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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.55 2005/01/04 18:11:20 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.131 2014/05/27 10:05:48 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract>
12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14proceed.
15</abstract>
16
11<version>1.51</version> 17<version>37</version>
12<date>2004-12-26</date> 18<date>2014-05-27</date>
13 19
14<section> 20<section>
15<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
16<subsection> 22<subsection>
17<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
18<body> 24<body>
19 25
20<p> 26<p>
21Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 27Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
22<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 28<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mount points of those partitions
23(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 29(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
24and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount 30and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
25them or not, etc.) 31them or not, etc.)
26</p> 32</p>
27 33
41<li> 47<li>
42 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device 48 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
43 file) 49 file)
44</li> 50</li>
45<li> 51<li>
46 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be 52 The second field shows the <b>mount point</b> at which the partition should be
47 mounted 53 mounted
48</li> 54</li>
49<li> 55<li>
50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 56 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
51</li> 57</li>
52<li> 58<li>
53 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 59 The fourth field shows the <b>mount options</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 60 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mount options,
55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 61 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
56 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated. 62 listing. Multiple mount options are comma-separated.
57</li> 63</li>
58<li> 64<li>
59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 65 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 66 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
61</li> 67</li>
65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> 71 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary). 72 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
67</li> 73</li>
68</ul> 74</ul>
69 75
70<p> 76<impo>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab 77The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
72file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 78fstab file</e>. You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
73<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 79</impo>
74</p>
75 80
76<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
77# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
78</pre> 83</pre>
79 84
80<p> 85<p>
86In the remainder of the text, we use the default <path>/dev/sd*</path> block
87device files as partition. You can also opt to use the symbolic links in the
88<path>/dev/disk/by-id</path> or <path>/dev/disk/by-uuid</path>. These names are
89not likely to change, whereas the default block device files naming depends on
90a number of factors (such as how and in what order the disks are attached to
91your system). However, if you do not intend to fiddle with the disk ordering,
92you can continue with the default block device files safely.
93</p>
94
95</body>
96<body test="func:keyval('/boot')">
97
98<p>
81Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 99Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
82partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 100partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
83<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim. 101<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
84</p>
85
86<p> 102</p>
103
104<p>
87In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 105In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
88<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. 106usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
89It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down: 107filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
90</p> 108</p>
91 109
92<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 110<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
93/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2 111<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 0 2
94</pre> 112</pre>
95 113
96<p> 114<p>
97Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted 115Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
98automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should 116automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
99substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to 117substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
100manually mount this partition every time you want to use it. 118manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
101</p> 119</p>
102 120
103<p> 121</body>
104Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c> 122<body>
105option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times 123
106aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
107</p> 124<p>
108 125Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
109<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 126your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives,
110/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 127for those too.
111</pre>
112
113<p> 128</p>
114If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 129
115<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
116</p> 130<p>
131Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
132</p>
117 133
118<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 134<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
119/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 135<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
120/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 136/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
121/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 137/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
122</pre>
123 138
124<p> 139/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
125To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
126(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
127partitions or drives, for those too):
128</p> 140</pre>
129 141
130<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 142<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS'">
131/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 143<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
132/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 144/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
133/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 145/dev/sda3 / ext4 noatime 0 1
134 146
135none /proc proc defaults 0 0 147/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
136none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0 148</pre>
137 149
150<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
151/dev/sda1 / ext4 noatime 0 1
152/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
153/dev/sda4 /usr ext4 noatime 0 2
154/dev/sda5 /var ext4 noatime 0 2
155/dev/sda6 /home ext4 noatime 0 2
156
157<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
158openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
159
138/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 160/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
161</pre>
162
163<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
164func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
165/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
166/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
167
168/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
139</pre> 169</pre>
140 170
141<p> 171<p>
142<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for 172<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
143removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and 173removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
144<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD. 174<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
145</p> 175</p>
146 176
147<p> 177<p>
148Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a 178To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
149<b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your 179mount option, which results in a faster system since access times
150<path>/etc/fstab</path> 180aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway). This is also
151too: 181recommended for solid state drive (SSD) users, who should also enable
152</p> 182the <c>discard</c> mount option (ext4 and btrfs only for now) which
153 183makes the TRIM command work.
154<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
155none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
156</pre>
157
158<p> 184</p>
159If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
160</p>
161
162<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
163none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
164</pre>
165 185
166<p> 186<p>
167Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 187Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
168</p> 188</p>
169 189
171</subsection> 191</subsection>
172</section> 192</section>
173<section> 193<section>
174<title>Networking Information</title> 194<title>Networking Information</title>
175<subsection> 195<subsection>
176<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title> 196<title>Host name, Domainname, etc</title>
177<body> 197<body>
178 198
179<p> 199<p>
180One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be 200One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
181quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the 201quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
182appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you 202appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
183choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system 203choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
184<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>. 204<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
185</p> 205</p>
186 206
187<p>
188We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
189</p>
190
191<pre caption="Setting the hostname"> 207<pre caption="Setting the host name">
192# <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i> 208# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
193</pre>
194 209
195<p> 210<comment>(Set the hostname variable to your host name)</comment>
196Second we set the domainname: 211hostname="<i>tux</i>"
212</pre>
213
197</p> 214<p>
215Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
216You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
217have a DNS server but not a DHCP server. You don't need to worry about DNS or
218domainnames if your networking is setup for DHCP.
219</p>
220
221<note>
222The <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> file does not exist by default, so you might
223need to create it.
224</note>
198 225
199<pre caption="Setting the domainname"> 226<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
200# <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i> 227# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
228
229<comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment>
230dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>"
201</pre> 231</pre>
232
233<note>
234If you choose not to set a domainname, you can get rid of the "This is
235hostname.(none)" messages at your login screen by editing
236<path>/etc/issue</path>. Just delete the string <c>.\O</c> from that file.
237</note>
202 238
203<p> 239<p>
204If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have 240If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
205one), you need to define that one too: 241one), you need to define that one too:
206</p> 242</p>
207 243
208<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname"> 244<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
209# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i> 245# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
210</pre>
211 246
212<p> 247<comment>(Set the nis_domain variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
213Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel: 248nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
214</p> 249</pre>
215 250
216<pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel"> 251<note>
217# <i>rc-update add domainname default</i> 252For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
218</pre> 253provided in <path>/usr/share/doc/netifrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> which
254can be read using <c>bzless</c>. Also, you may want to emerge <c>openresolv</c>
255to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
256</note>
219 257
220</body> 258</body>
221</subsection> 259</subsection>
222<subsection> 260<subsection>
223<title>Configuring your Network</title> 261<title>Configuring your Network</title>
224<body> 262<body>
225 263
226<p> 264<p>
227Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember 265Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
228that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was 266that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
229just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for 267just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
230your Gentoo system permanently. 268your Gentoo system permanently.
231</p> 269</p>
232 270
271<note>
272More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
273bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
274link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
275</note>
276
233<p> 277<p>
234All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 278All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
235a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up 279a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
236networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 280networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
237</p> 281commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
238 282<path>/usr/share/doc/netifrc-*/net.example.bz2</path>.
239<p> 283</p>
284
285<p>
286Let's first install <c>netifrc</c>:
287</p>
288
289<pre caption="Installing netifrc">
290# <i>emerge --noreplace netifrc</i>
291</pre>
292
293<p>
294DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
295client. This is described later in <uri
296link="?part=1&amp;chap=9#networking-tools">Installing Necessary System
297Tools</uri>. Do not forget to install a DHCP client.
298</p>
299
300<p>
301If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
302specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
240First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 303<path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
241is used in this example): 304this example):
242</p> 305</p>
243 306
244<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing"> 307<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
245# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 308# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
246</pre> 309</pre>
247 310
248<p> 311<p>
249The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following 312To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
250syntax: 313to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
251</p>
252
253<pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
254iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
255</pre>
256
257<p> 314</p>
258If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 315
259to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>. 316<note>
260If you need to set up your network manually and you're 317This assumes that your network interface will be called eth0. This is, however,
261not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 318very system dependent. It is recommended to assume that the interface is named
262link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#network_term">Understanding Network 319the same as the interface name when booted from the installation media <e>if</e>
263Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 320the installation media is sufficiently recent. More information can be found in
321<uri link="?part=4&amp;chap=2#doc_chap4">Network Interface Naming</uri>.
322</note>
323
324<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
325config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255"
326routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1"
327</pre>
328
264</p> 329<p>
265 330To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>:
266<p> 331</p>
267So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static 332
268IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and 333<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
269gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for 334config_eth0="dhcp"
270rp-pppoe usage: 335</pre>
336
271</p> 337<p>
272 338Please read <path>/usr/share/doc/netifrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> for a
273<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net"> 339list of all available options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if
274<comment>(For DHCP)</comment> 340you need to set specific DHCP options.
275iface_eth0="dhcp"
276<comment># Some network admins require that you use the</comment>
277<comment># hostname and domainname provided by the DHCP server.</comment>
278<comment># In that case, add the following to let dhcpcd use them.</comment>
279<comment># That will override your own hostname and domainname definitions.</comment>
280dhcpcd_eth0="-HD"
281<comment># If you intend on using NTP to keep your machine clock synchronized, use</comment>
282<comment># the -N option to prevent dhcpcd from overwriting your /etc/ntp.conf file</comment>
283dhcpcd_eth0="-N"
284
285<comment>(For static IP)</comment>
286iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
287gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
288
289<comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
290iface_eth0="up"
291</pre>
292
293<p> 341</p>
294If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables, 342
295like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable 343<p>
296shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer. 344If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
345<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
297</p> 346</p>
298 347
299<p> 348<p>
300Now save the configuration and exit to continue. 349Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
301</p> 350</p>
306<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 355<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
307<body> 356<body>
308 357
309<p> 358<p>
310To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the 359To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
311default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 360default runlevel.
312the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
313</p> 361</p>
314 362
315<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 363<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
364# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
365# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth0</i>
316# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i> 366# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
317</pre> 367</pre>
318 368
319<p> 369<p>
320If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate 370If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
321<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can 371<path>net.*</path> files just like you did with <path>net.eth0</path>.
322use <c>ln</c> to do this: 372</p>
373
323</p> 374<p>
324 375If you later find out the assumption about the network interface name (which we
325<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts"> 376currently document as eth0) was wrong, then
326# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
327# <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
328# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
329</pre> 377</p>
378
379<ol>
380<li>
381update the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> file with the correct interface name (like enp3s0
382instead of eth0),
383</li>
384<li>
385create new symbolic link (like <path>/etc/init.d/net.enp3s0</path>),
386</li>
387<li>
388remove the old symbolic link (<c>rm /etc/init.d/net.eth0</c>),
389</li>
390<li>
391add the new one to the default runlevel, and
392</li>
393<li>
394remove the old one using <c>rc-update del net.eth0 default</c>.
395</li>
396</ol>
330 397
331</body> 398</body>
332</subsection> 399</subsection>
333<subsection> 400<subsection>
334<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 401<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
335<body> 402<body>
336 403
337<p> 404<p>
338You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in 405You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
339<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses 406<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving host names to IP addresses for
340for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your 407hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. You need to define your system.
341internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5), 408You may also want to define other systems on your network if you don't want to
342<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would 409set up your own internal DNS system.
343open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
344</p> 410</p>
345 411
346<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts"> 412<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
347# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i> 413# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
348</pre> 414</pre>
349 415
350<pre caption="Filling in the networking information"> 416<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
351127.0.0.1 localhost 417<comment>(This defines the current system)</comment>
418127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
419
420<comment>(Define extra systems on your network,
421they need to have a static IP to be defined this way.)</comment>
352192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny 422192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
353192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny 423192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
354192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
355</pre>
356
357<p>
358If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
359resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
360system <c>tux</c>:
361</p>
362
363<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
364127.0.0.1 localhost tux
365</pre> 424</pre>
366 425
367<p> 426<p>
368Save and exit the editor to continue. 427Save and exit the editor to continue.
369</p> 428</p>
370 429
371<p> 430<p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
372If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri 431If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
373link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the 432link="#sysinfo">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
374following topic on PCMCIA. 433following topic on PCMCIA.
375</p> 434</p>
376 435
377</body> 436</body>
378</subsection> 437</subsection>
379<subsection> 438<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
380<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 439<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
381<body> 440<body>
382 441
383<note>
384pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
385</note>
386
387<p> 442<p>
388PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also 443PCMCIA users should first install the <c>pcmciautils</c> package.
389includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
390using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
391to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
392</p> 444</p>
393 445
394<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 446<pre caption="Installing pcmciautils">
395# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i> 447# <i>emerge pcmciautils</i>
396</pre>
397
398<p>
399When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
400runlevel:
401</p>
402
403<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
404# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
405</pre> 448</pre>
406 449
407</body> 450</body>
408</subsection> 451</subsection>
409</section> 452</section>
410<section> 453
454<section id="sysinfo">
411<title>System Information</title> 455<title>System Information</title>
412<subsection> 456<subsection>
413<title>Root Password</title> 457<title>Root Password</title>
414<body> 458<body>
415 459
419 463
420<pre caption="Setting the root password"> 464<pre caption="Setting the root password">
421# <i>passwd</i> 465# <i>passwd</i>
422</pre> 466</pre>
423 467
424<p>
425If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
426<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
427</p>
428
429<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
430# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
431</pre>
432
433</body> 468</body>
434</subsection> 469</subsection>
435<subsection> 470<subsection>
436<title>System Information</title> 471<title>System Information</title>
437<body> 472<body>
438 473
439<p> 474<p>
440Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 475Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to configure the services, startup,
441Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :) 476and shutdown of your system. Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all
477the comments in the file.
442</p> 478</p>
443 479
444<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 480<pre caption="Configuring services">
445# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 481# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
446</pre> 482</pre>
447 483
448<p> 484<p>
449As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary 485When you're finished configuring these two files, save them and exit.
450configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if 486</p>
451you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on 487
452your keyboard.
453</p> 488<p>
489Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
490Edit it to configure your keyboard.
491</p>
454 492
455<note> 493<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
456Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to 494# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
457select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap". 495</pre>
496
497<p>
498Take special care with the <c>keymap</c> variable. If you select the wrong
499<c>keymap</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
500</p>
501
502<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
503PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems.
458</note> 504</note>
459 505
460<p> 506<p>
461<b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use 507When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
462ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have 508exit.
463to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
464</p>
465
466<p> 509</p>
510
511<p>
512Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
513according to your needs.
514</p>
515
516<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock">
517# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i>
518</pre>
519
520<p>
521If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>clock="local"</c>
522to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
523</p>
524
525<p>
467When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then 526When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and
527exit.
528</p>
529
530</body>
531</subsection>
532
533<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
534<title>Configuring the Console</title>
535<body>
536
537<p>
538If you are using a virtual console, you must uncomment the appropriate line in
539<path>/etc/inittab</path> for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
540</p>
541
542<pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
543hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
544hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
545</pre>
546
547<p>
548You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
549listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
550</p>
551
552<p>
468continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System 553You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
469Tools</uri>. 554System Tools</uri>.
470</p> 555</p>
471 556
472</body> 557</body>
473</subsection> 558</subsection>
474</section> 559</section>

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