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added blurb for ppc64 handbook on userlands, bug 174952

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/2007.0/hb-install-ppc64-medium.xml,v 1.5 2007/04/13 15:34:14 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>8.0</version>
12 <date>2007-04-20</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Introduction</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
22 successfully install Gentoo on your box.
23 </p>
24
25 </body>
26 </subsection>
27 <subsection>
28 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
29 <body>
30
31 <table>
32 <tr>
33 <th>CPU</th>
34 <ti>Any PowerPC64 CPU</ti>
35 </tr>
36 <tr>
37 <th>Systems</th>
38 <ti>
39 IBM RS/6000s, Power Macintosh G5, iMac G5, IBP pSeries and IBM OpenPower
40 </ti>
41 </tr>
42 <tr>
43 <th>Memory</th>
44 <ti>64 MB</ti>
45 </tr>
46 <tr>
47 <th>Diskspace</th>
48 <ti>1.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
49 </tr>
50 <tr>
51 <th>Swap space</th>
52 <ti>At least 256 MB</ti>
53 </tr>
54 </table>
55
56 <p>
57 For a full list of supported systems, please go to
58 <uri>http://www.linuxppc64.org/hardware.shtml</uri>.
59 </p>
60
61 </body>
62 </subsection>
63 </section>
64 <!-- Copy/paste from hb-install-x86-medium.xml, with s/x86/ppc64/ -->
65 <!-- START -->
66 <section>
67 <title>The Gentoo Universal Installation CD</title>
68 <subsection>
69 <title>Introduction</title>
70 <body>
71
72 <p>
73 Gentoo Linux can be installed using a <e>stage3</e> tarball file.
74 Such a tarball is an archive that contains a minimal environment from
75 which you can succesfully install Gentoo Linux onto your system.
76 </p>
77
78 <p>
79 Installations using a stage1 or stage2 tarball file are not documented in the
80 Gentoo Handbook - please read the <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml#stage12">Gentoo
81 FAQ</uri> on these matters.
82 </p>
83
84 </body>
85 </subsection>
86 <subsection>
87 <title>Gentoo Universal Installation CD</title>
88 <body>
89
90 <p>
91 An Installation CD is a bootable medium which contains a self-sustained Gentoo
92 environment. It allows you to boot Linux from the CD. During the boot process
93 your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers are loaded. The Gentoo
94 Installation CDs are maintained by Gentoo developers.
95 </p>
96
97 <p>
98 There currently are two Installation CDs available:
99 </p>
100
101 <ul>
102 <li>
103 The Universal Installation CD contains everything you need to install
104 Gentoo. It provides stage3 files for common architectures, source code
105 for the extra applications you need to choose from and, of course, the
106 installation instructions for your architecture.
107 </li>
108 <li>
109 The Minimal Installation CD contains only a minimal environment that allows
110 you to boot up and configure your network so you can connect to the
111 Internet. It does not contain any additional files and cannot be used
112 during the current installation approach.
113 </li>
114 </ul>
115
116 <p>
117 Gentoo also provides a Package CD. This is not an Installation CD but an
118 additional resource that you can exploit during the installation of your Gentoo
119 system. It contains prebuilt packages (also known as the GRP set) that allow
120 you to easily and quickly install additional applications immediately after the
121 Gentoo installation and right before you update your Portage tree.
122 </p>
123
124 <p>
125 The use of the Package CD is covered later in this document.
126 </p>
127
128 </body>
129 </subsection>
130 <subsection>
131 <title>Choosing a userland</title>
132 <body>
133
134 <p>
135 On PPC64, the kernel is 64-bit and the <e>userland</e> can be 32-bit or 64-bit. The
136 userland is basically the applications you are running, such as
137 <c>bash</c> or <c>mozilla-firefox</c>. They can be compiled and run in either
138 64-bit or 32-bit modes. The Gentoo/PPC64 team provides both 32-bit and 64-bit
139 userlands, so which one should you use?
140 </p>
141
142 <p>
143 You may have heard that 64-bit applications are better, but in fact, 32-bit
144 applications take up slightly less memory and often run a little bit faster than
145 64-bit applications.
146 </p>
147
148 <p>
149 You really only need 64-bit applications when you need more memory than a 32-bit
150 userland allows, or if you do a lot of 64-bit number crunching. If you run
151 applications that require more than 4GB of memory or you run scientific
152 applications, you should choose the 64-bit userland. Otherwise, choose the
153 32-bit userland, as it is recommended by the Gentoo/PPC64 developers.
154 </p>
155
156 <p>
157 Additionally, the 32-bit userland has been available in Portage longer than the
158 64-bit userland has. This means that there are more applications tested in the
159 32-bit userland that just work "out of the box." Many applications compiled for
160 the 64-bit userland may be just as stable as the 32-bit version, but they
161 haven't been tested yet. Though testing isn't difficult to do, it can be
162 annoying and time consuming if you want to use many untested 64-bit
163 applications. Also, some programs just won't run in the 64-bit userland until
164 their code is fixed, such as OpenOffice.
165 </p>
166
167 <p>
168 The Gentoo/PPC64 team provides stages and Package CDs for both 32-bit and 64-bit
169 userlands, so no matter which one you choose, you'll be able to successfully
170 install Gentoo and get a full system up and running with minimal fuss.
171 </p>
172
173 </body>
174 </subsection>
175 </section>
176 <!-- STOP -->
177 <section>
178 <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo Installation CD</title>
179 <subsection>
180 <title>Downloading and Burning the Installation CDs</title>
181 <body>
182
183 <p>
184 You can download the Universal Installation CD (and, if you want to, the
185 Packages CD as well) from one of our <uri
186 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. The Installation CDs are located in
187 the <path><keyval id="release-dir"/>installcd</path> directory; the Package CDs
188 are located in the <path><keyval id="release-dir"/>packagecd</path> directory.
189 </p>
190
191 <p>
192 Inside those directories you'll find ISO-files. Those are full CD images which
193 you can write on a CD-R.
194 </p>
195
196 <p>
197 After downloading the file, you can verify its integrity to see if it is
198 corrupted or not:
199 </p>
200
201 <ul>
202 <li>
203 You can check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we
204 provide (for instance with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or
205 <uri link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows). How
206 to verify MD5 checksums with Mac OS X is described in the <uri
207 link="/doc/en/gentoo-ppc-faq.xml#doc_chap1">Gentoo PPC FAQ</uri>.
208 </li>
209 <li>
210 You can verify the cryptographic signature that we provide. You need to
211 obtain the public key we use (0x17072058) before you proceed though.
212 </li>
213 </ul>
214
215 <p>
216 To fetch our public key using the GnuPG application, run the following command:
217 </p>
218
219 <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
220 $ <i>gpg --keyserver subkeys.pgp.net --recv-keys 0x17072058</i>
221 </pre>
222
223 <p>
224 Now verify the signature:
225 </p>
226
227 <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
228 $ <i>gpg --verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
229 </pre>
230
231 <p>
232 To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
233 do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
234 <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
235 link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
236 </p>
237
238 <ul>
239 <li>
240 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc &lt;downloaded iso
241 file&gt;</c> (replace <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device
242 path).
243 </li>
244 <li>
245 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
246 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
247 <c>Start</c>.
248 </li>
249 </ul>
250
251 </body>
252 </subsection>
253 <subsection>
254 <title>Booting the Installation CD on an Apple</title>
255 <body>
256
257 <p>
258 Please check the <path>README.kernel</path> on the Installation CD for the
259 latest information on how to boot various kernels and getting hardware support.
260 </p>
261
262 <p>
263 Place the Installation CD in the CD-ROM and reboot the system. Hold down the
264 'C' key at bootup. You will be greeted by a friendly welcome message and a
265 <e>boot:</e> prompt at the bottom of the screen.
266 </p>
267
268 <p>
269 You are also able to tweak some kernel options at this prompt. The following
270 table lists the available boot options you can add:
271 </p>
272
273 <table>
274 <tr>
275 <th>Boot Option</th>
276 <th>Description</th>
277 </tr>
278 <tr>
279 <ti><c>video</c></ti>
280 <ti>
281 This option takes one of the following vendor-specific tags:
282 <c>radeonfb</c>, <c>rivafb</c>, <c>atyfb</c>, <c>aty128</c>, <c>nvidiafb</c>
283 or <c>ofonly</c>. You can follow this tag with the resolution and
284 refreshrate you want to use. For instance
285 <c>video=radeonfb:1280x1024@75</c>. If you are uncertain what to choose,
286 <c>ofonly</c> will most certainly work.
287 </ti>
288 </tr>
289 <tr>
290 <ti><c>nol3</c></ti>
291 <ti>
292 Disables level 3 cache on some powerbooks (needed for at least the 17")
293 </ti>
294 </tr>
295 <tr>
296 <ti><c>debug</c></ti>
297 <ti>
298 Enables verbose booting, spawns an initrd shell that can be used to debug
299 the Installation CD
300 </ti>
301 </tr>
302 <tr>
303 <ti><c>sleep=X</c></ti>
304 <ti>
305 Wait X seconds before continuing; this can be needed by some very old SCSI
306 CD-ROMs which don't speed up the CD quick enough
307 </ti>
308 </tr>
309 <tr>
310 <ti><c>bootfrom=X</c></ti>
311 <ti>
312 Boot from a different device
313 </ti>
314 </tr>
315 </table>
316
317 <p>
318 At this prompt, hit enter, and a complete Gentoo Linux environment will be
319 loaded from the CD. Continue with <uri link="#booted">And When You're
320 Booted...</uri>.
321 </p>
322
323 </body>
324 </subsection>
325 <subsection>
326 <title>Booting the Installation CD on an IBM pSeries, OpenPower and Power5
327 iSeries servers</title>
328 <body>
329
330 <p>
331 Please check the <path>README.kernel</path> on the Installation CD for the
332 latest information on how to boot various kernels and getting hardware support.
333 </p>
334
335 <p>
336 Most modern pSeries servers can boot from the CDROM drive through SMS ('1' when
337 the “IBM IBM IBM” messages flash across the console). On some older pSeries
338 boxes, sometimes the cds might not autoboot. You might have to set up your
339 cdrom as a bootable device in the multi-boot menu. (F1 at startup) The other
340 option is to jump into OF and do it from there:
341 </p>
342
343 <ol>
344 <li>
345 Boot into OF (this is 8 from the serial cons or F8 from a graphics
346 cons, start hitting the key when you see the keyboard mouse etc etc
347 messages.
348 </li>
349 <li>Run the command 0> boot cdrom:1,yaboot</li>
350 <li>Stand back and enjoy!</li>
351 </ol>
352
353 </body>
354 </subsection>
355 <subsection id="booted">
356 <title>And When You're Booted...</title>
357 <body>
358
359 <p>
360 You will be greeted by a root ("#") prompt on the current console. You can also
361 switch to other consoles by pressing Alt-fn-F2, Alt-fn-F3 and Alt-fn-F4. Get
362 back to the one you started on by pressing Alt-fn-F1.
363 </p>
364
365 <p>
366 If you are installing Gentoo on a system with a non-US keyboard, use
367 <c>loadkeys</c> to load the keymap for your keyboard. To list the available
368 keymaps, execute <c>ls /usr/share/keymaps/i386</c>.
369 </p>
370
371 <pre caption="Listing available keymaps">
372 <comment>(PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. The mac/ppc keymaps provided
373 on the Installation CD are ADB keymaps and unusable with the
374 Installation CD kernel)</comment>
375 # <i>ls /usr/share/keymaps/i386</i>
376 </pre>
377
378 <p>
379 Now load the keymap of your choice:
380 </p>
381
382 <pre caption="Loading a keymap">
383 # <i>loadkeys be-latin1</i>
384 </pre>
385
386 <p>
387 Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
388 </p>
389
390 </body>
391 </subsection>
392 <subsection id="hardware">
393 <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
394 <body>
395
396 <p>
397 When the Installation CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices and
398 loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the vast
399 majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases it may not
400 auto-load the kernel modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of
401 your system's hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules
402 manually.
403 </p>
404
405 <p>
406 In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
407 certain kinds of network interfaces):
408 </p>
409
410 <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
411 # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
412 </pre>
413
414 </body>
415 </subsection>
416 <subsection>
417 <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
418 <body>
419
420 <p>
421 If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
422 performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
423 test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
424 more precise impression):
425 </p>
426
427 <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
428 # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
429 </pre>
430
431 <p>
432 To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
433 yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
434 disk):
435 </p>
436
437 <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
438 <comment>Activate DMA:</comment>
439 # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
440 <comment>Activate DMA + Safe Performance-enhancing Options:</comment>
441 # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
442 </pre>
443
444 </body>
445 </subsection>
446 <subsection id="useraccounts">
447 <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
448 <body>
449
450 <p>
451 If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
452 environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
453 security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
454 the root password.
455 </p>
456
457 <p>
458 To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
459 </p>
460
461 <pre caption="Changing the root password">
462 # <i>passwd</i>
463 New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
464 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
465 </pre>
466
467 <p>
468 To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
469 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
470 In the next example, we create a user called &quot;john&quot;.
471 </p>
472
473 <pre caption="Creating a user account">
474 # <i>useradd -m -G users john</i>
475 # <i>passwd john</i>
476 New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
477 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
478 </pre>
479
480 <p>
481 You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
482 <c>su</c>:
483 </p>
484
485 <pre caption="Changing user id">
486 # <i>su - john</i>
487 </pre>
488
489 </body>
490 </subsection>
491 <subsection>
492 <title>Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing</title>
493 <body>
494
495 <p>
496 If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook during the installation, make sure you
497 have created a user account (see <uri link="#useraccounts">Optional: User
498 Accounts</uri>). Then press <c>Alt-F2</c> to go to a new terminal and log in.
499 </p>
500
501 <p>
502 If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run
503 <c>links</c> to read it:
504 </p>
505
506 <pre caption="Viewing the on-CD documentation">
507 # <i>links /mnt/cdrom/docs/handbook/html/index.html</i>
508 </pre>
509
510 <p>
511 However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be
512 more recent than the one provided on the CD.
513 </p>
514
515 <pre caption="Viewing the Online Documentation">
516 # <i>links http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/<keyval id="online-book"/></i>
517 </pre>
518
519 <p>
520 You can go back to your original terminal by pressing <c>Alt-F1</c>.
521 </p>
522
523 </body>
524 </subsection>
525 <subsection>
526 <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
527 <body>
528
529 <p>
530 If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
531 Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
532 install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
533 account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
534 (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
535 </p>
536
537 <p>
538 To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
539 </p>
540
541 <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
542 # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
543 </pre>
544
545 <p>
546 To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with
547 the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
548 </p>
549
550 </body>
551 </subsection>
552 </section>
553 </sections>

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