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Fix bug #466262 - Document predictable naming of interfaces

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.118 2013/02/23 18:38:22 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <abstract>
12 You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13 you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14 proceed.
15 </abstract>
16
17 <version>25</version>
18 <date>2013-05-06</date>
19
20 <section>
21 <title>Filesystem Information</title>
22 <subsection>
23 <title>What is fstab?</title>
24 <body>
25
26 <p>
27 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
28 <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mount points of those partitions
29 (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
30 and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
31 them or not, etc.)
32 </p>
33
34 </body>
35 </subsection>
36 <subsection>
37 <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
38 <body>
39
40 <p>
41 <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
42 fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
43 its own meaning:
44 </p>
45
46 <ul>
47 <li>
48 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
49 file)
50 </li>
51 <li>
52 The second field shows the <b>mount point</b> at which the partition should be
53 mounted
54 </li>
55 <li>
56 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
57 </li>
58 <li>
59 The fourth field shows the <b>mount options</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
60 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mount options,
61 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
62 listing. Multiple mount options are comma-separated.
63 </li>
64 <li>
65 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
66 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
67 </li>
68 <li>
69 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
70 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
71 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
72 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
73 </li>
74 </ul>
75
76 <impo>
77 The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
78 fstab file</e>. You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
79 </impo>
80
81 <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
82 # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
83 </pre>
84
85 </body>
86 <body test="func:keyval('/boot')">
87
88 <p>
89 Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
90 partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
91 <path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
92 </p>
93
94 <p>
95 In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
96 usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
97 filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
98 </p>
99
100 <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
101 <keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 0 2
102 </pre>
103
104 <p>
105 Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
106 automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
107 substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
108 manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
109 </p>
110
111 </body>
112 <body>
113
114 <p>
115 Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
116 your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives,
117 for those too.
118 </p>
119
120 <p>
121 Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
122 </p>
123
124 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
125 <keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
126 /dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
127 /dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
128
129 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
130 </pre>
131
132 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
133 <keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
134 /dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
135 /dev/sda3 / ext4 noatime 0 1
136
137 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
138 </pre>
139
140 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
141 /dev/sda1 / ext4 noatime 0 1
142 /dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
143 /dev/sda4 /usr ext4 noatime 0 2
144 /dev/sda5 /var ext4 noatime 0 2
145 /dev/sda6 /home ext4 noatime 0 2
146
147 <comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
148 openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
149
150 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
151 </pre>
152
153 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
154 func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
155 /dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
156 /dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
157
158 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
159 </pre>
160
161 <p>
162 <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
163 removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
164 <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
165 </p>
166
167 <p>
168 To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
169 mount option, which results in a faster system since access times
170 aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway).
171 </p>
172
173 <p>
174 Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
175 </p>
176
177 </body>
178 </subsection>
179 </section>
180 <section>
181 <title>Networking Information</title>
182 <subsection>
183 <title>Host name, Domainname, etc</title>
184 <body>
185
186 <p>
187 One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
188 quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
189 appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
190 choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
191 <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
192 </p>
193
194 <pre caption="Setting the host name">
195 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
196
197 <comment>(Set the hostname variable to your host name)</comment>
198 hostname="<i>tux</i>"
199 </pre>
200
201 <p>
202 Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
203 You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
204 have a DNS server but not a DHCP server. You don't need to worry about DNS or
205 domainnames if your networking is setup for DHCP.
206 </p>
207
208 <pre caption="Setting the domainname">
209 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
210
211 <comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment>
212 dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>"
213 </pre>
214
215 <note>
216 If you choose not to set a domainname, you can get rid of the "This is
217 hostname.(none)" messages at your login screen by editing
218 <path>/etc/issue</path>. Just delete the string <c>.\O</c> from that file.
219 </note>
220
221 <p>
222 If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
223 one), you need to define that one too:
224 </p>
225
226 <pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
227 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
228
229 <comment>(Set the nis_domain variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
230 nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
231 </pre>
232
233 <note>
234 For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
235 provided in <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> which
236 can be read using <c>bzless</c>. Also, you may want to emerge <c>openresolv</c>
237 to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
238 </note>
239
240 </body>
241 </subsection>
242 <subsection>
243 <title>Configuring your Network</title>
244 <body>
245
246 <p>
247 Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
248 that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
249 just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
250 your Gentoo system permanently.
251 </p>
252
253 <note>
254 More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
255 bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
256 link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
257 </note>
258
259 <p>
260 All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
261 a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
262 networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
263 commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
264 <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path>.
265 </p>
266
267 <p>
268 DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
269 client. This is described later in <uri
270 link="?part=1&amp;chap=9#networking-tools">Installing Necessary System
271 Tools</uri>. Do not forget to install a DHCP client.
272 </p>
273
274 <p>
275 If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
276 specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
277 <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
278 this example):
279 </p>
280
281 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
282 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
283 </pre>
284
285 <p>
286 You will see the following file:
287 </p>
288
289 <pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
290 # This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
291 # scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
292 # please review /usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2 and save
293 # your configuration in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
294 </pre>
295
296 <p>
297 To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
298 to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
299 </p>
300
301 <note>
302 This assumes that your network interface will be called eth0. This is, however,
303 very system dependent. It is recommended to assume that the interface is named
304 the same as the interface name when booted from the installation media <e>if</e>
305 the installation media is sufficiently recent.
306 </note>
307
308 <pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
309 config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255"
310 routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1"
311 </pre>
312
313 <p>
314 To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>:
315 </p>
316
317 <pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
318 config_eth0="dhcp"
319 </pre>
320
321 <p>
322 Please read <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> for a
323 list of all available options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if
324 you need to set specific DHCP options.
325 </p>
326
327 <p>
328 If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
329 <c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
330 </p>
331
332 <p>
333 Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
334 </p>
335
336 </body>
337 </subsection>
338 <subsection>
339 <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
340 <body>
341
342 <p>
343 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
344 default runlevel.
345 </p>
346
347 <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
348 # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
349 # <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth0</i>
350 # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
351 </pre>
352
353 <p>
354 If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
355 <path>net.*</path> files just like you did with <path>net.eth0</path>.
356 </p>
357
358 <p>
359 If you later find out the assumption about the network interface name (which we
360 currently document as eth0) was wrong, then
361 </p>
362
363 <ol>
364 <li>
365 update the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> file with the correct interface name (like enp3s0
366 instead of eth0),
367 </li>
368 <li>
369 create new symbolic link (like <path>/etc/init.d/net.enp3s0</path>),
370 </li>
371 <li>
372 remove the old symbolic link (<c>rm /etc/init.d/net.eth0</c>),
373 </li>
374 <li>
375 add the new one to the default runlevel, and
376 </li>
377 <li>
378 remove the old one using <c>rc-update del net.eth0 default</c>.
379 </li>
380 </ol>
381
382 </body>
383 </subsection>
384 <subsection>
385 <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
386 <body>
387
388 <p>
389 You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
390 <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving host names to IP addresses for
391 hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. You need to define your system.
392 You may also want to define other systems on your network if you don't want to
393 set up your own internal DNS system.
394 </p>
395
396 <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
397 # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
398 </pre>
399
400 <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
401 <comment>(This defines the current system)</comment>
402 127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
403
404 <comment>(Define extra systems on your network,
405 they need to have a static IP to be defined this way.)</comment>
406 192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
407 192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
408 </pre>
409
410 <p>
411 Save and exit the editor to continue.
412 </p>
413
414 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
415 If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
416 link="#sysinfo">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
417 following topic on PCMCIA.
418 </p>
419
420 </body>
421 </subsection>
422 <subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
423 <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
424 <body>
425
426 <p>
427 PCMCIA users should first install the <c>pcmciautils</c> package.
428 </p>
429
430 <pre caption="Installing pcmciautils">
431 # <i>emerge pcmciautils</i>
432 </pre>
433
434 </body>
435 </subsection>
436 </section>
437
438 <section id="sysinfo">
439 <title>System Information</title>
440 <subsection>
441 <title>Root Password</title>
442 <body>
443
444 <p>
445 First we set the root password by typing:
446 </p>
447
448 <pre caption="Setting the root password">
449 # <i>passwd</i>
450 </pre>
451
452 </body>
453 </subsection>
454 <subsection>
455 <title>System Information</title>
456 <body>
457
458 <p>
459 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to configure the services, startup,
460 and shutdown of your system. Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all
461 the comments in the file.
462 </p>
463
464 <pre caption="Configuring services">
465 # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
466 </pre>
467
468 <p>
469 When you're finished configuring these two files, save them and exit.
470 </p>
471
472 <p>
473 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
474 Edit it to configure your keyboard.
475 </p>
476
477 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
478 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
479 </pre>
480
481 <p>
482 Take special care with the <c>keymap</c> variable. If you select the wrong
483 <c>keymap</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
484 </p>
485
486 <note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
487 PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems.
488 </note>
489
490 <p>
491 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
492 exit.
493 </p>
494
495 <p>
496 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
497 according to your needs.
498 </p>
499
500 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock">
501 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i>
502 </pre>
503
504 <p>
505 If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>clock="local"</c>
506 to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
507 </p>
508
509 <p>
510 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and
511 exit.
512 </p>
513
514 </body>
515 </subsection>
516
517 <subsection>
518 <title>Configure locales</title>
519 <body>
520
521 <p>
522 You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You have to
523 specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
524 </p>
525
526 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
527 # <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
528 </pre>
529
530 <p>
531 The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
532 German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
533 </p>
534
535 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
536 en_US ISO-8859-1
537 en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
538 de_DE ISO-8859-1
539 de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
540 </pre>
541
542 <note>
543 You can select your desired locales in the list given by running <c>locale -a</c>.
544 </note>
545
546 <warn>
547 We strongly suggest that you should use at least one UTF-8 locale because some
548 applications may require it.
549 </warn>
550
551 <p>
552 The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generates all the locales you
553 have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
554 </p>
555
556 <pre caption="Running locale-gen">
557 # <i>locale-gen</i>
558 </pre>
559
560 <p>
561 Once done, you now have the possibility to set the system-wide locale settings
562 in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> file:
563 </p>
564
565 <pre caption="Setting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale">
566 LANG="de_DE.UTF-8"
567 LC_COLLATE="C"
568 </pre>
569
570 <p>
571 And reload your environment:
572 </p>
573
574 <pre caption="Reload shell environment">
575 # env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile
576 </pre>
577
578 <p>
579 We made a full <uri link="../guide-localization.xml#doc_chap3">Localization
580 Guide</uri> to help you through this process. You can also read our detailed
581 <uri link="../utf-8.xml#doc_chap2">UTF-8 Guide</uri> for very specific
582 informations to enable UTF-8 on your system.
583 </p>
584
585 <p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
586 Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
587 Tools</uri>.
588 </p>
589
590 </body>
591 </subsection>
592 <subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
593 <title>Configuring the Console</title>
594 <body>
595
596 <p>
597 If you are using a virtual console, you must uncomment the appropriate line in
598 <path>/etc/inittab</path> for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
599 </p>
600
601 <pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
602 hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
603 hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
604 </pre>
605
606 <p>
607 You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
608 listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
609 </p>
610
611 <p>
612 You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
613 System Tools</uri>.
614 </p>
615
616 </body>
617 </subsection>
618 </section>
619 </sections>

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