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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.59 2005/04/21 13:27:19 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.125 2013/12/17 10:01:35 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract>
12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14proceed.
15</abstract>
16
11<version>2.2</version> 17<version>31</version>
12<date>2005-04-20</date> 18<date>2013-12-17</date>
13 19
14<section> 20<section>
15<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
16<subsection> 22<subsection>
17<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
18<body> 24<body>
19 25
20<p> 26<p>
21Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 27Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
22<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 28<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mount points of those partitions
23(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 29(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
24and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount 30and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
25them or not, etc.) 31them or not, etc.)
26</p> 32</p>
27 33
41<li> 47<li>
42 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device 48 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
43 file) 49 file)
44</li> 50</li>
45<li> 51<li>
46 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be 52 The second field shows the <b>mount point</b> at which the partition should be
47 mounted 53 mounted
48</li> 54</li>
49<li> 55<li>
50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 56 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
51</li> 57</li>
52<li> 58<li>
53 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 59 The fourth field shows the <b>mount options</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 60 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mount options,
55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 61 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
56 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated. 62 listing. Multiple mount options are comma-separated.
57</li> 63</li>
58<li> 64<li>
59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 65 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 66 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
61</li> 67</li>
65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> 71 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary). 72 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
67</li> 73</li>
68</ul> 74</ul>
69 75
70<p> 76<impo>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab 77The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
72file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 78fstab file</e>. You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
73<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 79</impo>
74</p>
75 80
76<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
77# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
78</pre> 83</pre>
79 84
80<p> 85<p>
86In the remainder of the text, we use the default <path>/dev/sd*</path> block
87device files as partition. You can also opt to use the symbolic links in the
88<path>/dev/disk/byid</path> or <path>/dev/disk/by-uuid</path>. These names are
89not likely to change, whereas the default block device files naming depends on
90a number of factors (such as how and in what order the disks are attached to
91your system). However, if you do not intend to fiddle with the disk ordering,
92you can continue with the default block device files safely.
93</p>
94
95</body>
96<body test="func:keyval('/boot')">
97
98<p>
81Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 99Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
82partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 100partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
83<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim. 101<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
84</p>
85
86<p> 102</p>
103
104<p>
87In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 105In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
88<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. 106usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
89It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down: 107filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
90</p> 108</p>
91 109
92<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 110<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
93/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2 111<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 0 2
94</pre> 112</pre>
95 113
96<p> 114<p>
97Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted 115Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
98automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should 116automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
99substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to 117substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
100manually mount this partition every time you want to use it. 118manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
101</p> 119</p>
102 120
103<p> 121</body>
104Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c> 122<body>
105option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times 123
106aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
107</p> 124<p>
108 125Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
109<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 126your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives,
110/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 127for those too.
111</pre>
112
113<p> 128</p>
114If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 129
115<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
116</p> 130<p>
131Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
132</p>
117 133
118<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 134<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
119/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 135<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
120/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 136/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
121/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 137/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
122</pre>
123 138
124<p> 139/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
125To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
126(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
127partitions or drives, for those too):
128</p> 140</pre>
129 141
130<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 142<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
131/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 143<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
132/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 144/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
133/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 145/dev/sda3 / ext4 noatime 0 1
134 146
135none /proc proc defaults 0 0 147/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
136none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0 148</pre>
137 149
150<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
151/dev/sda1 / ext4 noatime 0 1
152/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
153/dev/sda4 /usr ext4 noatime 0 2
154/dev/sda5 /var ext4 noatime 0 2
155/dev/sda6 /home ext4 noatime 0 2
156
157<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
158openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
159
138/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 160/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
161</pre>
162
163<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
164func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
165/dev/sda4 / ext4 noatime 0 1
166/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
167
168/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
139</pre> 169</pre>
140 170
141<p> 171<p>
142<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for 172<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
143removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and 173removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
144<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD. 174<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
145</p> 175</p>
146 176
147<p> 177<p>
148Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a 178To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
149<b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your 179mount option, which results in a faster system since access times
150<path>/etc/fstab</path> 180aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway). This is also
151too: 181recommended for solid state drive (SSD) users, who should also enable
152</p> 182the <c>discard</c> mount option (ext4 and btrfs only for now) which
153 183makes the TRIM command work.
154<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
155none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
156</pre> 184</p>
157 185
158<p> 186<p>
159Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 187Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
160</p> 188</p>
161 189
163</subsection> 191</subsection>
164</section> 192</section>
165<section> 193<section>
166<title>Networking Information</title> 194<title>Networking Information</title>
167<subsection> 195<subsection>
168<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title> 196<title>Host name, Domainname, etc</title>
169<body> 197<body>
170 198
171<p> 199<p>
172One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be 200One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
173quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the 201quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
174appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you 202appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
175choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system 203choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
176<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>. 204<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
177</p> 205</p>
178 206
179<p>
180We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
181</p>
182
183<pre caption="Setting the hostname"> 207<pre caption="Setting the host name">
184# <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i> 208# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
185</pre>
186 209
210<comment>(Set the hostname variable to your host name)</comment>
211hostname="<i>tux</i>"
212</pre>
213
187<p> 214<p>
188Second we set the domainname: 215Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
216You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
217have a DNS server but not a DHCP server. You don't need to worry about DNS or
218domainnames if your networking is setup for DHCP.
189</p> 219</p>
190 220
191<pre caption="Setting the domainname"> 221<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
192# <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i> 222# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
223
224<comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment>
225dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>"
193</pre> 226</pre>
227
228<note>
229If you choose not to set a domainname, you can get rid of the "This is
230hostname.(none)" messages at your login screen by editing
231<path>/etc/issue</path>. Just delete the string <c>.\O</c> from that file.
232</note>
194 233
195<p> 234<p>
196If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have 235If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
197one), you need to define that one too: 236one), you need to define that one too:
198</p> 237</p>
199 238
200<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname"> 239<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
201# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i> 240# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
202</pre>
203 241
204<p> 242<comment>(Set the nis_domain variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
205Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel: 243nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
206</p> 244</pre>
207 245
208<pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel"> 246<note>
209# <i>rc-update add domainname default</i> 247For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
210</pre> 248provided in <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> which
249can be read using <c>bzless</c>. Also, you may want to emerge <c>openresolv</c>
250to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
251</note>
211 252
212</body> 253</body>
213</subsection> 254</subsection>
214<subsection> 255<subsection>
215<title>Configuring your Network</title> 256<title>Configuring your Network</title>
216<body> 257<body>
217 258
218<p> 259<p>
219Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember 260Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
220that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was 261that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
221just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for 262just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
222your Gentoo system permanently. 263your Gentoo system permanently.
223</p> 264</p>
224 265
266<note>
267More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
268bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
269link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
270</note>
271
225<p> 272<p>
226All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 273All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
227a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up 274a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
228networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 275networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
229</p> 276commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
230 277<path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path>.
231<p> 278</p>
279
280<p>
281DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
282client. This is described later in <uri
283link="?part=1&amp;chap=9#networking-tools">Installing Necessary System
284Tools</uri>. Do not forget to install a DHCP client.
285</p>
286
287<p>
288If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
289specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
232First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 290<path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
233is used in this example): 291this example):
234</p> 292</p>
235 293
236<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing"> 294<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
237# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 295# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
238</pre> 296</pre>
239 297
240<!-- Old baselayout - current stable -->
241
242<p>
243The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following
244syntax:
245</p> 298<p>
246 299You will see the following file:
247<pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
248iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
249</pre>
250
251<p> 300</p>
252If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 301
253to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>. 302<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
254If you need to set up your network manually and you're 303# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
255not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 304# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
256link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#network_term">Understanding Network 305# please review /usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2 and save
257Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 306# your configuration in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
307</pre>
308
258</p> 309<p>
259
260<p>
261So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static
262IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and
263gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for
264rp-pppoe usage:
265</p>
266
267<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
268<comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
269iface_eth0="dhcp"
270<comment># Some network admins require that you use the</comment>
271<comment># hostname and domainname provided by the DHCP server.</comment>
272<comment># In that case, add the following to let dhcpcd use them.</comment>
273<comment># That will override your own hostname and domainname definitions.</comment>
274dhcpcd_eth0="-HD"
275<comment># If you intend on using NTP to keep your machine clock synchronized, use</comment>
276<comment># the -N option to prevent dhcpcd from overwriting your /etc/ntp.conf file</comment>
277dhcpcd_eth0="-N"
278
279<comment>(For static IP)</comment>
280iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
281gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
282
283<comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
284iface_eth0="up"
285</pre>
286
287<p>
288If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
289like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
290shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer.
291</p>
292
293<!-- New baselayout - current testing
294
295<p>
296The first variable you'll find is called <c>config_eth0</c>. As you can probably
297imagine, this variable configured the eth0 network interface. If the interface
298needs to automatically obtain an IP through DHCP, you should set it like so:
299</p>
300
301<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP for eth0">
302config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
303</pre>
304
305<p>
306However, if you have to enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need 310To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
307to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>: 311to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
308</p> 312</p>
309 313
314<note>
315This assumes that your network interface will be called eth0. This is, however,
316very system dependent. It is recommended to assume that the interface is named
317the same as the interface name when booted from the installation media <e>if</e>
318the installation media is sufficiently recent. More information can be found in
319<uri link="?part=4&amp;chap=2#doc_chap4">Network Interface Naming</uri>.
320</note>
321
310<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0"> 322<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
311config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0" ) 323config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255"
312routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" ) 324routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1"
325</pre>
326
327<p>
328To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>:
313</pre> 329</p>
330
331<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
332config_eth0="dhcp"
333</pre>
334
335<p>
336Please read <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> for a
337list of all available options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if
338you need to set specific DHCP options.
339</p>
314 340
315<p> 341<p>
316If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for 342If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
317<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc. 343<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
318</p> 344</p>
319 345
320-->
321
322<p> 346<p>
323Now save the configuration and exit to continue. 347Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
324</p> 348</p>
325 349
326</body> 350</body>
329<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 353<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
330<body> 354<body>
331 355
332<p> 356<p>
333To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the 357To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
334default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 358default runlevel.
335the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
336</p> 359</p>
337 360
338<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 361<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
362# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
363# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth0</i>
339# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i> 364# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
340</pre> 365</pre>
341 366
342<p> 367<p>
343If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate 368If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
344<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can 369<path>net.*</path> files just like you did with <path>net.eth0</path>.
345use <c>ln</c> to do this: 370</p>
371
346</p> 372<p>
347 373If you later find out the assumption about the network interface name (which we
348<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts"> 374currently document as eth0) was wrong, then
349# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
350# <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
351# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
352</pre> 375</p>
376
377<ol>
378<li>
379update the <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> file with the correct interface name (like enp3s0
380instead of eth0),
381</li>
382<li>
383create new symbolic link (like <path>/etc/init.d/net.enp3s0</path>),
384</li>
385<li>
386remove the old symbolic link (<c>rm /etc/init.d/net.eth0</c>),
387</li>
388<li>
389add the new one to the default runlevel, and
390</li>
391<li>
392remove the old one using <c>rc-update del net.eth0 default</c>.
393</li>
394</ol>
353 395
354</body> 396</body>
355</subsection> 397</subsection>
356<subsection> 398<subsection>
357<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 399<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
358<body> 400<body>
359 401
360<p> 402<p>
361You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in 403You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
362<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses 404<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving host names to IP addresses for
363for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your 405hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. You need to define your system.
364internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5), 406You may also want to define other systems on your network if you don't want to
365<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would 407set up your own internal DNS system.
366open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
367</p> 408</p>
368 409
369<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts"> 410<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
370# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i> 411# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
371</pre> 412</pre>
372 413
373<pre caption="Filling in the networking information"> 414<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
374127.0.0.1 localhost 415<comment>(This defines the current system)</comment>
416127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
417
418<comment>(Define extra systems on your network,
419they need to have a static IP to be defined this way.)</comment>
375192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny 420192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
376192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny 421192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
377192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
378</pre>
379
380<p>
381If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
382resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
383system <c>tux</c>:
384</p>
385
386<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
387127.0.0.1 localhost tux
388</pre> 422</pre>
389 423
390<p> 424<p>
391Save and exit the editor to continue. 425Save and exit the editor to continue.
392</p> 426</p>
393 427
394<p> 428<p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
395If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri 429If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
396link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the 430link="#sysinfo">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
397following topic on PCMCIA. 431following topic on PCMCIA.
398</p> 432</p>
399 433
400</body> 434</body>
401</subsection> 435</subsection>
402<subsection> 436<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
403<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 437<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
404<body> 438<body>
405 439
406<note>
407pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
408</note>
409
410<p> 440<p>
411PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also 441PCMCIA users should first install the <c>pcmciautils</c> package.
412includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
413using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
414to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
415</p> 442</p>
416 443
417<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 444<pre caption="Installing pcmciautils">
418# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i> 445# <i>emerge pcmciautils</i>
419</pre>
420
421<p>
422When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
423runlevel:
424</p>
425
426<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
427# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
428</pre> 446</pre>
429 447
430</body> 448</body>
431</subsection> 449</subsection>
432</section> 450</section>
433<section> 451
452<section id="sysinfo">
434<title>System Information</title> 453<title>System Information</title>
435<subsection> 454<subsection>
436<title>Root Password</title> 455<title>Root Password</title>
437<body> 456<body>
438 457
442 461
443<pre caption="Setting the root password"> 462<pre caption="Setting the root password">
444# <i>passwd</i> 463# <i>passwd</i>
445</pre> 464</pre>
446 465
447<p>
448If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
449<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
450</p>
451
452<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
453# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
454</pre>
455
456</body> 466</body>
457</subsection> 467</subsection>
458<subsection> 468<subsection>
459<title>System Information</title> 469<title>System Information</title>
460<body> 470<body>
461 471
462<p> 472<p>
463Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 473Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to configure the services, startup,
464Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :) 474and shutdown of your system. Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all
475the comments in the file.
465</p> 476</p>
466 477
467<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 478<pre caption="Configuring services">
468# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 479# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
469</pre> 480</pre>
470 481
471<p> 482<p>
472As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary 483When you're finished configuring these two files, save them and exit.
473configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if 484</p>
474you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on 485
475your keyboard.
476</p> 486<p>
487Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
488Edit it to configure your keyboard.
489</p>
490
491<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
492# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
493</pre>
494
495<p>
496Take special care with the <c>keymap</c> variable. If you select the wrong
497<c>keymap</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
498</p>
499
500<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
501PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems.
502</note>
503
504<p>
505When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
506exit.
507</p>
508
509<p>
510Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
511according to your needs.
512</p>
513
514<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock">
515# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i>
516</pre>
517
518<p>
519If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>clock="local"</c>
520to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
521</p>
522
523<p>
524When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and
525exit.
526</p>
527
528</body>
529</subsection>
530
531<subsection>
532<title>Configure locales</title>
533<body>
534
535<p>
536You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You have to
537specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
538</p>
539
540<pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
541# <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
542</pre>
543
544<p>
545The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
546German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
547</p>
548
549<pre caption="Specify your locales">
550en_US ISO-8859-1
551en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
552de_DE ISO-8859-1
553de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
554</pre>
477 555
478<note> 556<note>
479Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to 557You can select your desired locales in the list given by running <c>locale -a</c>.
480select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
481</note> 558</note>
482 559
483<p> 560<warn>
484<b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use 561We strongly suggest that you should use at least one UTF-8 locale because some
485ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have 562applications may require it.
486to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>. 563</warn>
564
487</p> 565<p>
488 566The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generates all the locales you
567have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
489<p> 568</p>
490When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit. 569
570<pre caption="Running locale-gen">
571# <i>locale-gen</i>
572</pre>
573
491</p> 574<p>
492 575You can verify that your selected locales are available by running <c>locale -a</c>.
493<p> 576</p>
494If you are not installing Gentoo on an IBM POWER5 or JS20 system, continue with 577
495<uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System Tools</uri>.
496</p> 578<p>
579Once done, you now have the possibility to set the system-wide locale settings.
580With <c>eselect locale list</c>, the available targets are displayed:
581</p>
497 582
583<pre caption="Displaying the available LANG settings">
584# <i>eselect locale list</i>
585Available targets for the LANG variable:
586 [1] C
587 [2] POSIX
588 [3] en_US
589 [4] en_US.iso88591
590 [5] en_US.utf8
591 [6] de_DE
592 [7] de_DE.iso88591
593 [8] de_DE.iso885915
594 [9] de_DE.utf8
595 [ ] (free form)
596</pre>
597
598<p>
599With <c>eselect locale set &lt;value&gt;</c> the correct locale can be set:
600</p>
601
602<pre caption="Setting the LANG variable">
603# <i>eselect locale set 9</i>
604</pre>
605
606<p>
607Manually, this can still be accomplished through the
608<path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> file:
609</p>
610
611<pre caption="Setting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale">
612LANG="de_DE.UTF-8"
613LC_COLLATE="C"
614</pre>
615
616<p>
617Don't forget to reload your environment:
618</p>
619
620<pre caption="Reload shell environment">
621# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
622</pre>
623
624<p>
625We made a full <uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Localization/HOWTO">Localization
626Guide</uri> to help you through this process. You can also read the detailed
627<uri link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/UTF-8">UTF-8 article</uri> for very specific
628informations to enable UTF-8 on your system.
629</p>
630
631<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
632Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
633Tools</uri>.
634</p>
635
498</body> 636</body>
499</subsection>
500<subsection> 637</subsection>
638<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
501<title>Configuring the Console</title> 639<title>Configuring the Console</title>
502<body> 640<body>
503 641
504<note>
505The following section applies to the IBM POWER5 and JS20 hardware platforms.
506</note>
507
508<p>
509If you are running gentoo in an LPAR or on a JS20 blade, you must uncomment
510the hvc line in /etc/inittab for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
511</p> 642<p>
643If you are using a virtual console, you must uncomment the appropriate line in
644<path>/etc/inittab</path> for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
645</p>
512 646
513<pre caption="Enabling hvc support in /etc/inittab"> 647<pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
514hvc:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -nl /bin/bashlogin 9600 hvc0 vt220 648hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
649hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
650</pre>
651
652<p>
653You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
654listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
515</pre> 655</p>
516 656
517<p> 657<p>
518You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary 658You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
519System Tools</uri>. 659System Tools</uri>.
520</p> 660</p>

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