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1 swift 1.26 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.6 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.67 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.66 2004/12/16 10:48:42 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.11
9 swift 1.3 <sections>
10 swift 1.56
11 swift 1.67 <version>1.62</version>
12     <date>2004-12-22</date>
13 swift 1.56
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15 swift 1.3 <title>Chrooting</title>
16 swift 1.1 <subsection>
17 swift 1.2 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21 swift 1.24 If you have booted from a Gentoo LiveCD, you are able to use <c>mirrorselect</c>
22 swift 1.2 to update <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so fast mirrors are used for both Portage
23 swift 1.57 and source code (of course this requires a working network connection):
24 swift 1.2 </p>
25    
26     <pre caption="Selecting fast mirrors">
27 neysx 1.59 # <i>mirrorselect -a -s4 -o |grep 'GENTOO_MIRRORS=' &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
28 swift 1.2 </pre>
29    
30     <p>
31     If for some reason <c>mirrorselect</c> fails, don't panic. This step is
32 swift 1.33 completely optional, the default values suffice.
33 swift 1.2 </p>
34    
35     </body>
36 swift 1.3 </subsection>
37     <subsection>
38 swift 1.5 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
39     <body>
40    
41     <p>
42 swift 1.24 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
43     is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
44 swift 1.5 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
45     environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
46     network.
47     </p>
48    
49     <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
50 swift 1.35 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
51     # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
52 swift 1.18 </pre>
53    
54     </body>
55     </subsection>
56     <subsection>
57 swift 1.43 <title>Mounting the proc Filesystem</title>
58     <body>
59    
60     <p>
61     Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
62     allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information even within the
63     chrooted environment.
64     </p>
65    
66     <pre caption="Mounting /proc">
67     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
68     </pre>
69    
70     </body>
71     </subsection>
72     <subsection>
73 swift 1.2 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
74 swift 1.1 <body>
75    
76     <p>
77 swift 1.19 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
78 swift 1.1 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
79 swift 1.9 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
80 swift 1.2 installation environment (LiveCD or other installation medium) to your
81 swift 1.19 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
82 swift 1.1 </p>
83    
84     <p>
85     This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
86 swift 1.2 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
87     (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
88     using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
89 swift 1.1 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
90     </p>
91    
92     <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
93     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
94     # <i>env-update</i>
95 neysx 1.39 * Caching service dependencies...
96 swift 1.1 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
97     </pre>
98    
99     <p>
100     Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
101 swift 1.10 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
102 swift 1.1 has some sections left :-)
103     </p>
104    
105     </body>
106 swift 1.3 </subsection>
107     <subsection>
108 swift 1.64 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
109 swift 1.2 <body>
110    
111     <p>
112 swift 1.64 If you have a working Internet connection and you don't want to install our
113 neysx 1.65 prebuilt packages later on (also known as GRP packages), you should update your
114     Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge --sync</c> does this for you.
115     Other users should <e>only</e> run <c>emerge --metadata</c> to create the cache
116     database Portage usually creates after <c>emerge --sync</c>.
117 swift 1.2 </p>
118    
119 dertobi123 1.40 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
120 neysx 1.65 <comment>(For users with an Internet connection who do not intend on using GRP packages)</comment>
121 cam 1.50 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
122 swift 1.38
123 swift 1.64 <comment>(For all other users)</comment>
124     # <i>emerge --metadata</i>
125 swift 1.13 </pre>
126    
127     <p>
128     If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
129 swift 1.34 update Portage, you should ignore it. Portage will be updated for you later
130 bennyc 1.16 on during the installation.
131 swift 1.13 </p>
132 swift 1.8
133     </body>
134     </subsection>
135 swift 1.28 <subsection id="configure_USE">
136 swift 1.21 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
137     <body>
138    
139 swift 1.57 <warn>
140     Do not make any modifications to the USE variable if you are performing a stage3
141     with GRP installation. You can alter the USE variable after having installed the
142     packages you want. Gremlins are known to attack your system if you ignore this
143     warning!
144     </warn>
145    
146 swift 1.21 <p>
147     <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
148     Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
149     items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
150     qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
151     can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
152     (X-server).
153     </p>
154    
155     <p>
156     Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
157     increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
158 swift 1.24 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
159 swift 1.21 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
160     </p>
161    
162     <p>
163     In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
164     compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
165     programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the minus
166     sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt</e> will compile your programs with gnome
167     (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support, making your system fully
168     tweaked for GNOME.
169     </p>
170    
171     <p>
172     The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in
173     <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>. What you place in
174     <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
175     you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
176     you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
177     front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
178     at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
179     directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
180     </p>
181    
182     <p>
183     A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
184 neysx 1.52 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
185     the available USE flags can be found on your system in
186 swift 1.23 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
187     </p>
188    
189     <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
190     # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
191 swift 1.45 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
192 swift 1.23 </pre>
193    
194     <p>
195     As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
196     and CD Recording support:
197 swift 1.21 </p>
198    
199     <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
200     # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
201     </pre>
202    
203     <pre caption="USE setting">
204     USE="-gtk -gnome qt kde dvd alsa cdr"
205     </pre>
206    
207 dertobi123 1.53 <p>
208     You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. Up until now
209 swift 1.55 after compiling <c>glibc</c> a full set of all available locales will be
210     created. As of now you can activate the <c>userlocales</c> USE flag and specify
211 swift 1.67 only the locales you will need in <path>/etc/locales.build</path>. Only do this
212     if you know what locales to choose.
213 dertobi123 1.53 </p>
214    
215     <pre caption="Activate the userlocales USE flag especially for glibc">
216 swift 1.54 # <i>mkdir /etc/portage</i>
217     # <i>echo "sys-libs/glibc userlocales" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
218 dertobi123 1.53 </pre>
219    
220     <p>
221     Now specify the locales you want to be able to use:
222     </p>
223    
224 bennyc 1.60 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locales.build">
225 neysx 1.61 # <i>nano -w /etc/locales.build</i>
226 bennyc 1.60 </pre>
227    
228 swift 1.67 <p>
229     The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
230     German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
231     </p>
232    
233 bennyc 1.60 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
234 dertobi123 1.53 en_US/ISO-8859-1
235     en_US.UTF-8/UTF-8
236     de_DE/ISO-8859-1
237     de_DE@euro/ISO-8859-15
238     </pre>
239    
240 swift 1.21 </body>
241     </subsection>
242     <subsection>
243 swift 1.8 <title>Optional: Using Distributed Compiling</title>
244     <body>
245    
246     <p>
247     If you are interested in using a collection of systems to help in compiling your
248     system you might want to take a look at our <uri
249     link="/doc/en/distcc.xml">DistCC Guide</uri>. By using <c>distcc</c> you can use
250     the processing power of several systems to aid you with the installation.
251     </p>
252 swift 1.2
253     </body>
254 swift 1.1 </subsection>
255 swift 1.3 </section>
256     <section>
257 swift 1.1 <title>Differences between Stage1, Stage2 and Stage3</title>
258     <body>
259    
260     <p>
261     Now take a seat and think of your previous steps. We asked you to
262     select a <e>stage1</e>, <e>stage2</e> or <e>stage3</e> and warned you
263     that your choice is important for further installation steps. Well, this
264 neysx 1.48 is the first place where your choice defines the subsequent steps.
265 swift 1.1 </p>
266    
267     <ul>
268     <li>
269 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage1</e>, then you have to follow <e>both</e> steps in
270     this chapter (starting with <uri link="#doc_chap3">Progressing from Stage1
271     to Stage2</uri>)
272 swift 1.1 </li>
273     <li>
274 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage2</e> you only can skip the first step
275     and immediately start with the second one (<uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing
276     from Stage2 to Stage3</uri>)
277 swift 1.1 </li>
278     <li>
279 swift 1.4 If you chose <e>stage3</e> (either with or without GRP) then you can skip both
280 swift 1.31 steps and continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the
281     Kernel</uri>
282 swift 1.1 </li>
283     </ul>
284    
285     </body>
286 swift 1.3 </section>
287     <section>
288     <title>Progressing from Stage1 to Stage2</title>
289 swift 1.1 <subsection>
290     <title>Introduction to Bootstrapping</title>
291     <body>
292    
293     <p>
294     So, you want to compile everything from scratch? Okay then :-)
295     </p>
296    
297     <p>
298     In this step, we will <e>bootstrap</e> your Gentoo system. This takes a
299     long time, but the result is a system that has been optimized from the
300     ground up for your specific machine and needs.
301     </p>
302    
303     <p>
304     <e>Bootstrapping</e> means building the GNU C Library, GNU Compiler
305 swift 1.32 Collection and several other key system programs.
306 swift 1.1 </p>
307    
308     <p>
309 swift 1.62 Before starting the bootstrap, you might want to download all necessary
310     sourcecode first. If you do not want to do this, continue
311     with <uri link="#bootstrap">Bootstrapping the System</uri>.
312 swift 1.1 </p>
313    
314     </body>
315 swift 1.3 </subsection>
316     <subsection>
317 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources First</title>
318     <body>
319    
320     <p>
321 swift 1.25 If you haven't copied over all source code before, then the bootstrap
322 swift 1.1 script will download all necessary files. It goes without saying that
323     this only works if you have a working network connnection :-) If you want to
324 swift 1.25 download the source code first and later bootstrap the system (for instance
325 swift 1.1 because you don't want to have your internet connection open during the
326     compilation) use the <e>-f</e> option of the bootstrap script, which will
327 swift 1.25 fetch (hence the letter <e>f</e>) all source code for you.
328 swift 1.1 </p>
329    
330     <pre caption = "Downloading the necessary sources">
331     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
332 swift 1.47 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh -f</i>
333 swift 1.1 </pre>
334    
335     </body>
336 swift 1.3 </subsection>
337 swift 1.41 <subsection id="bootstrap">
338 swift 1.1 <title>Bootstrapping the System</title>
339     <body>
340    
341     <p>
342     Okay then, take your keyboard and punch in the next commands to start
343 swift 1.36 the bootstrap. Then go amuse yourself with something else because this step
344     takes quite some time to finish.
345 swift 1.1 </p>
346    
347     <pre caption = "Bootstrapping the system">
348     # <i>cd /usr/portage</i>
349 swift 1.47 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
350 swift 1.12 </pre>
351    
352     <p>
353 swift 1.63 When you have set the <c>nptl</c> USE flag, rerunning <c>bootstrap.sh</c> might
354     fail with a message that <c>linux-headers</c> blocks <c>linux26-headers</c>.
355     When you receive this error, remove <c>linux-headers</c> and retry:
356     </p>
357    
358     <pre caption="Removing linux-headers from your system">
359     # <i>emerge -C linux-headers</i>
360 swift 1.66 # <i>emerge --oneshot --nodeps linux26-headers</i>
361 swift 1.63 # <i>scripts/bootstrap.sh</i>
362     </pre>
363    
364     <p>
365 swift 1.4 Now continue with the next step, <uri link="#doc_chap4">Progressing from Stage2
366     to Stage3</uri>.
367     </p>
368    
369 swift 1.1 </body>
370     </subsection>
371 swift 1.3 </section>
372     <section>
373     <title>Progressing from Stage2 to Stage3</title>
374 swift 1.1 <subsection>
375     <title>Introduction</title>
376     <body>
377    
378     <p>
379     If you are reading this section, then you have a bootstrapped system
380     (either because you bootstrapped it previously, or you are using a
381     <e>stage2</e>). Then it is now time to build all system packages.
382     </p>
383    
384     <p>
385     <e>All</e> system packages? No, not really. In this step, you will build
386 swift 1.19 the system packages of which there are no alternatives to use.
387     Some system packages have several alternatives (such as system loggers)
388 swift 1.1 and as Gentoo is all about choices, we don't want to force one upon you.
389     </p>
390    
391     </body>
392 swift 1.3 </subsection>
393     <subsection>
394 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Viewing what will be done</title>
395     <body>
396    
397     <p>
398     If you want to know what packages will be installed, execute <c>emerge
399 swift 1.14 --pretend system</c>. This will list all packages that will be built. As this
400 swift 1.1 list is pretty big, you should also use a pager like <c>less</c> or
401     <c>more</c> to go up and down the list.
402     </p>
403    
404     <pre caption = "View what 'emerge system' will do">
405 swift 1.14 # <i>emerge --pretend system | less</i>
406 swift 1.1 </pre>
407    
408     </body>
409 swift 1.3 </subsection>
410     <subsection>
411 swift 1.4 <title>Optional: Downloading the Sources</title>
412 swift 1.1 <body>
413    
414     <p>
415     If you want <c>emerge</c> to download the sources before you continue
416     (for instance because you don't want the internet connection to be left
417 swift 1.20 open while you are building all packages) you can use the <e>--fetchonly</e>
418 swift 1.1 option of <c>emerge</c> which will fetch all sources for you.
419     </p>
420    
421     <pre caption = "Fetching the sources">
422 swift 1.14 # <i>emerge --fetchonly system</i>
423 swift 1.1 </pre>
424    
425     </body>
426 swift 1.3 </subsection>
427     <subsection>
428 swift 1.1 <title>Building the System</title>
429     <body>
430    
431     <p>
432     To start building the system, execute <c>emerge system</c>. Then go do
433 swift 1.4 something to keep your mind busy, because this step takes a long time to
434     complete.
435 swift 1.1 </p>
436    
437     <pre caption = "Building the System">
438     # <i>emerge system</i>
439     </pre>
440    
441     <p>
442 swift 1.30 You can for now safely ignore any warnings about updated configuration files
443     (and running <c>etc-update</c>). When your Gentoo system is fully installed and
444     booted, do read our documentation on <uri
445 neysx 1.52 link="?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">Configuration File Protection</uri>.
446 swift 1.28 </p>
447    
448     <p>
449 swift 1.31 When the build process has completed, continue with <uri
450     link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
451 swift 1.28 </p>
452    
453     </body>
454     </subsection>
455     </section>
456    
457 swift 1.3 </sections>

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