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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
1<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
2<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
3 6
4<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.17 2004/01/06 10:08:38 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.65 2005/06/11 19:45:37 fox2mike Exp $ -->
5 8
6<sections> 9<sections>
7<section>
8<title>Timezone</title>
9<body>
10 10
11<p> 11<version>2.7</version>
12You now need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is 12<date>2005-06-11</date>
13located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
14symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
15</p>
16 13
17<pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
18# <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
19<comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT:)</comment>
20# <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
21</pre>
22
23</body>
24</section>
25<section> 14<section>
26<title>Filesystem Information</title> 15<title>Filesystem Information</title>
27<subsection> 16<subsection>
28<title>What is fstab?</title> 17<title>What is fstab?</title>
29<body> 18<body>
30 19
31<p> 20<p>
32Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 21Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
33<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 22<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
34(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 23(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
35(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not, 24and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
36etc.). 25them or not, etc.)
37</p> 26</p>
38 27
39</body> 28</body>
40</subsection> 29</subsection>
41<subsection> 30<subsection>
61 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
62</li> 51</li>
63<li> 52<li>
64 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 53 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
65 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
66 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
67 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated. 56 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
68</li> 57</li>
69<li> 58<li>
70 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
71 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
72</li> 61</li>
73<li> 62<li>
74 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which 63 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
75 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. 64 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
76 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> 65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
77 (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary). 66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
78</li> 67</li>
79</ul> 68</ul>
80 69
81<p> 70<p>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
82So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 72file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
83<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 73<path>/etc/fstab</path>:
84</p> 74</p>
85 75
86<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 76<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
87# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 77# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
88</pre> 78</pre>
89 79
90<p> 80<p>
91Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 81Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
92partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 82partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
93<path>/boot</path> partition, don't copy it verbatim. 83<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
94</p> 84</p>
95 85
96<p> 86<p>
97In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 87In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
98<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't 88<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
99be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we 89It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
100would write down:
101</p> 90</p>
102 91
103<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 92<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
104/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2 93/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
94</pre>
95
96<p>
97Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
98automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
99substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
100manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
105</pre> 101</p>
106 102
107<p> 103<p>
108Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c> 104Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
109option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times 105option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
110aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway): 106aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
111</p> 107</p>
112 108
113<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 109<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
114/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 110/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
115</pre> 111</pre>
116 112
117<p> 113<p>
118If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 114If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
119<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition): 115<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
120</p> 116</p>
121 117
122<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 118<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
123/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 119/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
124/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 120/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
125/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 121/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
126</pre> 122</pre>
127 123
128<p> 124<p>
130(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other 126(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
131partitions or drives, for those too): 127partitions or drives, for those too):
132</p> 128</p>
133 129
134<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 130<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
135/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 131/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
136/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 132/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
137/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 133/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
138 134
139none /proc proc defaults 0 0 135none /proc proc defaults 0 0
140none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0 136none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
141 137
142/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 138/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
143</pre> 139</pre>
144 140
145<p> 141<p>
148<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD. 144<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
149</p> 145</p>
150 146
151<p> 147<p>
152Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a 148Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
153SPARC-user, you should add the following line to your <path>/etc/fstab</path> 149<b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
150<path>/etc/fstab</path>
154too: 151too:
155</p> 152</p>
156 153
157<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab"> 154<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
158none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 155none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
159</pre> 156</pre>
160 157
161<p> 158<p>
162If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
163</p>
164
165<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
166none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
167</pre>
168
169<p>
170Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 159Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
171</p> 160</p>
172 161
173</body> 162</body>
174</subsection> 163</subsection>
175</section> 164</section>
178<subsection> 167<subsection>
179<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title> 168<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
180<body> 169<body>
181 170
182<p> 171<p>
183One of the choices the user has to make is name his PC. This seems to be quite 172One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
184easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate 173quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
185name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you choose can 174appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
186be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system 175choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
187<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>. 176<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
188</p> 177</p>
189 178
190<p> 179<p>
191We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname: 180We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
231that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was 220that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was
232just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for 221just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
233your Gentoo system permanently. 222your Gentoo system permanently.
234</p> 223</p>
235 224
225<note>
226More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
227bonding, bridging, 802.11q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
228link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
229</note>
230
236<p> 231<p>
237All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 232All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
238a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup 233a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
239networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 234networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
240</p> 235</p>
241 236
242<p> 237<p>
243First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 238First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
247<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing"> 242<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
248# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 243# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
249</pre> 244</pre>
250 245
251<p> 246<p>
252The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following 247The first variable you'll find is called <c>config_eth0</c>. As you can probably
253syntax: 248imagine, this variable configured the eth0 network interface. If the interface
254</p> 249needs to automatically obtain an IP address through DHCP, you should set it
255 250like so:
256<pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
257iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
258</pre>
259
260<p> 251</p>
261If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 252
262to <c>dhcp</c>. However, if you need to setup your network manually and you're 253<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
263not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 254config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
264link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network 255</pre>
265Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 256
266</p> 257<p>
267 258However, if you have to enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
259to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
268<p> 260</p>
269So let us give two examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static IP 261
270(192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and gateway 262<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
271192.168.0.1: 263config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0" )
264routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" )
265</pre>
266
272</p> 267<p>
273 268If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
274<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net"> 269<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
275<comment>(For DHCP:)</comment>
276iface_eth0="dhcp"
277
278<comment>(For static IP:)</comment>
279iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
280gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
281</pre>
282
283<p>
284If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
285like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
286shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer.
287</p> 270</p>
288 271
289<p> 272<p>
290Now save the configuration and exit to continue. 273Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
291</p> 274</p>
295<subsection> 278<subsection>
296<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 279<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
297<body> 280<body>
298 281
299<p> 282<p>
300To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the 283To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
301default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 284default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
302the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script. 285the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
303</p> 286</p>
304 287
305<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 288<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
337# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i> 320# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
338</pre> 321</pre>
339 322
340<pre caption="Filling in the networking information"> 323<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
341127.0.0.1 localhost 324127.0.0.1 localhost
342192.168.0.5 jenny 325192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
343192.168.0.6 benny 326192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
344192.168.0.7 tux 327192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
345</pre> 328</pre>
346 329
347<p> 330<p>
348If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name 331If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
349resolution) a single line is sufficient: 332resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
333system <c>tux</c>:
350</p> 334</p>
351 335
352<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs"> 336<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
353127.0.0.1 localhost tux 337127.0.0.1 localhost tux
354</pre> 338</pre>
355 339
356<p> 340<p>
357Save and exit the editor to continue. 341Save and exit the editor to continue.
358</p> 342</p>
359 343
360<p> 344<p>
361If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri 345If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
362link="#doc_chap4">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the 346link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
363following topic on PCMCIA. 347following topic on PCMCIA.
364</p> 348</p>
365 349
366</body> 350</body>
367</subsection> 351</subsection>
368<subsection> 352<subsection>
369<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 353<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
370<body> 354<body>
371 355
356<note>
357pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
358</note>
359
372<p> 360<p>
373PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package: 361PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
362includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
363using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
364to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
374</p> 365</p>
375 366
376<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 367<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
377# <i>emerge --usepkg pcmcia-cs</i> 368# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
378</pre> 369</pre>
379 370
380<p> 371<p>
381When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>boot</e> 372When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
382runlevel: 373runlevel:
383</p> 374</p>
384 375
385<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the boot runlevel"> 376<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
386# <i>rc-update add pcmcia boot</i> 377# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
387</pre> 378</pre>
388 379
389</body> 380</body>
390</subsection> 381</subsection>
391</section> 382</section>
392<section> 383<section>
384<title>System Information</title>
385<subsection>
386<title>Root Password</title>
387<body>
388
389<p>
390First we set the root password by typing:
391</p>
392
393<pre caption="Setting the root password">
394# <i>passwd</i>
395</pre>
396
397<p>
398If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
399<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
400</p>
401
402<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
403# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
404</pre>
405
406</body>
407</subsection>
408<subsection>
393<title>System Information</title> 409<title>System Information</title>
394<body> 410<body>
395 411
396<p> 412<p>
397Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 413Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
408you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on 424you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
409your keyboard. 425your keyboard.
410</p> 426</p>
411 427
412<note> 428<note>
413Users of USB-based SPARC systems and SPARC clones might need to select an i386 429Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
414keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap". 430select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
415</note> 431</note>
416 432
417<p> 433<p>
434<b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
435ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
436to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
437</p>
438
439<p>
440If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> to
441the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
442</p>
443
444<p>
418When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then 445When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
419continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>. 446</p>
447
420</p> 448<p>
449If you are not installing Gentoo on an IBM POWER5 or JS20 system, continue with
450<uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System Tools</uri>.
451</p>
421 452
453</body>
454</subsection>
455<subsection>
456<title>Configuring the Console</title>
422</body> 457<body>
458
459<note>
460The following section applies to the IBM POWER5 and JS20 hardware platforms.
461</note>
462
463<p>
464If you are running Gentoo in an LPAR or on a JS20 blade, you must uncomment
465the hvc line in /etc/inittab for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
466</p>
467
468<pre caption="Enabling hvc support in /etc/inittab">
469hvc:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -nl /bin/bashlogin 9600 hvc0 vt220
470</pre>
471
472<p>
473You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
474System Tools</uri>.
475</p>
476
477</body>
478</subsection>
423</section> 479</section>
424</sections> 480</sections>

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