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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-mips-system.xml,v 1.11 2012/06/29 16:12:20 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>13</version>
12 <date>2013-01-03</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Chrooting</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
22 is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
23 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
24 environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
25 network.
26 </p>
27
28 <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
29 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
30 # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/</i>
31 </pre>
32
33 </body>
34 </subsection>
35 <subsection>
36 <title>Mounting the necessary Filesystems</title>
37 <body>
38
39 <p>
40 Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
41 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
42 chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> and
43 <path>/sys</path> filesystems.
44 </p>
45
46 <pre caption="Mounting /proc and /dev">
47 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
48 # <i>mount --rbind /sys /mnt/gentoo/sys</i>
49 # <i>mount --rbind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
50 </pre>
51
52 </body>
53 </subsection>
54 <subsection>
55 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
56 <body>
57
58 <p>
59 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
60 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
61 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
62 installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
63 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
64 </p>
65
66 <p>
67 This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
68 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
69 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will reload some settings, as
70 provided by <path>/etc/profile</path>, in memory using <c>source</c>.
71 </p>
72
73 <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
74 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
75 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
76 # <i>export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"</i>
77 </pre>
78
79 <p>
80 Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
81 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
82 has some sections left :-)
83 </p>
84
85 </body>
86 </subsection>
87 </section>
88
89 <section>
90 <title>Configuring Portage</title>
91 <subsection>
92 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
93 <body>
94
95 <p>
96 You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
97 --sync</c> does this for you.
98 </p>
99
100 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
101 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
102 <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
103 console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
104 # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
105 </pre>
106
107 <p>
108 If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you can use
109 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download and install a portage snapshot for
110 you.
111 </p>
112
113 <p>
114 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
115 update Portage, you should do it now using <c>emerge --oneshot portage</c>.
116 </p>
117
118 </body>
119 </subsection>
120 <subsection>
121 <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
122 <body>
123
124 <p>
125 First, a small definition is in place.
126 </p>
127
128 <p>
129 A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
130 default values for CHOST, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
131 the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
132 Gentoo developers.
133 </p>
134
135 <p>
136 Previously, such a profile was barely touched by the user. However, there may be
137 situations in which you may decide a profile change is necessary.
138 </p>
139
140 <p>
141 Since 2006.0, there has been a re-shuffle regarding the profiles for MIPS
142 systems. These profiles set various options including USE flags, which affect
143 what patchsets are enabled with various system-critical packages (notably,
144 <c>gcc</c> and <c>mips-sources</c>).
145 </p>
146
147 <p>
148 Thus, care needs to be taken to ensure the correct profile is selected for your
149 system type. As of Gentoo/MIPS 2007.0, the profiles are:
150 </p>
151
152 <table>
153 <tr>
154 <th>System</th>
155 <th>Profile</th>
156 <th>Userland</th>
157 <th>Status/Notes</th>
158 </tr>
159 <tr>
160 <ti>Cobalt Qube/RaQ</ti>
161 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/cobalt/o32</ti>
162 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
163 <ti>Recommended</ti>
164 </tr>
165 <tr>
166 <ti>"</ti>
167 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/cobalt/o32/nptl</ti>
168 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
169 <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
170 </tr>
171 <tr>
172 <th>&nbsp;</th>
173 <th>&nbsp;</th>
174 <th>&nbsp;</th>
175 <th>&nbsp;</th>
176 </tr>
177 <tr>
178 <ti>
179 Generic Big Endian<br />
180 <e>Including SGI Indy, Indigo2 (R4x00), Challenge S and O2</e>
181 </ti>
182 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/o32</ti>
183 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
184 <ti>Recommended</ti>
185 </tr>
186 <tr>
187 <ti>"</ti>
188 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/o32/nptl</ti>
189 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
190 <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
191 </tr>
192 <tr>
193 <ti>"</ti>
194 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/n32</ti>
195 <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
196 <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
197 </tr>
198 <tr>
199 <ti>"</ti>
200 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/n32/nptl</ti>
201 <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
202 <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
203 </tr>
204 <tr>
205 <ti>"</ti>
206 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/n64</ti>
207 <ti>N64 Linuxthreads</ti>
208 <ti>Unsupported (3)</ti>
209 </tr>
210 <tr>
211 <ti>"</ti>
212 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/n64/nptl</ti>
213 <ti>N64 NPTL</ti>
214 <ti>Unsupported (1) (3)</ti>
215 </tr>
216 <tr>
217 <th>&nbsp;</th>
218 <th>&nbsp;</th>
219 <th>&nbsp;</th>
220 <th>&nbsp;</th>
221 </tr>
222 <tr>
223 <ti>SGI Origin 200/2000</ti>
224 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip27/o32</ti>
225 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
226 <ti>Recommended</ti>
227 </tr>
228 <tr>
229 <ti>"</ti>
230 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip27/o32/nptl</ti>
231 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
232 <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
233 </tr>
234 <tr>
235 <ti>"</ti>
236 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip27/n32</ti>
237 <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
238 <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
239 </tr>
240 <tr>
241 <ti>"</ti>
242 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip27/n32/nptl</ti>
243 <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
244 <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
245 </tr>
246
247 <tr>
248 <th>&nbsp;</th>
249 <th>&nbsp;</th>
250 <th>&nbsp;</th>
251 <th>&nbsp;</th>
252 </tr>
253 <tr>
254 <ti>SGI Indigo2 Impact R10000</ti>
255 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip28/o32</ti>
256 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
257 <ti>Recommended</ti>
258 </tr>
259 <tr>
260 <ti>"</ti>
261 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip28/o32/nptl</ti>
262 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
263 <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
264 </tr>
265 <tr>
266 <ti>"</ti>
267 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip28/n32</ti>
268 <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
269 <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
270 </tr>
271 <tr>
272 <ti>"</ti>
273 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip28/n32/nptl</ti>
274 <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
275 <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
276 </tr>
277 <tr>
278 <th>&nbsp;</th>
279 <th>&nbsp;</th>
280 <th>&nbsp;</th>
281 <th>&nbsp;</th>
282 </tr>
283 <tr>
284 <ti>SGI Octane/Octane2</ti>
285 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip30/o32</ti>
286 <ti>32-bit Linuxthreads</ti>
287 <ti>Recommended</ti>
288 </tr>
289 <tr>
290 <ti>"</ti>
291 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip30/o32/nptl</ti>
292 <ti>32-bit NPTL</ti>
293 <ti>In Testing (1)</ti>
294 </tr>
295 <tr>
296 <ti>"</ti>
297 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip30/n32</ti>
298 <ti>N32 Linuxthreads</ti>
299 <ti>Highly Experimental (2)</ti>
300 </tr>
301 <tr>
302 <ti>"</ti>
303 <ti>default-linux/mips/2007.0/ip30/n32/nptl</ti>
304 <ti>N32 NPTL</ti>
305 <ti>Highly Experimental (1) (2)</ti>
306 </tr>
307 </table>
308
309 <impo>
310 (1) NPTL is in-testing on MIPS at this stage, requiring <c>gcc-4.1</c> and
311 <c>glibc-2.4</c>. It is believed that NPTL should be safe enough now for people
312 to use, and is planned to be the default in future releases. Brave users are
313 welcomed to try these profiles out and report back.
314 </impo>
315
316 <warn>
317 (2) n32 Userland is highly experimental, a lot of software has problems with
318 this ABI, and thus it is practically guaranteed that you will run into stability
319 problems at some point. Work is being done to improve the situation, however,
320 no support is offered if you use this profile, unless you're willing to help
321 fix problems by submitting patches.
322 </warn>
323
324 <warn>
325 (3) n64 Userland at present is completely unsupported on all systems. At this
326 time there are no stages available that support n64, and this isn't likely to
327 change in the near future.
328 </warn>
329
330 <p>
331 You can see what profile you are currently using with the following command:
332 </p>
333
334 <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
335 # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile</i>
336 lrwxrwxrwx 1 48 Apr 8 18:51 /etc/make.profile -> ../usr/portage/profiles/<keyval id="profile"/>
337 </pre>
338
339 <p>
340 Having looked through the profiles above, and decided which one is the most
341 appropriate, you need to adjust your <path>make.profile</path> symlink to
342 reflect this. By default, the profiles are in
343 <path>/usr/portage/profiles</path>, so if you've moved your portage tree
344 elsewhere (not recommended), adjust the commands below accordingly.
345 </p>
346
347 <pre caption="Setting the profile">
348 <comment>(Delete the old profile symlink)</comment>
349 # <i>rm -f /etc/make.profile</i>
350
351 <comment>(Create a new symlink pointing to your chosen profile )
352 (For example, this is what one would use on an Indy or O2.)</comment>
353 # <i>ln -s /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/mips/2007.0/generic-be/o32</i>
354 </pre>
355
356 <note>
357 A tip for those not familiar with the Bourne Again Shell... If you partially
358 type a filename or command, then hit the TAB key, it will automatically fill out
359 the command/filename until the last common character. E.g. typing
360 <c>/usr/portage/profiles/def&lt;TAB&gt;</c>, <c>bash</c> will automatically put
361 down <c>default-</c>. Pressing TAB a couple of more times will reveal the
362 possibilities, <c>default-linux</c>, <c>default-darwin</c> and
363 <c>default-bsd</c>. Give it a try, you'll find it very handy for navigating the
364 command line.
365 </note>
366
367 </body>
368 </subsection>
369 <subsection id="configure_USE">
370 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
371 <body>
372
373 <p>
374 <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
375 Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
376 items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
377 qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
378 can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
379 (X-server).
380 </p>
381
382 <p>
383 Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
384 increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
385 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
386 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
387 </p>
388
389 <p>
390 In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
391 compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
392 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the
393 minus sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt4</e> will compile your
394 programs with gnome (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support,
395 making your system fully tweaked for GNOME.
396 </p>
397
398 <p>
399 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
400 files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
401 directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
402 directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
403 settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
404 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
405 you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
406 you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
407 front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
408 at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
409 directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
410 </p>
411
412 <p>
413 A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
414 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
415 the available USE flags can be found on your system in
416 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
417 </p>
418
419 <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
420 # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
421 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
422 </pre>
423
424 <p>
425 As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
426 and CD Recording support:
427 </p>
428
429 <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
430 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
431 </pre>
432
433 <pre caption="USE setting">
434 USE="-gtk -gnome qt4 kde dvd alsa cdr"
435 </pre>
436
437 </body>
438 </subsection>
439 <subsection>
440 <title>Optional: GLIBC Locales</title>
441 <body>
442
443 <p>
444 You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You can
445 specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
446 </p>
447
448 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
449 # <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
450 </pre>
451
452 <p>
453 The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
454 German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
455 </p>
456
457 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
458 en_US ISO-8859-1
459 en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
460 de_DE ISO-8859-1
461 de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
462 </pre>
463
464 <p>
465 The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generate all the locales you
466 have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
467 </p>
468
469 <pre caption="Running locale-gen">
470 # <i>locale-gen</i>
471 </pre>
472
473 <p>
474 Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
475 </p>
476
477 </body>
478 </subsection>
479 </section>
480 </sections>

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