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2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-sparc-disk.xml,v 1.23 2005/09/25 16:19:37 neysx Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-sparc-disk.xml,v 1.32 2008/05/02 08:04:23 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<version>2.4</version> 11<version>5.1</version>
12<date>2005-08-25</date> 12<date>2008-05-02</date>
13 13
14<section> 14<section>
15<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title> 15<title>Introduction to Block Devices</title>
16<subsection>
17<title>Block Devices</title>
18<body>
19 16
20<p>
21We'll take a good look at some of the disk-oriented aspects of Gentoo Linux
22and Linux in general, including Linux filesystems, partitions, and block
23devices. Then, once you're familiar with the ins and outs of disks and
24filesystems, you'll be guided through the process of setting up partitions
25and filesystems for your Gentoo Linux installation.
26</p>
27
28<p>
29To begin, we introduce <e>block devices</e>. The most typical block device is
30probably the one that represents the first SCSI hard disk in a Linux system,
31namely <path>/dev/sda</path>.
32</p>
33
34<p>
35Block devices represent an abstract interface to the disk. User programs can
36use these block devices to interact with your disk without worrying about
37whether your drives are IDE, SCSI, or something else. The program can simply
38address the storage on the disk as a bunch of contiguous, randomly-accessible
39512-byte blocks.
40</p>
41
42<p>
43Block devices show up as entries in <path>/dev/</path>. Typically, the first
44SCSI drive is named <path>/dev/sda</path>, the second <path>/dev/sdb</path>,
45and so on. IDE drives are named similarly, however, they are prefixed by hd-
46instead of sd-. If you are using IDE drives, the first one will be named
47<path>/dev/hda</path>, the second <path>/dev/hdb</path>, and so on.
48</p>
49
50</body>
51</subsection> 17<subsection>
18<include href="hb-install-blockdevices.xml"/>
19</subsection>
20
52<subsection> 21<subsection>
53<title>Partitions</title> 22<title>Partitions</title>
54<body> 23<body>
55 24
56<p> 25<p>
60<e>partitions</e> or <e>slices</e>. 29<e>partitions</e> or <e>slices</e>.
61</p> 30</p>
62 31
63<p> 32<p>
64The first partition on the first SCSI disk is <path>/dev/sda1</path>, the second 33The first partition on the first SCSI disk is <path>/dev/sda1</path>, the second
65<path>/dev/sda2</path> and so on. Similarly, the first two partitions on the 34<path>/dev/sda2</path> and so on.
66first IDE disk are <path>/dev/hda1</path> and <path>/dev/hda2</path>.
67</p> 35</p>
68 36
69<p> 37<p>
70The third partition on Sun systems is set aside as a special "whole disk" 38The third partition on Sun systems is set aside as a special "whole disk"
71slice. This partition must not contain a file system. 39slice. This partition must not contain a file system.
86<subsection> 54<subsection>
87<title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title> 55<title>Default Partitioning Scheme</title>
88<body> 56<body>
89 57
90<p> 58<p>
91If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme, 59If you are not interested in drawing up a partitioning scheme, the table below
92the table below suggests a suitable starting point for most systems. For 60suggests a suitable starting point for most systems.
93IDE-based systems, substitute <c>hda</c> for <c>sda</c> in the following.
94</p> 61</p>
95 62
96<p> 63<p>
97Note that a separate <path>/boot</path> partition is generally <e>not</e> 64Note that a separate <path>/boot</path> partition is generally <e>not</e>
98recommended on SPARC, as it complicates the bootloader configuration. 65recommended on SPARC, as it complicates the bootloader configuration.
110 <ti>/dev/sda1</ti> 77 <ti>/dev/sda1</ti>
111 <ti>ext3</ti> 78 <ti>ext3</ti>
112 <ti>&lt;2 GByte</ti> 79 <ti>&lt;2 GByte</ti>
113 <ti>/</ti> 80 <ti>/</ti>
114 <ti> 81 <ti>
115 Root partition. For all sparc32 systems, and sparc64 systems with older 82 Root partition. For sparc64 systems with older OBP versions, this
116 OBP versions, this <e>must</e> be less than 2 GBytes in size, and the first 83 <e>must</e> be less than 2 GBytes in size, and the first partition on the
117 partition on the disk. 84 disk.
118 </ti> 85 </ti>
119</tr> 86</tr>
120<tr> 87<tr>
121 <ti>/dev/sda2</ti> 88 <ti>/dev/sda2</ti>
122 <ti>swap</ti> 89 <ti>swap</ti>
488Otherwise, read on to learn about the available filesystems... 455Otherwise, read on to learn about the available filesystems...
489</p> 456</p>
490 457
491</body> 458</body>
492</subsection> 459</subsection>
493<subsection>
494<title>Filesystems?</title>
495<body>
496 460
497<p>
498Several filesystems are available, some are known to be stable on the
499SPARC architecture. Ext2 and ext3, for example, are known to work well.
500Alternate filesystems may not function correctly.
501</p>
502
503<p>
504<b>ext2</b> is the tried-and-true Linux filesystem. It does not support
505journaling, which means that periodic checks of ext2 filesystems at startup
506can be quite time-consuming. There is quite a selection of newer-generation
507journaled filesystems that can be checked for consistency very quickly at
508startup, and are therefore generally preferred over their non-journaled
509counterparts. In general, journaled filesystems prevent long delays when a
510system is booted and the filesystem is in an inconsistent state.
511</p>
512
513<p>
514<b>ext3</b> is the journaled version of the ext2 filesystem. It provides
515metadata journaling for fast recovery as well as other enhanced journaling
516modes like full-data and ordered-data journaling. Ext3 has an additional hashed
517b-tree indexing option that enables high performance in almost all situations.
518You can enable this indexing by adding <c>-O dir_index</c> to the <c>mke2fs</c>
519command. Ext3 makes an excellent and reliable alternative to ext2.
520</p>
521
522</body>
523</subsection> 461<subsection>
462<include href="hb-install-filesystems.xml"/>
463</subsection>
464
524<subsection id="filesystems-apply"> 465<subsection id="filesystems-apply">
525<title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title> 466<title>Applying a Filesystem to a Partition</title>
526<body> 467<body>
527 468
528<p> 469<p>
540 <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti> 481 <ti><c>mke2fs</c></ti>
541</tr> 482</tr>
542<tr> 483<tr>
543 <ti>ext3</ti> 484 <ti>ext3</ti>
544 <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti> 485 <ti><c>mke2fs -j</c></ti>
545</tr>
546<tr>
547 <ti>ext3 with hashed b-tree indexing (2.6 kernels only)</ti>
548 <ti><c>mke2fs -j -O dir_index</c></ti>
549</tr> 486</tr>
550</table> 487</table>
551 488
552<p> 489<p>
553For instance, to create the root partition (<path>/dev/sda1</path> in our 490For instance, to create the root partition (<path>/dev/sda1</path> in our

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