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2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
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6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.101 2009/08/05 15:25:23 nightmorph Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.122 2013/07/24 20:40:40 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract> 11<abstract>
12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter 12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to 13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14proceed. 14proceed.
15</abstract> 15</abstract>
16 16
17<version>9.4</version> 17<version>28</version>
18<date>2009-08-05</date> 18<date>2013-07-24</date>
19 19
20<section> 20<section>
21<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
22<subsection> 22<subsection>
23<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as 96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
97filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down: 97filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
98</p> 98</p>
99 99
100<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 100<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
101<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 1 2 101<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 0 2
102</pre> 102</pre>
103 103
104<p> 104<p>
105Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted 105Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
106automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should 106automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
120<p> 120<p>
121Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>: 121Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
122</p> 122</p>
123 123
124<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'"> 124<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
125<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 125<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
126/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0 126/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
127/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 127/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
128 128
129/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 129/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
130</pre> 130</pre>
131 131
132<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'"> 132<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
133<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 133<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
134/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0 134/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
135/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 135/dev/sda3 / ext4 noatime 0 1
136 136
137/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 137/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
138</pre> 138</pre>
139 139
140<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'"> 140<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
141/dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1 141/dev/sda1 / ext4 noatime 0 1
142/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0 142/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
143/dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2 143/dev/sda4 /usr ext4 noatime 0 2
144/dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2 144/dev/sda5 /var ext4 noatime 0 2
145/dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2 145/dev/sda6 /home ext4 noatime 0 2
146 146
147<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment> 147<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
148openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 148openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
149 149
150/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 150/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
151</pre> 151</pre>
152 152
153<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or 153<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
154func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'"> 154func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
155/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 155/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
156/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0 156/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
157 157
158/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 158/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
159</pre> 159</pre>
160 160
192</p> 192</p>
193 193
194<pre caption="Setting the host name"> 194<pre caption="Setting the host name">
195# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i> 195# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
196 196
197<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your host name)</comment> 197<comment>(Set the hostname variable to your host name)</comment>
198HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>" 198hostname="<i>tux</i>"
199</pre> 199</pre>
200 200
201<p> 201<p>
202Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. 202Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
203You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you 203You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
230nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>" 230nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
231</pre> 231</pre>
232 232
233<note> 233<note>
234For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples 234For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
235provided in <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. Also, you may want to emerge 235provided in <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> which
236can be read using <c>bzless</c>. Also, you may want to emerge <c>openresolv</c>
236<c>openresolv</c> to help manage your DNS/NIS setup. 237to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
237</note> 238</note>
238 239
239</body> 240</body>
240</subsection> 241</subsection>
241<subsection> 242<subsection>
258<p> 259<p>
259All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 260All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
260a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up 261a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
261networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully 262networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
262commented example that covers many different configurations is available in 263commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
263<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. 264<path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path>.
264</p> 265</p>
265 266
266<p> 267<p>
267DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP 268DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
268client. This is described later in <uri 269client. This is described later in <uri
286</p> 287</p>
287 288
288<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net"> 289<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
289# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.* 290# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
290# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration, 291# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
291# please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration 292# please review /usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2 and save
292# in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!). 293# your configuration in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
293</pre> 294</pre>
294 295
295<p> 296<p>
296To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need 297To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
297to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>: 298to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
298</p> 299</p>
299 300
301<note>
302This assumes that your network interface will be called eth0. This is, however,
303very system dependent. It is recommended to assume that the interface is named
304the same as the interface name when booted from the installation media <e>if</e>
305the installation media is sufficiently recent. More information can be found in
306<uri link="?part=4&amp;chap=2#doc_chap4">Network Interface Naming</uri>.
307</note>
308
300<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0"> 309<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
301config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" ) 310config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255"
302routes_eth0=( "default via 192.168.0.1" ) 311routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1"
303</pre> 312</pre>
304 313
305<p> 314<p>
306To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>: 315To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>:
307</p> 316</p>
308 317
309<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0"> 318<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
310config_eth0=( "dhcp" ) 319config_eth0="dhcp"
311</pre> 320</pre>
312 321
313<p> 322<p>
314Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available 323Please read <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> for a
315options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if you need to set 324list of all available options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if
316specific DHCP options. 325you need to set specific DHCP options.
317</p> 326</p>
318 327
319<p> 328<p>
320If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for 329If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
321<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc. 330<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
335To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the 344To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
336default runlevel. 345default runlevel.
337</p> 346</p>
338 347
339<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 348<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
349# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
350# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth0</i>
340# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i> 351# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
341</pre> 352</pre>
342 353
343<p> 354<p>
344If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate 355If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
345<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can 356<path>net.*</path> files just like you did with <path>net.eth0</path>.
346use <c>ln</c> to do this: 357</p>
358
347</p> 359<p>
348 360If you later find out the assumption about the network interface name (which we
349<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts"> 361currently document as eth0) was wrong, then
350# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
351# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth1</i>
352# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
353</pre> 362</p>
363
364<ol>
365<li>
366update the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> file with the correct interface name (like enp3s0
367instead of eth0),
368</li>
369<li>
370create new symbolic link (like <path>/etc/init.d/net.enp3s0</path>),
371</li>
372<li>
373remove the old symbolic link (<c>rm /etc/init.d/net.eth0</c>),
374</li>
375<li>
376add the new one to the default runlevel, and
377</li>
378<li>
379remove the old one using <c>rc-update del net.eth0 default</c>.
380</li>
381</ol>
354 382
355</body> 383</body>
356</subsection> 384</subsection>
357<subsection> 385<subsection>
358<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 386<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
427<subsection> 455<subsection>
428<title>System Information</title> 456<title>System Information</title>
429<body> 457<body>
430 458
431<p> 459<p>
432Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 460Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to configure the services, startup,
433Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :) 461and shutdown of your system. Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all
462the comments in the file.
434</p> 463</p>
435 464
436<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 465<pre caption="Configuring services">
437# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 466# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
438</pre> 467</pre>
439 468
440<p> 469<p>
441When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit. 470When you're finished configuring these two files, save them and exit.
442</p>
443
444<p>
445As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
446configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
447define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
448</p> 471</p>
449 472
450<p> 473<p>
451Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration. 474Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
452Edit it to configure your keyboard. 475Edit it to configure your keyboard.
455<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps"> 478<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
456# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i> 479# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
457</pre> 480</pre>
458 481
459<p> 482<p>
460Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong 483Take special care with the <c>keymap</c> variable. If you select the wrong
461<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard. 484<c>keymap</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
462</p> 485</p>
463 486
464<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'"> 487<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
465PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. 488PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems.
466</note> 489</note>
469When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and 492When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
470exit. 493exit.
471</p> 494</p>
472 495
473<p> 496<p>
474Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it 497Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
475according to your needs. 498according to your needs.
476</p> 499</p>
477 500
478<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock"> 501<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock">
479# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i> 502# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i>
480</pre> 503</pre>
481 504
482<p> 505<p>
483If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> 506If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>clock="local"</c>
484to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew. 507to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
485</p> 508</p>
486 509
487<p> 510<p>
488You should define the timezone that you previously copied to
489<path>/etc/localtime</path> so that further upgrades of the
490<c>sys-libs/timezone-data</c> package can update <path>/etc/localtime</path>
491automatically. For instance, if you used the GMT timezone, you would add
492<c>TIMEZONE="GMT"</c>
493</p>
494
495<p>
496When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and 511When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and
497exit. 512exit.
513</p>
514
515</body>
516</subsection>
517
518<subsection>
519<title>Configure locales</title>
520<body>
521
522<p>
523You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You have to
524specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
525</p>
526
527<pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
528# <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
529</pre>
530
531<p>
532The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
533German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
534</p>
535
536<pre caption="Specify your locales">
537en_US ISO-8859-1
538en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
539de_DE ISO-8859-1
540de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
541</pre>
542
543<note>
544You can select your desired locales in the list given by running <c>locale -a</c>.
545</note>
546
547<warn>
548We strongly suggest that you should use at least one UTF-8 locale because some
549applications may require it.
550</warn>
551
552<p>
553The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generates all the locales you
554have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
555</p>
556
557<pre caption="Running locale-gen">
558# <i>locale-gen</i>
559</pre>
560
561<p>
562Once done, you now have the possibility to set the system-wide locale settings
563in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> file:
564</p>
565
566<pre caption="Setting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale">
567LANG="de_DE.UTF-8"
568LC_COLLATE="C"
569</pre>
570
571<p>
572And reload your environment:
573</p>
574
575<pre caption="Reload shell environment">
576# env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile
577</pre>
578
579<p>
580We made a full <uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Localization/HOWTO">Localization
581Guide</uri> to help you through this process. You can also read the detailed
582<uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/UTF-8">UTF-8 article</uri> for very specific
583informations to enable UTF-8 on your system.
498</p> 584</p>
499 585
500<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')"> 586<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
501Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System 587Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
502Tools</uri>. 588Tools</uri>.

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