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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.47 2004/10/16 20:20:25 vapier Exp $ -->
8
1<sections> 9<sections>
2<section>
3<title>Timezone</title>
4<body>
5
6<p>
7You now need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
8located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
9symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
10</p>
11
12<pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
13# <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
14<comment>(Suppose you want to use GTM:)</comment>
15# <i>ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
16</pre>
17
18</body>
19</section>
20<section> 10<section>
21<title>Filesystem Information</title> 11<title>Filesystem Information</title>
22<subsection> 12<subsection>
23<title>What is fstab?</title> 13<title>What is fstab?</title>
24<body> 14<body>
25 15
26<p> 16<p>
27Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 17Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
28<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 18<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
29(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 19(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
30(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not, 20and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
31etc.). 21them or not, etc.)
32</p> 22</p>
33 23
34</body> 24</body>
35</subsection> 25</subsection>
36<subsection> 26<subsection>
37<title>Creating /etc/fstab</title> 27<title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
38<body> 28<body>
39 29
40<p> 30<p>
41<path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntaxis. Every line consists of six 31<path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
42fields, seperated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has 32fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
43its own meaning: 33its own meaning:
44</p> 34</p>
45 35
46<ul> 36<ul>
47<li> 37<li>
57</li> 47</li>
58<li> 48<li>
59 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 49 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
60 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 50 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
61 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 51 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
62 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-seperated. 52 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
63</li> 53</li>
64<li> 54<li>
65 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 55 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
66 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 56 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
67</li> 57</li>
68<li> 58<li>
69 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> the order in which filesystems should 59 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
70 be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. The root filesystem 60 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
71 should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> (or <c>0</c> in case 61 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
72 a filesystem check isn't necessary). 62 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
73</li> 63</li>
74</ul> 64</ul>
75 65
76<p> 66<p>
67The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
77So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 68file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
78<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 69<path>/etc/fstab</path>:
79</p> 70</p>
80 71
81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 72<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 73# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
83</pre> 74</pre>
84 75
85<p> 76<p>
86Lets take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 77Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
87partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 78partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
88<path>/boot</path> partition, don't copy it verbatim. 79<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
89</p> 80</p>
90 81
91<p> 82<p>
92In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 83In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
93<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't 84<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
94be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we 85It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
95would write down:
96</p> 86</p>
97 87
98<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 88<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
99/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2 89/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
90</pre>
91
92<p>
93Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
94automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
95substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
96manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
100</pre> 97</p>
101 98
102<p> 99<p>
103Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c> 100Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
104option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times 101option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
105aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway): 102aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
106</p> 103</p>
107 104
108<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 105<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
109/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 106/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
110</pre> 107</pre>
111 108
112<p> 109<p>
113If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 110If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
114<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition): 111<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
115</p> 112</p>
116 113
117<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 114<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
118/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 115/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
119/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 116/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
120/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 117/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
121</pre> 118</pre>
122 119
123<p> 120<p>
124To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c> 121To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
125(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and ofcourse, if you have other 122(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
126partitions or drives, for those too): 123partitions or drives, for those too):
127</p> 124</p>
128 125
129<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 126<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
130/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 127/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
131/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 128/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
132/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 129/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
133 130
134none /proc proc defaults 0 0 131none /proc proc defaults 0 0
135none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0 132none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
136 133
137/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 134/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
138</pre> 135</pre>
139 136
140<p> 137<p>
143<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD. 140<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
144</p> 141</p>
145 142
146<p> 143<p>
147Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a 144Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
148SPARC-user, you should add the following line to your <path>/etc/fstab</path> 145<b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
146<path>/etc/fstab</path>
149too: 147too:
150</p> 148</p>
151 149
152<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab"> 150<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
153none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 151none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
154</pre> 152</pre>
155 153
154<p>
155If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
156<p> 156</p>
157
158<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
159none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
160</pre>
161
162<p>
157Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 163Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
158</p> 164</p>
159 165
160</body> 166</body>
161</subsection> 167</subsection>
162</section> 168</section>
165<subsection> 171<subsection>
166<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title> 172<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
167<body> 173<body>
168 174
169<p> 175<p>
170One of the choices the user has to make is name his PC. This seems to be quite 176One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
171easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate 177quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
172name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you choose can 178appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
173be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system 179choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
174<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>. 180<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
175</p> 181</p>
176 182
177<p> 183<p>
178We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname: 184We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
195one), you need to define that one too: 201one), you need to define that one too:
196</p> 202</p>
197 203
198<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname"> 204<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
199# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i> 205# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
206</pre>
207
208<p>
209Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
210</p>
211
212<pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
213# <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
200</pre> 214</pre>
201 215
202</body> 216</body>
203</subsection> 217</subsection>
204<subsection> 218<subsection>
236iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>" 250iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
237</pre> 251</pre>
238 252
239<p> 253<p>
240If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 254If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
255to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>.
241to <c>dhcp</c>. However, if you need to setup your network manually and you're 256If you need to setup your network manually and you're
242not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 257not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
243link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network 258link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#network_term">Understanding Network
244Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 259Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
245</p> 260</p>
246 261
247<p> 262<p>
248So lets give two examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static IP 263So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static
249(192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and gateway 264IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and
250192.168.0.1: 265gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for
266rp-pppoe usage:
251</p> 267</p>
252 268
253<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net"> 269<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
254<comment>(For DHCP:)</comment> 270<comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
255iface_eth0="dhcp" 271iface_eth0="dhcp"
272<comment># Some network admins require that you use the</comment>
273<comment># hostname and domainname provided by the DHCP server.</comment>
274<comment># In that case, add the following to let dhcpcd use them.</comment>
275<comment># That will override your own hostname and domainname definitions.</comment>
276dhcpcd_eth0="-HD"
277<comment># If you intend on using NTP to keep your machine clock synchronized, use</comment>
278<comment># the -N option to prevent dhcpcd from overwriting your /etc/ntp.conf file</comment>
279dhcpcd_eth0="-N"
256 280
257<comment>(For static IP:)</comment> 281<comment>(For static IP)</comment>
258iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0" 282iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
259gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1" 283gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
284
285<comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
286iface_eth0="up"
260</pre> 287</pre>
261 288
262<p> 289<p>
263If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables, 290If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
264like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable 291like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
274<subsection> 301<subsection>
275<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 302<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
276<body> 303<body>
277 304
278<p> 305<p>
279To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the 306To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
280default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 307default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
281the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script. 308the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
282</p> 309</p>
283 310
284<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 311<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
306<p> 333<p>
307You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in 334You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
308<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses 335<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
309for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your 336for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
310internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5), 337internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
311<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (this system) you would 338<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
312open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values: 339open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
313</p> 340</p>
314 341
315<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts"> 342<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
316# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i> 343# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
317</pre> 344</pre>
318 345
319<pre caption="Filling in the networking information"> 346<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
320127.0.0.1 localhost tux 347127.0.0.1 localhost
321192.168.0.5 jenny 348192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
322192.168.0.56 benny 349192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
350192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
323</pre> 351</pre>
324 352
325<p> 353<p>
326If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name 354If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
327resolution) a single line is sufficient: 355resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
356system <c>tux.homenetwork</c>:
328</p> 357</p>
329 358
330<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs"> 359<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
331127.0.0.1 localhost tux 360127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
332</pre> 361</pre>
333 362
334<p> 363<p>
335Save and exit the editor to continue. 364Save and exit the editor to continue.
336</p> 365</p>
337 366
338<p> 367<p>
339If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri 368If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
340link="#doc_chap4">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the 369link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
341following topic on PCMCIA. 370following topic on PCMCIA.
342</p> 371</p>
343 372
344</body> 373</body>
345</subsection> 374</subsection>
346<subsection> 375<subsection>
347<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 376<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
348<body> 377<body>
349 378
379<note>
380pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
381</note>
382
350<p> 383<p>
351PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package: 384PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
385includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
386using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
387to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
352</p> 388</p>
353 389
354<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 390<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
355# <i>emerge -k pcmcia-cs</i> 391# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
356</pre> 392</pre>
357 393
358<p> 394<p>
359When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>boot</e> 395When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
360runlevel: 396runlevel:
361</p> 397</p>
362 398
363<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel"> 399<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
364# <i>rc-update add pcmcia boot</i> 400# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
365</pre> 401</pre>
366 402
367</body> 403</body>
368</subsection> 404</subsection>
369</section> 405</section>
370<section> 406<section>
371<title>System Information</title> 407<title>System Information</title>
408<subsection>
409<title>Root Password</title>
410<body>
411
412<p>
413First we set the root password by typing:
414</p>
415
416<pre caption="Setting the root password">
417# <i>passwd</i>
418</pre>
419
420<p>
421If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
422<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
423</p>
424
425<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
426# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
427</pre>
428
429</body>
430</subsection>
431<subsection>
432<title>System Information</title>
372<body> 433<body>
373 434
374<p> 435<p>
375Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 436Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
376Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :) 437Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
380# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 441# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
381</pre> 442</pre>
382 443
383<p> 444<p>
384As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary 445As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
385configuration variables. When you're finished configuring 446configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if
386<path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit to continue. 447you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
448your keyboard.
449</p>
450
451<note>
452Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
453select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
454</note>
455
387</p> 456<p>
457<b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
458ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
459to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
460</p>
388 461
462<p>
463When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then
464continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
465Tools</uri>.
466</p>
467
389</body> 468</body>
469</subsection>
390</section> 470</section>
391</sections> 471</sections>

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