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Networkless handbook for 2006.0, "Chuck Norris can divide by zero" Initial Version

1 fox2mike 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6    
7 fox2mike 1.2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/draft/2006.0/hb-install-ppc64-disk.xml,v 1.3 2006/02/26 17:49:35 fox2mike Exp $ -->
8 fox2mike 1.1
9     <sections>
10    
11 fox2mike 1.2 <version>6.0</version>
12     <date>2006-02-27</date>
13 fox2mike 1.1
14     <section>
15     <title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16     <subsection>
17     <title>Block Devices</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21     We'll take a good look at disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux
22     and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions and block devices.
23     Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and filesystems,
24     you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions and filesystems
25     for your Gentoo Linux installation.
26     </p>
27    
28     <p>
29     To begin, we'll introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most famous block device is
30     probably the one that represents the first IDE drive in a Linux system, namely
31     <path>/dev/hda</path>. If your system uses SCSI drives, then your first hard
32     drive would be <path>/dev/sda</path>. Serial ATA drives are also
33     <path>/dev/sda</path> even if they are IDE drives.
34     </p>
35    
36     <p>
37     The block devices above represent an abstract interface to the disk. User
38     programs can use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying
39     about whether your drives are IDE, SCSI or something else. The program can
40     simply address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous,
41     randomly-accessible 512-byte blocks.
42     </p>
43    
44     </body>
45     </subsection>
46     <subsection>
47     <title>Partitions and Slices</title>
48     <body>
49    
50     <p>
51     Although it is theoretically possible to use a full disk to house your Linux
52     system, this is almost never done in practice. Instead, full disk block devices
53     are split up in smaller, more manageable block devices. On most systems,
54     these are called <e>partitions</e>. Other architectures use a similar technique,
55     called <e>slices</e>.
56     </p>
57    
58     </body>
59     </subsection>
60     </section>
61     <section>
62     <title>Designing a Partitioning Scheme</title>
63     <subsection>
64     <title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
65     <body>
66    
67     <p>
68     If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme for your system,
69     you can use the partitioning scheme we use throughout this book:
70     </p>
71    
72     <table>
73     <tr>
74     <th>Partition</th>
75     <th>Filesystem</th>
76     <th>Size</th>
77     <th>Description</th>
78     </tr>
79     <tr>
80     <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
81     <ti>Partition map</ti>
82     <ti>31.5k</ti>
83     <ti>Partition map</ti>
84     </tr>
85     <tr>
86     <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
87     <ti>(bootstrap)</ti>
88     <ti>800k</ti>
89     <ti>Apple_Bootstrap</ti>
90     </tr>
91     <tr>
92     <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
93     <ti>(swap)</ti>
94     <ti>512M</ti>
95     <ti>Swap partition</ti>
96     </tr>
97     <tr>
98     <ti><path>/dev/sda4</path></ti>
99     <ti>ext3</ti>
100     <ti>Rest of the disk</ti>
101     <ti>Root partition</ti>
102     </tr>
103     </table>
104    
105     <note>
106     There are some partitions named like this: <path>Apple_Driver43,
107     Apple_Driver_ATA, Apple_FWDriver, Apple_Driver_IOKit,
108     Apple_Patches</path>. If you are not planning to use MacOS 9 you can
109     delete them, because MacOS X and Linux don't need them.
110     You might have to use parted in order to delete them, as mac-fdisk can't delete them yet.
111     </note>
112    
113     <p>
114     If you are interested in knowing how big a partition should be, or even how
115     many partitions you need, read on. Otherwise continue now with
116     <uri link="#mac-fdisk">Apple G5: Using mac-fdisk to Partition your
117     Disk</uri> or <uri link="#fdisk">IBM pSeries: using fdisk to Partition
118     your Disk</uri>
119     </p>
120    
121     </body>
122     </subsection>
123     <subsection>
124     <title>How Many and How Big?</title>
125     <body>
126    
127     <p>
128     The number of partitions is highly dependent on your environment. For instance,
129     if you have lots of users, you will most likely want to have your
130     <path>/home</path> separate as it increases security and makes backups easier.
131     If you are installing Gentoo to perform as a mailserver, your
132     <path>/var</path> should be separate as all mails are stored inside
133     <path>/var</path>. A good choice of filesystem will then maximise your
134     performance. Gameservers will have a separate <path>/opt</path> as most gaming
135     servers are installed there. The reason is similar for <path>/home</path>:
136     security and backups. You will definitely want to keep <path>/usr</path> big:
137     not only will it contain the majority of applications, the Portage tree alone
138     takes around 500 Mbyte excluding the various sources that are stored in it.
139     </p>
140    
141     <p>
142     As you can see, it very much depends on what you want to achieve. Separate
143     partitions or volumes have the following advantages:
144     </p>
145    
146     <ul>
147     <li>
148     You can choose the best performing filesystem for each partition or volume
149     </li>
150     <li>
151     Your entire system cannot run out of free space if one defunct tool is
152     continuously writing files to a partition or volume
153     </li>
154     <li>
155     If necessary, file system checks are reduced in time, as multiple checks can
156     be done in parallel (although this advantage is more with multiple disks than
157     it is with multiple partitions)
158     </li>
159     <li>
160     Security can be enhanced by mounting some partitions or volumes read-only,
161     nosuid (setuid bits are ignored), noexec (executable bits are ignored) etc.
162     </li>
163     </ul>
164    
165     <p>
166     However, multiple partitions have one big disadvantage: if not configured
167     properly, you might result in having a system with lots
168     of free space on one partition and none on another. There is also a 15-partition
169     limit for SCSI and SATA.
170     </p>
171    
172     </body>
173     </subsection>
174     </section>
175     <section id="mac-fdisk">
176     <title>Default: Using mac-fdisk (Apple G5) Partition your Disk</title>
177     <body>
178    
179     <p>
180     At this point, create your partitions using <c>mac-fdisk</c>:
181     </p>
182    
183     <pre caption="Starting mac-fdisk">
184     # <i>mac-fdisk /dev/sda</i>
185     </pre>
186    
187     <p>
188     First delete the partitions you have cleared previously to make room for your
189     Linux partitions. Use <c>d</c> in <c>mac-fdisk</c> to delete those partition(s).
190     It will ask for the partition number to delete.
191     </p>
192    
193     <p>
194     Second, create an <e>Apple_Bootstrap</e> partition by using <c>b</c>. It will
195     ask for what block you want to start. Enter the number of your first free
196     partition, followed by a <c>p</c>. For instance this is <c>2p</c>.
197     </p>
198    
199     <note>
200     This partition is <e>not</e> a "boot" partition. It is not used by Linux at all;
201     you don't have to place any filesystem on it and you should never mount it. PPC
202     users don't need an extra partition for <path>/boot</path>.
203     </note>
204    
205     <p>
206     Now create a swap partition by pressing <c>c</c>. Again <c>mac-fdisk</c> will
207     ask for what block you want to start this partition from. As we used <c>2</c>
208     before to create the Apple_Bootstrap partition, you now have to enter
209     <c>3p</c>. When you're asked for the size, enter <c>512M</c> (or whatever size
210     you want). When asked for a name, enter <c>swap</c> (mandatory).
211     </p>
212    
213     <p>
214     To create the root partition, enter <c>c</c>, followed by <c>4p</c> to select
215     from what block the root partition should start. When asked for the size, enter
216     <c>4p</c> again. <c>mac-fdisk</c> will interpret this as "Use all available
217     space". When asked for the name, enter <c>root</c> (mandatory).
218     </p>
219    
220     <p>
221     To finish up, write the partition to the disk using <c>w</c> and <c>q</c> to
222     quit <c>mac-fdisk</c>.
223     </p>
224    
225     <note>
226     To make sure everything is ok, you should run mac-fdisk once more and check whether all the partitions are there.
227     If you don't see any of the partitions you created, or the changes you made, you should reinitialize your partitions by pressing "i" in mac-fdisk.
228     Note that this will recreate the partition map and thus remove all your partitions.
229     </note>
230    
231     <p>
232     Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri
233     link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
234     </p>
235    
236     </body>
237     </section>
238     <section id="fdisk">
239     <title>IBM pSeries, iSeries and OpenPower: using fdisk to Partition your Disk</title>
240     <subsection>
241     <body>
242    
243     <note>
244     If you are planning to use a RAID disk array for your gentoo installation and
245 fox2mike 1.2 you are using POWER5-based hardware, you should now run <c>iprconfig</c> to
246 fox2mike 1.1 format the disks to Advanced Function format and create the disk array. You
247 fox2mike 1.2 should emerge <c>iprutils</c> after your install is complete.
248 fox2mike 1.1 </note>
249    
250     <p>
251 fox2mike 1.2 If you have an ipr based SCSI adapter, you should start the ipr utilities now.
252     </p>
253    
254     <pre caption="Starting ipr utilities">
255     # <i>/etc/init.d/iprinit start</i>
256     </pre>
257    
258     <p>
259 fox2mike 1.1 The following parts explain how to create the example partition layout
260     described previously, namely:
261     </p>
262    
263     <table>
264     <tr>
265     <th>Partition</th>
266     <th>Description</th>
267     </tr>
268     <tr>
269     <ti><path>/dev/sda1</path></ti>
270     <ti>PPC PReP Boot partition</ti>
271     </tr>
272     <tr>
273     <ti><path>/dev/sda2</path></ti>
274     <ti>Swap partition</ti>
275     </tr>
276     <tr>
277     <ti><path>/dev/sda3</path></ti>
278     <ti>Root partition</ti>
279     </tr>
280     </table>
281    
282     <p>
283     Change your partition layout according to your own preference.
284     </p>
285    
286     </body>
287     </subsection>
288     <subsection>
289     <title>Viewing the Current Partition Layout</title>
290     <body>
291    
292     <p>
293     <c>fdisk</c> is a popular and powerful tool to split your disk into
294     partitions. Fire up <c>fdisk</c> on your disk (in our example, we
295     use <path>/dev/sda</path>):
296     </p>
297    
298     <pre caption="Starting fdisk">
299     # <i>fdisk /dev/sda</i>
300     </pre>
301    
302     <p>
303     Once in <c>fdisk</c>, you'll be greeted with a prompt that looks like
304     this:
305     </p>
306    
307     <pre caption="fdisk prompt">
308     Command (m for help):
309     </pre>
310    
311     <p>
312     Type <c>p</c> to display your disk's current partition configuration:
313     </p>
314    
315     <pre caption="An example partition configuration">
316     Command (m for help): p
317    
318     Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
319     141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
320     Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
321    
322     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
323     /dev/sda1 1 12 53266+ 83 Linux
324     /dev/sda2 13 233 981571+ 82 Linux swap
325     /dev/sda3 234 674 1958701+ 83 Linux
326     /dev/sda4 675 6761 27035410+ 5 Extended
327     /dev/sda5 675 2874 9771268+ 83 Linux
328     /dev/sda6 2875 2919 199836 83 Linux
329     /dev/sda7 2920 3008 395262 83 Linux
330     /dev/sda8 3009 6761 16668918 83 Linux
331    
332     Command (m for help):
333     </pre>
334    
335     <p>
336     This particular disk is configured to house six Linux filesystems
337     (each with a corresponding partition listed as "Linux") as well as a
338     swap partition (listed as "Linux swap").
339     </p>
340    
341     </body>
342     </subsection>
343     <subsection>
344     <title>Removing all Partitions</title>
345     <body>
346    
347     <p>
348     We will first remove all existing partitions from the disk. Type
349     <c>d</c> to delete a partition. For instance, to delete an existing
350     <path>/dev/sda1</path>:
351     </p>
352    
353     <note>
354     If you don't want to delete all partitions just delete those you
355     want to delete. At this point the author recommends a backup of your
356     data to avoid the lose of it.
357     </note>
358    
359     <pre caption="Deleting a partition">
360     Command (m for help): <i>d</i>
361     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
362     </pre>
363    
364     <p>
365     The partition has been scheduled for deletion. It will no longer show up
366     if you type <c>p</c>, but it will not be erased until your changes have
367     been saved. If you made a mistake and want to abort without saving your
368     changes, type <c>q</c> immediately and hit enter and your partition will
369     not be deleted.
370     </p>
371    
372     <p>
373     Now, assuming that you do indeed want to wipe out all the partitions on
374     your system, repeatedly type <c>p</c> to print out a partition listing
375     and then type <c>d</c> and the number of the partition to delete it.
376     Eventually, you'll end up with a partition table with nothing in it:
377     </p>
378    
379     <pre caption="An empty partition table">
380     Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
381     141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
382     Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
383    
384     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
385    
386     Command (m for help):
387     </pre>
388    
389     <p>
390     Now that the in-memory partition table is empty, we're ready to create
391     the partitions. We will use a default partitioning scheme as discussed
392     previously. Of course, don't follow these instructions to the letter if
393     you don't want the same partitioning scheme!
394     </p>
395    
396     </body>
397     </subsection>
398     <subsection>
399     <title>Creating the PPC PReP boot partition</title>
400     <body>
401    
402     <p>
403     We first create a small PReP boot partition. Type <c>n</c> to create a new
404     partition, then <c>p</c> to select a primary partition, followed by
405     <c>1</c> to select the first primary partition. When prompted for the
406     first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type
407     <c>+7M</c> to create a partition 7 Mbyte in size. After you've done
408     this, type <c>t</c> to set the partition type, <c>1</c> to select the
409     partition you just created and then type in <c>41</c> to set the
410     partition type to "PPC PReP Boot". Finally, you'll need to mark the PReP
411     partition as bootable.
412     </p>
413    
414     <note>
415     The PReP partition has to be smaller than 8 MByte!
416     </note>
417    
418     <pre caption="Creating the PReP boot partition">
419     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
420    
421     Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
422     141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
423     Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
424    
425     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
426    
427     Command (m for help): <i>n</i>
428     Command action
429     e extended
430     p primary partition (1-4)
431     <i>p</i>
432     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
433     First cylinder (1-6761, default 1):
434     Using default value 1
435     Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-6761, default
436     6761): <i>+8M</i>
437    
438     Command (m for help): <i>t</i>
439     Selected partition 1
440     Hex code (type L to list codes): <i>41</i>
441     Changed system type of partition 1 to 41 (PPC PReP Boot)
442    
443     Command (m for help): <i>a</i>
444     Partition number (1-4): <i>1</i>
445     Command (m for help):
446     </pre>
447    
448     <p>
449     Now, when you type <c>p</c>, you should see the following partition information:
450     </p>
451    
452     <pre caption="Created boot partition">
453     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
454    
455     Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
456     141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
457     Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
458    
459     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
460     /dev/sda1 * 1 3 13293 41 PPC PReP Boot
461    
462     Command (m for help):
463     </pre>
464     </body>
465     </subsection>
466     <subsection>
467     <title>Creating the Swap Partition</title>
468     <body>
469    
470     <p>
471     Let's now create the swap partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to create
472     a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a primary
473     partition. Then type <c>2</c> to create the second primary partition,
474     <path>/dev/sda2</path> in our case. When prompted for the first
475     cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, type
476     <c>+512M</c> to create a partition 512MB in size. After you've done
477     this, type <c>t</c> to set the partition type, <c>2</c> to select the
478     partition you just created and then type in <c>82</c> to set the
479     partition type to "Linux Swap". After completing these steps, typing
480     <c>p</c> should display a partition table that looks similar to this:
481     </p>
482    
483     <pre caption="Partition listing after creating a swap partition">
484     Command (m for help): <i>p</i>
485    
486     Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
487     141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
488     Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
489    
490     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
491     /dev/sda1 1 3 13293 41 PPC PReP Boot
492     /dev/sda2 4 117 506331 82 Linux swap
493    
494     Command (m for help):
495     </pre>
496    
497     </body>
498     </subsection>
499     <subsection>
500     <title>Creating the Root Partition</title>
501     <body>
502    
503     <p>
504     Finally, let's create the root partition. To do this, type <c>n</c> to
505     create a new partition, then <c>p</c> to tell fdisk that you want a
506     primary partition. Then type <c>3</c> to create the third primary
507     partition, <path>/dev/sda3</path> in our case. When prompted for the
508     first cylinder, hit enter. When prompted for the last cylinder, hit
509     enter to create a partition that takes up the rest of the remaining
510     space on your disk. After completing these steps, typing <c>p</c> should
511     display a partition table that looks similar to this:
512     </p>
513    
514     <pre caption="Partition listing after creating the root partition">
515     Command (m for help): p
516    
517     Disk /dev/sda: 30.7 GB, 30750031872 bytes
518     141 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6761 cylinders
519     Units = cylinders of 8883 * 512 = 4548096 bytes
520    
521     Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System
522     /dev/sda1 1 3 13293 41 PPC PReP Boot
523     /dev/sda2 4 117 506331 82 Linux swap
524     /dev/sda3 118 6761 29509326 83 Linux
525    
526     Command (m for help):
527     </pre>
528     </body>
529     </subsection>
530     <subsection>
531     <title>Saving the Partition Layout</title>
532     <body>
533    
534     <p>
535     To save the partition layout and exit <c>fdisk</c>, type <c>w</c>.
536     </p>
537    
538     <pre caption="Save and exit fdisk">
539     Command (m for help): <i>w</i>
540     </pre>
541    
542     <p>
543     Now that your partitions are created, you can now continue with <uri
544     link="#filesystems">Creating Filesystems</uri>.
545     </p>
546    
547     </body>
548     </subsection>
549     </section>
550     <section id="filesystems">
551     <title>Creating Filesystems</title>
552     <subsection>
553     <title>Introduction</title>
554     <body>
555    
556     <p>
557     Now that your partitions are created, it is time to place a filesystem on them.
558     If you don't care about what filesystem to choose and are happy with what we use
559     as default in this handbook, continue with <uri
560     link="#filesystems-apply">Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</uri>.
561     Otherwise read on to learn about the available filesystems...
562     </p>
563    
564     </body>
565     </subsection>
566     <subsection>
567     <title>Filesystems?</title>
568     <body>
569    
570     <note>
571 fox2mike 1.2 Several filesystems are available. ext2, ext3 and ReiserFS support is built in
572     the Installation CD kernels. JFS and XFS support is available through kernel
573     modules.
574 fox2mike 1.1 </note>
575    
576     <p>
577     <b>ext2</b> is the tried and true Linux filesystem but doesn't have metadata
578     journaling, which means that routine ext2 filesystem checks at startup time can
579     be quite time-consuming. There is now quite a selection of newer-generation
580     journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly and are
581     thus generally preferred over their non-journaled counterparts. Journaled
582     filesystems prevent long delays when you boot your system and your filesystem
583     happens to be in an inconsistent state.
584     </p>
585    
586     <p>
587     <b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem, providing metadata
588     journaling for fast recovery in addition to other enhanced journaling modes like
589     full data and ordered data journaling. ext3 is a very good and reliable
590     filesystem. It has an additional hashed b-tree indexing option that enables
591     high performance in almost all situations. You can enable this indexing by
592     adding <c>-O dir_index</c> to the <c>mke2fs</c> command. In short, ext3 is an
593     excellent filesystem.
594     </p>
595    
596     <p>
597     <b>ReiserFS</b> is a B*-tree based filesystem that has very good overall
598     performance and greatly outperforms both ext2 and ext3 when dealing with small
599     files (files less than 4k), often by a factor of 10x-15x. ReiserFS also scales
600     extremely well and has metadata journaling. As of kernel 2.4.18+, ReiserFS is
601     solid and usable as both general-purpose filesystem and for extreme cases such
602     as the creation of large filesystems, the use of many small files, very large
603     files and directories containing tens of thousands of files.
604     </p>
605    
606     <p>
607     <b>XFS</b> is a filesystem with metadata journaling that is fully supported
608     under Gentoo Linux's xfs-sources kernel. It comes with a robust feature-set and
609     is optimized for scalability. We only recommend using this filesystem on Linux
610     systems with high-end SCSI and/or fibre channel storage and a uninterruptible
611     power supply. Because XFS aggressively caches in-transit data in RAM, improperly
612     designed programs (those that don't take proper precautions when writing files
613     to disk and there are quite a few of them) can lose a good deal of data if the
614     system goes down unexpectedly.
615     </p>
616    
617     <p>
618     <b>JFS</b> is IBM's high-performance journaling filesystem. It has recently
619     become production-ready.
620     </p>
621    
622     </body>
623     </subsection>
624     <subsection id="filesystems-apply">
625     <title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
626     <body>
627    
628     <p>
629     To create a filesystem on a partition or volume, there are tools available for
630     each possible filesystem:
631     </p>
632    
633     <table>
634     <tr>
635     <th>Filesystem</th>
636     <th>Creation Command</th>
637     </tr>
638     <tr>
639     <ti>ext2</ti>
640     <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti>
641     </tr>
642     <tr>
643     <ti>ext3</ti>
644     <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
645     </tr>
646     <tr>
647     <ti>reiserfs</ti>
648     <ti><c>mkreiserfs</c></ti>
649     </tr>
650     <tr>
651     <ti>xfs</ti>
652     <ti><c>mkfs.xfs</c></ti>
653     </tr>
654     <tr>
655     <ti>jfs</ti>
656     <ti><c>mkfs.jfs</c></ti>
657     </tr>
658     </table>
659    
660     <p>
661     For instance, to have the root partition (<path>/dev/sda4</path> in our example)
662     in ext3 (as in our example), you would use:
663     </p>
664    
665     <pre caption="Applying a filesystem on a partition">
666     # <i>mke2fs -j /dev/sda4</i>
667     </pre>
668    
669     <p>
670     Now create the filesystems on your newly created partitions (or logical
671     volumes).
672     </p>
673    
674     </body>
675     </subsection>
676     <subsection>
677     <title>Activating the Swap Partition</title>
678     <body>
679    
680     <p>
681     <c>mkswap</c> is the command that is used to initialize swap partitions:
682     </p>
683    
684     <pre caption="Creating a Swap signature">
685     # <i>mkswap /dev/sda3</i>
686     </pre>
687    
688     <p>
689     To activate the swap partition, use <c>swapon</c>:
690     </p>
691    
692     <pre caption="Activating the swap partition">
693     # <i>swapon /dev/sda3</i>
694     </pre>
695    
696     <p>
697     Create and activate the swap with the commands mentioned above.
698     </p>
699    
700     </body>
701     </subsection>
702     </section>
703     <section>
704     <title>Mounting</title>
705     <body>
706    
707     <p>
708     Now that your partitions are initialized and are housing a filesystem, it is
709     time to mount those partitions. Use the <c>mount</c> command. Don't forget to
710     create the necessary mount directories for every partition you created. As an
711     example we create a mount-point and mount the root and boot partition:
712     </p>
713    
714     <pre caption="Mounting partitions">
715     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
716     # <i>mount /dev/sda4 /mnt/gentoo</i>
717     </pre>
718    
719     <note>
720     If you want your <path>/tmp</path> to reside on a separate partition, be sure to
721     change its permissions after mounting: <c>chmod 1777 /mnt/gentoo/tmp</c>. This
722     also holds for <path>/var/tmp</path>.
723     </note>
724    
725     <p>
726     Continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing the Gentoo
727     Installation Files</uri>.
728     </p>
729    
730     </body>
731     </section>
732     </sections>

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