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Add information about the 'userlocales' USE flag

1 swift 1.26 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.6 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 dertobi123 1.53 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.52 2004/10/24 18:28:09 neysx Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.11
9 swift 1.3 <sections>
10 swift 1.1 <section>
11 swift 1.3 <title>Chrooting</title>
12 swift 1.1 <subsection>
13 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
14     <body>
15    
16     <p>
17 swift 1.24 If you have booted from a Gentoo LiveCD, you are able to use <c>mirrorselect</c>
18 swift 1.2 to update <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so fast mirrors are used for both Portage
19 swift 1.28 and source code (of course in case you have a working network connection):
20 swift 1.2 </p>
21    
22 swift 1.49 <warn>
23     An error within mirrorselect might make it output garbage after the
24     GENTOO_MIRRORS statement. Please open <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path>
25     and remove the garbage at the end of the GENTOO_MIRRORS statement if applicable.
26     </warn>
27    
28 swift 1.2 <pre caption="Selecting fast mirrors">
29 neysx 1.44 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o | grep 'GENTOO_MIRRORS=' &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
30 swift 1.2 </pre>
31    
32     <p>
33     If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, don't panic. This step is
34 swift 1.33 completely optional, the default values suffice.
35 swift 1.2 </p>
36    
37     </body>
38 swift 1.3 </subsection>
39     <subsection>
40 swift 1.5 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
41     <body>
42    
43     <p>
44 swift 1.24 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
45     is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
46 swift 1.5 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
47     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
48     network.
49     </p>
50    
51     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
52 swift 1.35 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
53     # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
54 swift 1.18 </pre>
55    
56     </body>
57     </subsection>
58     <subsection>
59 swift 1.43 <title>Mounting the proc Filesystem</title>
60     <body>
61    
62     <p>
63     Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
64     allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information even within the
65     chrooted environment.
66     </p>
67    
68     <pre caption="Mounting /proc">
69     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
70     </pre>
71    
72     </body>
73     </subsection>
74     <subsection>
75 swift 1.2 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
76 swift 1.1 <body>
77    
78     <p>
79 swift 1.19 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
80 swift 1.1 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
81 swift 1.9 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
82 swift 1.2 installation environment (LiveCD or other installation medium) to your
83 swift 1.19 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
84 swift 1.1 </p>
85    
86     <p>
87     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
88 swift 1.2 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
89     (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
90     using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
91 swift 1.1 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
92     </p>
93    
94     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
95     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
96     # <i>env-update</i>
97 neysx 1.39 * Caching service dependencies...
98 swift 1.1 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
99     </pre>
100    
101     <p>
102     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
103 swift 1.10 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
104 swift 1.1 has some sections left :-)
105     </p>
106    
107     </body>
108 swift 1.3 </subsection>
109     <subsection>
110 dertobi123 1.40 <title>Optional: Updating the Portage tree</title>
111 swift 1.2 <body>
112    
113     <p>
114 cam 1.50 If you haven't installed a Portage snapshot in the previous chapter, you must
115     download a recent Portage tree from the Internet. <c>emerge --sync</c> does this
116     for you. Other users should skip this and continue with <uri
117 swift 1.28 link="#configure_USE">Configuring the USE variable</uri>.
118 swift 1.2 </p>
119    
120 dertobi123 1.40 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
121 cam 1.50 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
122 swift 1.38 </pre>
123    
124     <p>
125     Portage uses the RSYNC protocol for updating the Portage tree. If the above
126     command fails due to your firewall, use <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which
127 swift 1.51 downloads and installs a Portage snapshot for you using the regular HTTP
128 swift 1.38 protocol.
129     </p>
130    
131 dertobi123 1.40 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree with emerge-webrsync">
132 swift 1.27 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
133 swift 1.13 </pre>
134    
135     <p>
136     If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
137 swift 1.34 update Portage, you should ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
138 bennyc 1.16 on during the installation.
139 swift 1.13 </p>
140 swift 1.8
141     </body>
142     </subsection>
143 swift 1.28 <subsection id="configure_USE">
144 swift 1.21 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
145     <body>
146    
147     <p>
148     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
149     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
150     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
151     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
152     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
153     (X-server).
154     </p>
155    
156     <p>
157     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
158     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
159 swift 1.24 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
160 swift 1.21 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
161     </p>
162    
163     <p>
164     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
165     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
166     programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
167     sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
168     (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
169     tweaked for GNOME.
170     </p>
171    
172     <p>
173     The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in
174     <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>. What you place in
175     <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
176     you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
177     you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
178     front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
179     at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
180     directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
181     </p>
182    
183     <p>
184     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
185 neysx 1.52 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
186     the available USE flags can be found on your system in
187 swift 1.23 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
188     </p>
189    
190     <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
191     # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
192 swift 1.45 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
193 swift 1.23 </pre>
194    
195     <p>
196     As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
197     and CD Recording support:
198 swift 1.21 </p>
199    
200     <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
201     # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
202     </pre>
203    
204     <pre caption="USE setting">
205     USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
206     </pre>
207    
208 dertobi123 1.53 <p>
209     You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
210     after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales has been
211     created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag und specify
212     only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>.
213     </p>
214    
215     <pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
216     echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use
217     </pre>
218    
219     <p>
220     Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
221     </p>
222    
223     <pre caption="nano -w /etc/locales.build">
224     en_US/ISO-8859-1
225     en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
226     de_DE/ISO-8859-1
227     de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
228     </pre>
229    
230 swift 1.21 </body>
231     </subsection>
232     <subsection>
233 swift 1.8 <title>Optional: Using Distributed Compiling</title>
234     <body>
235    
236     <p>
237     If you are interested in using a collection of systems to help in compiling your
238     system you might want to take a look at our <uri
239     link="/doc/en/distcc.xml">DistCC Guide</uri>. By using <c>distcc</c> you can use
240     the processing power of several systems to aid you with the installation.
241     </p>
242 swift 1.2
243     </body>
244 swift 1.1 </subsection>
245 swift 1.3 </section>
246     <section>
247 swift 1.1 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
248     <body>
249    
250     <p>
251     Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
252     select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
253     that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
254 neysx 1.48 is the first place where your choice defines the subsequent steps.
255 swift 1.1 </p>
256    
257     <ul>
258     <li>
259 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
260     this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
261     to Stage2</uri>)
262 swift 1.1 </li>
263     <li>
264 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
265     and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
266     from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
267 swift 1.1 </li>
268     <li>
269 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage3</e> (either with or without GRP) then you can skip both
270 swift 1.31 steps and continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the
271     Kernel</uri>
272 swift 1.1 </li>
273     </ul>
274    
275     </body>
276 swift 1.3 </section>
277     <section>
278     <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
279 swift 1.1 <subsection>
280     <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
281     <body>
282    
283     <p>
284     So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
285     </p>
286    
287     <p>
288     In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
289     long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
290     ground up for your specific machine and needs.
291     </p>
292    
293     <p>
294     <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
295 swift 1.32 Collection and several other key system programs.
296 swift 1.1 </p>
297    
298     <p>
299     Before starting the bootstrap, we list a couple of options you might or
300 swift 1.4 might not want. If you do not want to read those, continue with <uri
301 swift 1.41 link="#bootstrap">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
302 swift 1.1 </p>
303    
304     </body>
305 swift 1.3 </subsection>
306     <subsection>
307 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
308     <body>
309    
310     <p>
311 swift 1.25 If you haven't copied over all source code before, then the bootstrap
312 swift 1.1 script will download all necessary files. It goes without saying that
313     this only works if you have a working network connnection :-) If you want to
314 swift 1.25 download the source code first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
315 swift 1.1 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
316     compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
317 swift 1.25 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all source code for you.
318 swift 1.1 </p>
319    
320     <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
321     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
322 swift 1.47 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
323 swift 1.1 </pre>
324    
325     </body>
326 swift 1.3 </subsection>
327 swift 1.41 <subsection id="bootstrap">
328 swift 1.1 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
329     <body>
330    
331     <p>
332     Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
333 swift 1.36 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else because this step
334     takes quite some time to finish.
335 swift 1.1 </p>
336    
337     <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
338     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
339 swift 1.47 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
340 swift 1.12 </pre>
341    
342     <p>
343 swift 1.4 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
344     to Stage3</uri>.
345     </p>
346    
347 swift 1.1 </body>
348     </subsection>
349 swift 1.3 </section>
350     <section>
351     <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
352 swift 1.1 <subsection>
353     <title>Introduction</title>
354     <body>
355    
356     <p>
357     If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
358     (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
359     <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
360     </p>
361    
362     <p>
363     <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
364 swift 1.19 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
365     Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
366 swift 1.1 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
367     </p>
368    
369     </body>
370 swift 1.3 </subsection>
371     <subsection>
372 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
373     <body>
374    
375     <p>
376     If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
377 swift 1.14 --pretend system</c>. This will list all packages that will be built. As this
378 swift 1.1 list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like <c>less</c> or
379     <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
380     </p>
381    
382     <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
383 swift 1.14 # <i>emerge --pretend system | less</i>
384 swift 1.1 </pre>
385    
386     </body>
387 swift 1.3 </subsection>
388     <subsection>
389 swift 1.4 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
390 swift 1.1 <body>
391    
392     <p>
393     If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
394     (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
395 swift 1.20 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
396 swift 1.1 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
397     </p>
398    
399     <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
400 swift 1.14 # <i>emerge --fetchonly system</i>
401 swift 1.1 </pre>
402    
403     </body>
404 swift 1.3 </subsection>
405     <subsection>
406 swift 1.1 <title>Building the System</title>
407     <body>
408    
409     <p>
410     To start building the system, execute <c>emerge system</c>. Then go do
411 swift 1.4 something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
412     complete.
413 swift 1.1 </p>
414    
415     <pre caption = "Building the System">
416     # <i>emerge system</i>
417     </pre>
418    
419     <p>
420 swift 1.30 You can for now safely ignore any warnings about updated configuration files
421     (and running <c>etc-update</c>). When your Gentoo system is fully installed and
422     booted, do read our documentation on <uri
423 neysx 1.52 link="?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">Configuration File Protection</uri>.
424 swift 1.28 </p>
425    
426     <p>
427 swift 1.31 When the build process has completed, continue with <uri
428     link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
429 swift 1.28 </p>
430    
431     </body>
432     </subsection>
433     </section>
434    
435 swift 1.3 </sections>

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