UTF-8 character representation at the same time. This option is achieved
242using the following settings in <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path>:
245<pre caption="Using traditional C locale while specifying UTF-8">
250Using the above snippet, users will be able to see localized file names
251properly, while not being forced to your preferred language.
255For message based localization to work in programs that support it, you will
256probably need to have programs compiled with the <c>nls</c> (Native language
257support) USE flag set. Most of the programs using nls also need the gettext
258library to extract and use localized messages. Of course, Portage will
259automatically install it when needed.
263Once you have set the right locale, be sure to update your environment
264variables to make your system aware of the change:
267<pre caption="Update the environment">
268<comment>(For system-wide default locale:)</comment>
269# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
271<comment>(For user-specific locale:)</comment>
272$ <i>source ~/.bashrc</i>
276After this, you will need to kill your X server by pressing
277<c>Ctrl-Alt-Backspace</c>, log out, then log in as user.
281Now, verify that the changes have taken effect:
284<pre caption="Verify env changes">
285$ <i>locale</i>
289There is also additional localisation variable called LINGUAS, which affects
290to localisation files that get installed in gettext-based programs, and decides
291used localisation for some specific software packages, such as
292<c>kde-base/kde-i18n</c> and <c>app-office/openoffice</c>. The variable
293takes in <e>space</e>-separated list of language codes, and suggested
294place to set it is <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
297<pre caption="Setting LINGUAS in make.conf">
298# <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
299<comment>(Add in the LINGUAS variable. For instance,
300for German, Finnish and English:)</comment>
301LINGUAS="de fi en"
118 304
119</body> 305</body>
120</section> 306</section>
121<section> 307<section>
122<title>Generating Specific Locales</title> 308<title>Generating Specific Locales</title>
138 324
139<pre caption="Exporting the LANG variable"> 325<pre caption="Exporting the LANG variable">
140# <i>export LANG="en_US.ISO-8859-15"</i> 326# <i>export LANG="en_US.ISO-8859-15"</i>
141</pre> 327</pre>
142 328
330Be sure to update the environment after the change:
333<pre caption="Update the environment">
334# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
338After this, you will need to kill your X server by pressing
339<c>Ctrl-Alt-Backspace</c>, log out, then log in as user.
143</body> 342</body>
145<section> 343</section>
146<title>The userlocales USE flag</title> 344<section>
345<title>Generating locales for glibc</title>
147<body> 346<body>
148 347
149<p> 348<p>
150You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now 349You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You can
151after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales has been
152created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag und specify
153only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>. 350specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
156<pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
157echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use
160<p> 351</p>
161Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
163 352
164<pre caption="nano -w /etc/locales.build"> 353<pre caption="Adding locales to /etc/locale.gen">
165en_US/ISO-8859-1 354en_GB ISO-8859-1
166en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8 355en_GB.UTF-8 UTF-8
167de_DE/ISO-8859-1 356de_DE ISO-8859-1
168de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15 357de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
169</pre> 358</pre>
170 359
361The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generate all the locales you
362have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
171<p> 363</p>
172The next step is to re-compile <c>glibc</c>. Of course you can defer this until 364
173the next <c>glibc</c> upgrade is available. 365<note>
366<c>locale-gen</c> is available in <c>glibc-2.3.6-r4</c> and newer. If you have
367an older version of glibc, you should update it now.
371You can verify that your selected locales are available by running <c>locale
174</p> 373</p>
175 374
176</body> 375</body>
177</section> 376</section>
178</chapter> 377</chapter>
182<section> 381<section>
183<body> 382<body>
184 383
185<p> 384<p>
186The keyboard layout used by the console is set in 385The keyboard layout used by the console is set in
187<path>/etc/rc.conf</path> by the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. 386<path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> by the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable.
188Valid values can be found in 387Valid values can be found in
189<path>/usr/share/keymaps/<c>{arch}</c>/</path>. 388<path>/usr/share/keymaps/<c>{arch}</c>/</path>.
190<path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout 389<path>i386</path> has further subdivisions into layout
191(<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some 390(<path>qwerty/</path>, <path>azerty/</path>, etc.). Some
192languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment 391languages have multiple options, so you may wish to experiment
193to decide which one fits your needs best. 392to decide which one fits your needs best.
194</p> 393</p>
195 394
196<pre caption="setting the console keymap"> 395<pre caption="Setting the console keymap">
197KEYMAP="de" 396KEYMAP="de"
198KEYMAP="de-latin1" 397KEYMAP="de-latin1"
199KEYMAP="de-latin1-nodeadkeys" 398KEYMAP="de-latin1-nodeadkeys"
200</pre> 399</pre>
201 400
208<section> 407<section>
209<body> 408<body>
210 409
211<p> 410<p>
212The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified 411The keyboard layout to be used by the X server is specified
213in <path>/etc/X11/XF86Config</path> by the <c>XkbLayout</c> 412in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> by the <c>XkbLayout</c>
214option. 413option.
215</p> 414</p>
216 415
217<pre caption="setting the X keymap"> 416<pre caption="Setting the X keymap">
218 Section "InputDevice" 417 Section "InputDevice"
219 Identifier "Keyboard1" 418 Identifier "Keyboard1"
220 ... 419 ...
221 Option "XkbLayout" "de" 420 Option "XkbLayout" "de"
222 # Option "XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys" 421 #Option "XkbModel" "pc105" <comment>## this is for international keyboards.</comment>
422 # Option "XkbVariant" "nodeadkeys" <comment>## this would be used for xterm input</comment>
223 ... 423 ...
224</pre> 424</pre>
225 425
427If you have an international keyboard layout, you should set the option
428<c>XkbModel</c> to <c>pc102</c> or <c>pc105</c>, as this will allow mapping of the
429additional keys specific to your keyboard.
433Deadkeys allow you to press keys that will not show immediately but will be
434combined with another letter to produce a single character such as é,è,á,à,
435etc. Setting <c>XkbVariant</c> to <c>nodeadkeys</c> allows input these special
436characters into X terminals.
440If you would like to switch between more than one keyboard layout (for example
441English and Russian), all you have to do is add a few lines to
442<path>xorg.conf</path> that specify the desired layouts and the shortcut
446<pre caption="Switching between two keyboard layouts">
447 Section "InputDevice"
448 Identifier "Keyboard1"
449 ...
450 Option "XkbLayout" "us,ru"
451 Option "XkbOptions" "grp:alt_shift_toggle,grp_led:scroll"
455Here, <c>XkbOptions</c> allows you to toggle between keyboard layouts by simply
456pressing <c>Alt-Shift</c>. This will also toggle the Scroll Lock light on or
457off, thanks to the <c>grp_led:scroll</c> option. This is a handy visual
458indicator of which keyboard layout you are using at the moment.
226</body> 461</body>
227</section> 462</section>
228</chapter> 463</chapter>
229 464
230<chapter> 465<chapter>
231<title>KDE</title> 466<title>KDE</title>
232<section> 467<section>
233<body> 468<body>
234 469
235<p> 470<p>
236For KDE you have to install the kde-i18n package with the appropriate 471For KDE you have to install the <c>kde-base/kde-i18n</c> package. Kde-i18n
237LINGUAS environment variable set:</p> 472respects <uri link="#variables">LINGUAS variable</uri> described earlier.
239<pre caption="Install localized KDE">
240# <i>LINGUAS="de" emerge kde-i18n</i>
241</pre> 473</p>
242 474
243</body> 475</body>
244</section> 476</section>
245</chapter> 477</chapter>
246 478
250<body> 482<body>
251 483
252<p> 484<p>
253In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you 485In order to get your console to display the Euro symbol, you
254will need to set <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> in 486will need to set <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> in
255<path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to a file found in 487<path>/etc/conf.d/consolefont</path> to a file found in
256<path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the 488<path>/usr/share/consolefonts/</path> (without the
257<c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat9w-16</c> has the Euro symbol. 489<c>.psfu.gz</c>). <c>lat9w-16</c> has the Euro symbol.
258</p> 490</p>
259 491
260<pre caption="setting the console font"> 492<pre caption="Setting the console font">
261CONSOLEFONT="lat9w-16" 493CONSOLEFONT="lat9w-16"
262</pre> 494</pre>
263 495
497You should verify that <c>CONSOLEFONT</c> is in the boot runlevel:
500<pre caption="Verify the proper runlevel">
501# <i>rc-update -v show | grep -i consolefont</i>
505If no runlevel is displayed for <c>CONSOLEFONT</c>, then add it to the proper level:
508<pre caption="Add consolefont to boot">
509# <i>rc-update add consolefont boot</i>
264</body> 512</body>
265</section> 513</section>
266</chapter> 514</chapter>
267 515
268<chapter> 516<chapter>
270<section> 518<section>
271<title>Most Applications</title> 519<title>Most Applications</title>
272<body> 520<body>
273 521
274<p> 522<p>
275Getting the Euro symbol to work properly in X is a little 523Getting the Euro symbol to work properly in X is a little bit tougher. The
276bit tougher. The first thing you should do is change the <c>fixed</c> 524first thing you should do is change the <c>fixed</c> and <c>variable</c>
277and <c>variable</c> definitions in 525definitions in <path>/usr/share/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end in
278<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/misc/fonts.alias</path> to end
279in <c>iso8859-15</c> instead of <c>iso8859-1</c>. 526<c>iso8859-15</c> instead of <c>iso8859-1</c>.
280</p> 527</p>
281 528
282<pre caption="setting default X fonts"> 529<pre caption="Setting default X fonts">
283fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15 530fixed -misc-fixed-medium-r-semicondensed--13-120-75-75-c-60-iso8859-15
284variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15 531variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
285</pre> 532</pre>
286 533
287<p> 534<p>
288Some applications use their own font, and you will have to 535Some applications use their own font, and you will have to tell them separately
289tell them separately to use a font with the Euro symbol. You 536to use a font with the Euro symbol. You can do this at a user-specific level in
290can do this at a user-specific level in
291<path>.Xdefaults</path> (you can copy this file to 537<path>.Xdefaults</path> (you can copy this file to <path>/etc/skel/</path> for
292<path>/etc/skel/</path> for use by new users), or at a global 538use by new users), or at a global level for any application with a resource file
293level for any application with a resource file in
294<path>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/</path> (like xterm). In 539in <path>/usr/share/X11/app-defaults/</path> (like xterm). In these files you
295these files you generally have to change an existing line, 540generally have to change an existing line, rather than adding a new one. To
296rather than adding a new one. To change our xterm font, for 541change our xterm font, for instance:
298</p> 542</p>
299 543
300<pre caption="setting fonts for xterm"> 544<pre caption="Setting fonts for xterm">
301<codenote>(in your home directory)</codenote> 545<comment>(in your home directory)</comment>
302# <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i> 546$ <i>echo 'XTerm*font: fixed' >> .Xresources </i>
303# <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i> 547$ <i>xrdb -merge .Xresources</i>
304</pre> 548</pre>
305 549
306</body> 550</body>
307</section> 551</section>
308<section> 552<section>
322For XEmacs (not plain Emacs), you have to do a little 566For XEmacs (not plain Emacs), you have to do a little
323more. In <path>/home/user/.xemacs/init.el</path>, add: 567more. In <path>/home/user/.xemacs/init.el</path>, add:
324</p> 568</p>
325 569
326<pre caption="setting the font for xemacs"> 570<pre caption="setting the font for xemacs">
327(define-key global-map '(EuroSign) '[&#8364;]) 571(define-key global-map '(EuroSign) '[])
328</pre> 572</pre>
329 573
330<note> 574<note>
331The symbol in the []s is the Euro symbol. 575The symbol in the []s is the Euro symbol.
332</note> 576</note>
333 577
334</body> 578</body>
335</section> 579</section>
336<section> 580<section>
337<title>Language for OpenOffice</title> 581<title>OpenOffice.Org</title>
338<body> 582<body>
339 583
341Customized default language is not available for openoffice-bin ebuild. The
342default language in the openoffice-bin is ENUS.
346The default language for OpenOffice is set as "ENUS"(01). If you wish to
347change the default language for OpenOffice, check the ebuild for the
348default language code.
349</p> 584<p>
350 585The current stable <c>app-office/openoffice</c> and
351<pre caption="emerge openoffice with desired default language"> 586<c>app-office/openoffice-bin</c> ebuilds support the <uri
352# <i>LANGUAGE="01" emerge openoffice</i> 587link="#variables">LINGUAS variable</uri> for selecting installed GUI language
353<comment>01 is the ENUS language code for openoffice</comment> 588packs. To see the status of GUI translation, hyphenation, spell checking and
589other localisations on your language, please refer to <uri
590link="http://l10n.openoffice.org/languages.html">OpenOffice.Org localisation
591web site</uri>.
354</pre> 592</p>
355 593
356</body> 594</body>
357</section> 595</section>
358</chapter> 596</chapter>
359 597

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