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2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.96 2008/02/29 15:54:59 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.122 2013/07/24 20:40:40 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract> 11<abstract>
12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter 12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to 13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14proceed. 14proceed.
15</abstract> 15</abstract>
16 16
17<version>8.3</version> 17<version>28</version>
18<date>2007-08-01</date> 18<date>2013-07-24</date>
19 19
20<section> 20<section>
21<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
22<subsection> 22<subsection>
23<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
89Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 89Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
90partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a 90partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
91<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it. 91<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
92</p> 92</p>
93 93
94<p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/hd')">
95In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition (or
97<path>/dev/sda*</path> if you use SCSI or SATA drives), with <c>ext2</c> as
98filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
99</p> 94<p>
100
101<p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/sd')">
102In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is 95In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
103usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as 96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
104filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down: 97filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
105</p> 98</p>
106 99
107<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 100<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
108<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 1 2 101<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 0 2
109</pre> 102</pre>
110 103
111<p> 104<p>
112Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted 105Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
113automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should 106automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
116</p> 109</p>
117 110
118</body> 111</body>
119<body> 112<body>
120 113
121<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='SPARC')"> 114<p>
122Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for 115Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
123your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives, 116your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives,
124for those too. 117for those too.
125</p> 118</p>
126 119
127<p test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
128Add the rules that match your partitioning schema and append rules for
129<path>/proc/openprom</path>, for your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if
130you have other partitions or drives, for those too.
131</p>
132
133<p> 120<p>
134Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>: 121Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
135</p> 122</p>
136 123
137<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86'"> 124<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
138<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 125<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
139/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 126/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
140/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 127/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
141 128
142/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 129/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
143</pre> 130</pre>
144 131
145<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'"> 132<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
146<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 133<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
147/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0 134/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
148/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 135/dev/sda3 / ext4 noatime 0 1
149 136
150/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 137/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
151</pre> 138</pre>
152 139
153<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS'">
154<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
155/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
156/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
157
158/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
159</pre>
160
161<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'"> 140<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
162/dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1 141/dev/sda1 / ext4 noatime 0 1
163/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0 142/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
164/dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2 143/dev/sda4 /usr ext4 noatime 0 2
165/dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2 144/dev/sda5 /var ext4 noatime 0 2
166/dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2 145/dev/sda6 /home ext4 noatime 0 2
167 146
147<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
168openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 148openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
169 149
170/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 150/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
171</pre> 151</pre>
172 152
173<note test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
174There are important variations between PPC machine types. Please make sure you
175adapt the following example to your system.
176</note>
177
178<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'"> 153<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
179/dev/hda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 154func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
180/dev/hda3 none swap sw 0 0
181
182/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
183</pre>
184
185<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
186/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 155/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
187/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0 156/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
188 157
189/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 158/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
190</pre> 159</pre>
191 160
223</p> 192</p>
224 193
225<pre caption="Setting the host name"> 194<pre caption="Setting the host name">
226# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i> 195# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
227 196
228<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your host name)</comment> 197<comment>(Set the hostname variable to your host name)</comment>
229HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>" 198hostname="<i>tux</i>"
230</pre> 199</pre>
231 200
232<p> 201<p>
233Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. 202Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
234You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you 203You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
261nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>" 230nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
262</pre> 231</pre>
263 232
264<note> 233<note>
265For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples 234For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
266provided in <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. Also, you may want to emerge 235provided in <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> which
267<c>resolvconf-gentoo</c> to help manage your DNS/NIS setup. 236can be read using <c>bzless</c>. Also, you may want to emerge <c>openresolv</c>
237to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
268</note> 238</note>
269 239
270</body> 240</body>
271</subsection> 241</subsection>
272<subsection> 242<subsection>
289<p> 259<p>
290All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 260All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
291a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up 261a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
292networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully 262networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
293commented example that covers many different configurations is available in 263commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
294<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. 264<path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path>.
295</p> 265</p>
296 266
297<p> 267<p>
298DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP 268DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
299client. This is described later in <uri 269client. This is described later in <uri
317</p> 287</p>
318 288
319<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net"> 289<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
320# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.* 290# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
321# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration, 291# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
322# please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration 292# please review /usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2 and save
323# in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!). 293# your configuration in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
324</pre> 294</pre>
325 295
326<p> 296<p>
327To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need 297To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
328to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>: 298to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
329</p> 299</p>
330 300
301<note>
302This assumes that your network interface will be called eth0. This is, however,
303very system dependent. It is recommended to assume that the interface is named
304the same as the interface name when booted from the installation media <e>if</e>
305the installation media is sufficiently recent. More information can be found in
306<uri link="?part=4&amp;chap=2#doc_chap4">Network Interface Naming</uri>.
307</note>
308
331<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0"> 309<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
332config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" ) 310config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255"
333routes_eth0=( "default via 192.168.0.1" ) 311routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1"
334</pre> 312</pre>
335 313
336<p> 314<p>
337To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and 315To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>:
338<c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
339</p> 316</p>
340 317
341<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0"> 318<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
342config_eth0=( "dhcp" ) 319config_eth0="dhcp"
343dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
344</pre> 320</pre>
345 321
346<p> 322<p>
347Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available 323Please read <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> for a
348options. 324list of all available options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if
325you need to set specific DHCP options.
349</p> 326</p>
350 327
351<p> 328<p>
352If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for 329If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
353<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc. 330<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
367To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the 344To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
368default runlevel. 345default runlevel.
369</p> 346</p>
370 347
371<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 348<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
349# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
350# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth0</i>
372# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i> 351# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
373</pre> 352</pre>
374 353
375<p> 354<p>
376If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate 355If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
377<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can 356<path>net.*</path> files just like you did with <path>net.eth0</path>.
378use <c>ln</c> to do this: 357</p>
358
379</p> 359<p>
380 360If you later find out the assumption about the network interface name (which we
381<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts"> 361currently document as eth0) was wrong, then
382# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
383# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth1</i>
384# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
385</pre> 362</p>
363
364<ol>
365<li>
366update the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> file with the correct interface name (like enp3s0
367instead of eth0),
368</li>
369<li>
370create new symbolic link (like <path>/etc/init.d/net.enp3s0</path>),
371</li>
372<li>
373remove the old symbolic link (<c>rm /etc/init.d/net.eth0</c>),
374</li>
375<li>
376add the new one to the default runlevel, and
377</li>
378<li>
379remove the old one using <c>rc-update del net.eth0 default</c>.
380</li>
381</ol>
386 382
387</body> 383</body>
388</subsection> 384</subsection>
389<subsection> 385<subsection>
390<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 386<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
459<subsection> 455<subsection>
460<title>System Information</title> 456<title>System Information</title>
461<body> 457<body>
462 458
463<p> 459<p>
464Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 460Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to configure the services, startup,
465Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :) 461and shutdown of your system. Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all
462the comments in the file.
466</p> 463</p>
467 464
468<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 465<pre caption="Configuring services">
469# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 466# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
470</pre> 467</pre>
471 468
472<p> 469<p>
473When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit. 470When you're finished configuring these two files, save them and exit.
474</p>
475
476<p>
477As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
478configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
479define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
480</p> 471</p>
481 472
482<p> 473<p>
483Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration. 474Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
484Edit it to configure your keyboard. 475Edit it to configure your keyboard.
487<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps"> 478<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
488# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i> 479# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
489</pre> 480</pre>
490 481
491<p> 482<p>
492Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong 483Take special care with the <c>keymap</c> variable. If you select the wrong
493<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard. 484<c>keymap</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
494</p> 485</p>
495 486
496<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'"> 487<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
497PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB 488PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems.
498keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to
499set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
500</note> 489</note>
501 490
502<p> 491<p>
503When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and 492When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
504exit. 493exit.
505</p> 494</p>
506 495
507<p> 496<p>
508Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it 497Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
509according to your needs. 498according to your needs.
510</p> 499</p>
511 500
512<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock"> 501<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock">
513# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i> 502# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i>
514</pre> 503</pre>
515 504
516<p> 505<p>
517If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> 506If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>clock="local"</c>
518to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew. 507to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
519</p> 508</p>
520 509
521<p> 510<p>
522You should define the timezone that you previously copied to
523<path>/etc/localtime</path> so that further upgrades of the
524<c>sys-libs/timezone-data</c> package can update <path>/etc/localtime</path>
525automatically. For instance, if you used the GMT timezone, you would add
526<c>TIMEZONE="GMT"</c>.
527</p>
528
529<p>
530When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and 511When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and
531exit. 512exit.
513</p>
514
515</body>
516</subsection>
517
518<subsection>
519<title>Configure locales</title>
520<body>
521
522<p>
523You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You have to
524specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
525</p>
526
527<pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
528# <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
529</pre>
530
531<p>
532The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
533German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
534</p>
535
536<pre caption="Specify your locales">
537en_US ISO-8859-1
538en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
539de_DE ISO-8859-1
540de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
541</pre>
542
543<note>
544You can select your desired locales in the list given by running <c>locale -a</c>.
545</note>
546
547<warn>
548We strongly suggest that you should use at least one UTF-8 locale because some
549applications may require it.
550</warn>
551
552<p>
553The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generates all the locales you
554have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
555</p>
556
557<pre caption="Running locale-gen">
558# <i>locale-gen</i>
559</pre>
560
561<p>
562Once done, you now have the possibility to set the system-wide locale settings
563in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> file:
564</p>
565
566<pre caption="Setting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale">
567LANG="de_DE.UTF-8"
568LC_COLLATE="C"
569</pre>
570
571<p>
572And reload your environment:
573</p>
574
575<pre caption="Reload shell environment">
576# env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile
577</pre>
578
579<p>
580We made a full <uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Localization/HOWTO">Localization
581Guide</uri> to help you through this process. You can also read the detailed
582<uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/UTF-8">UTF-8 article</uri> for very specific
583informations to enable UTF-8 on your system.
532</p> 584</p>
533 585
534<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')"> 586<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
535Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System 587Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
536Tools</uri>. 588Tools</uri>.

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