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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-system.xml,v 1.100 2006/10/08 19:38:11 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <abstract>
12 After installing and configuring a stage3, the eventual result is that you
13 have a Gentoo base system at your disposal. This chapter describes how
14 to progress to that state.
15 </abstract>
16
17 <version>7.2</version>
18 <date>2006-10-08</date>
19
20 <section>
21 <title>Chrooting</title>
22 <subsection>
23 <title>Optional: Selecting Mirrors</title>
24 <body>
25
26 <p>
27 In order to download source code quickly it is recommended to select a fast
28 mirror. Portage will look in your <path>make.conf</path> file for the
29 GENTOO_MIRRORS variable and use the mirrors listed therein. You can surf to
30 our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror list</uri> and search
31 for a mirror (or mirrors) close to you (as those are most frequently the
32 fastest ones), but we provide a nice tool called <c>mirrorselect</c> which
33 provides you with a nice interface to select the mirrors you want.
34 </p>
35
36 <pre caption="Using mirrorselect for the GENTOO_MIRRORS variable">
37 # <i>mirrorselect -i -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
38 </pre>
39
40 <warn>
41 Do not select any IPv6 mirrors. Our stages currently do not support IPv6.
42 </warn>
43
44 <p>
45 A second important setting is the SYNC setting in <path>make.conf</path>. This
46 variable contains the rsync server you want to use when updating your Portage
47 tree (the collection of ebuilds, scripts containing all the information Portage
48 needs to download and install software). Although you can manually enter a SYNC
49 server for yourself, <c>mirrorselect</c> can ease that operation for you:
50 </p>
51
52 <pre caption="Selecting an rsync mirror using mirrorselect">
53 # <i>mirrorselect -i -r -o &gt;&gt; /mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</i>
54 </pre>
55
56 <p>
57 After running <c>mirrorselect</c> it is adviseable to double-check the settings
58 in <path>/mnt/gentoo/etc/make.conf</path> !
59 </p>
60
61 </body>
62 </subsection>
63 <subsection>
64 <title>Copy DNS Info</title>
65 <body>
66
67 <p>
68 One thing still remains to be done before we enter the new environment and that
69 is copying over the DNS information in <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path>. You need
70 to do this to ensure that networking still works even after entering the new
71 environment. <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> contains the nameservers for your
72 network.
73 </p>
74
75 <pre caption="Copy over DNS information">
76 <comment>(The "-L" option is needed to make sure we don't copy a symbolic link)</comment>
77 # <i>cp -L /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc/resolv.conf</i>
78 </pre>
79
80 </body>
81 </subsection>
82 <subsection>
83 <title>Mounting the /proc and /dev Filesystems</title>
84 <body>
85
86 <p>
87 Mount the <path>/proc</path> filesystem on <path>/mnt/gentoo/proc</path> to
88 allow the installation to use the kernel-provided information within the
89 chrooted environment, and then mount-bind the <path>/dev</path> filesystem.
90 </p>
91
92 <pre caption="Mounting /proc and /dev">
93 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
94 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
95 </pre>
96
97 </body>
98 </subsection>
99 <subsection>
100 <title>Entering the new Environment</title>
101 <body>
102
103 <p>
104 Now that all partitions are initialized and the base environment
105 installed, it is time to enter our new installation environment by
106 <e>chrooting</e> into it. This means that we change from the current
107 installation environment (Installation CD or other installation medium) to your
108 installation system (namely the initialized partitions).
109 </p>
110
111 <p>
112 This chrooting is done in three steps. First we will change the root
113 from <path>/</path> (on the installation medium) to <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>
114 (on your partitions) using <c>chroot</c>. Then we will create a new environment
115 using <c>env-update</c>, which essentially creates environment variables.
116 Finally, we load those variables into memory using <c>source</c>.
117 </p>
118
119 <pre caption = "Chrooting into the new environment">
120 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
121 # <i>env-update</i>
122 >> Regenerating /etc/ld.so.cache...
123 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
124 # <i>export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"</i>
125 </pre>
126
127 <p>
128 Congratulations! You are now inside your own Gentoo Linux environment.
129 Of course it is far from finished, which is why the installation still
130 has some sections left :-)
131 </p>
132
133 </body>
134 </subsection>
135 </section>
136
137 <section>
138 <title>Configuring Portage</title>
139 <subsection>
140 <title>Updating the Portage tree</title>
141 <body>
142
143 <p>
144 You should now update your Portage tree to the latest version. <c>emerge
145 --sync</c> does this for you.
146 </p>
147
148 <pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
149 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
150 <comment>(If you're using a slow terminal like some framebuffers or a serial
151 console, you can add the --quiet option to speed up this process:)</comment>
152 # <i>emerge --sync --quiet</i>
153 </pre>
154
155 <p>
156 If you are behind a firewall that blocks rsync traffic, you can use
157 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download and install a portage snapshot for
158 you.
159 </p>
160
161 <p>
162 If you are warned that a new Portage version is available and that you should
163 update Portage, you should do it now using <c>emerge portage</c> command.
164 </p>
165
166 </body>
167 </subsection>
168 <subsection>
169 <title>Choosing the Right Profile</title>
170 <body>
171
172 <p>
173 First, a small definition is in place.
174 </p>
175
176 <p>
177 A profile is a building block for any Gentoo system. Not only does it specify
178 default values for CHOST, CFLAGS and other important variables, it also locks
179 the system to a certain range of package versions. This is all maintained by the
180 Gentoo developers.
181 </p>
182
183 <p>
184 Previously, such a profile was barely touched by the user. However, x86, hppa
185 and alpha users can choose between two profiles, one for a 2.4 kernel and one
186 for a 2.6 kernel. This requirement has been imposed to improve the integration
187 of the 2.6 kernels. The ppc and ppc64 architectures have several profiles
188 available as well. We will talk about those later.
189 </p>
190
191 <p>
192 You can see what profile you are currently using with the following command:
193 </p>
194
195 <pre caption="Verifying system profile">
196 # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile</i>
197 lrwxrwxrwx 1 48 Apr 8 18:51 /etc/make.profile -> ../usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/2006.1/
198 </pre>
199
200 <p>
201 If you are using one of the aforementioned three architectures, the default
202 profile will provide you with a Linux 2.6-based system. This is the recommended
203 default, but you have the option of choosing another profile too.
204 </p>
205
206 <p>
207 There are also <c>desktop</c> and <c>server</c> subprofiles available for some
208 architectures. Look inside the <path>2006.1/</path> profile to see if there is
209 one available for your architecture. You may wish to view the <c>desktop</c>
210 profile's <path>make.defaults</path> to determine if it fits your needs.
211 </p>
212
213 <p>
214 Some users may wish to install a system based on the older Linux 2.4 profile.
215 If you have good reason to do this, then you should first check that an
216 additional profile exists. On x86, we can do this with the following command:
217 </p>
218
219 <pre caption="Finding out if an additional profile exists">
220 # <i>ls -d /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/no-nptl/2.4</i>
221 /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/no-nptl/2.4
222 </pre>
223
224 <p>
225 The above example shows that the additional 2.4 profile exists (i.e. it didn't
226 complain about missing file or directory). It is recommended that you stay with
227 the default, but if you wish to switch, you can do so with as follows:
228 </p>
229
230 <pre caption="Switching to a 2.4 profile">
231 <comment>(Make sure you use the right architecture, the example below is for x86)</comment>
232 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/x86/no-nptl/2.4 /etc/make.profile</i>
233 <comment>(List the files in the 2.4 profile)</comment>
234 # <i>ls -FGg /etc/make.profile/</i>
235 total 12
236 -rw-r--r-- 1 939 Dec 10 14:06 packages
237 -rw-r--r-- 1 347 Dec 3 2004 parent
238 -rw-r--r-- 1 573 Dec 3 2004 virtuals
239 </pre>
240
241 <p>
242 For ppc, there are a number of new profiles provided with 2006.1:
243 </p>
244
245 <pre caption="PPC Profiles">
246 <comment>(Generic PPC profile, for all PPC machines, minimal)</comment>
247 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1 /etc/make.profile</i>
248 <comment>(G3 profile)</comment>
249 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G3 /etc/make.profile</i>
250 <comment>(G3 Pegasos profile)</comment>
251 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G3/Pegasos/ /etc/make.profile</i>
252 <comment>(G4 (Altivec) profile)</comment>
253 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G4 /etc/make.profile</i>
254 <comment>(G4 (Altivec) Pegasos profile)</comment>
255 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc32/2006.1/G4/Pegasos/ /etc/make.profile</i>
256 </pre>
257
258 <p>
259 For ppc64, there are a number of new profiles provided with 2006.1:
260 </p>
261
262 <pre caption="PPC64 Profiles">
263 <comment>(Generic 64bit userland PPC64 profile, for all PPC64 machines)</comment>
264 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/64bit-userland /etc/make.profile</i>
265 <comment>(Generic 32bit userland PPC64 profile, for all PPC64 machines)</comment>
266 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/32bit-userland /etc/make.profile</i>
267 <comment>(Each type of userland has sub profiles as follows, with (userland) replaced with the chosen userland from above)</comment>
268 <comment>(970 profile for JS20)</comment>
269 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/970 /etc/make.profile</i>
270 <comment>(G5 profile)</comment>
271 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/970/pmac /etc/make.profile</i>
272 <comment>(POWER3 profile)</comment>
273 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/power3 /etc/make.profile</i>
274 <comment>(POWER4 profile)</comment>
275 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/power4 /etc/make.profile</i>
276 <comment>(POWER5 profile)</comment>
277 # <i>ln -snf /usr/portage/profiles/default-linux/ppc/ppc64/2006.1/(userland)/power5 /etc/make.profile</i>
278 <comment>(The multilib profile is not stable as of this release.)</comment>
279 </pre>
280
281 </body>
282 </subsection>
283 <subsection id="configure_USE">
284 <title>Configuring the USE variable</title>
285 <body>
286
287 <p>
288 <c>USE</c> is one of the most powerful variables Gentoo provides to its users.
289 Several programs can be compiled with or without optional support for certain
290 items. For instance, some programs can be compiled with gtk-support, or with
291 qt-support. Others can be compiled with or without SSL support. Some programs
292 can even be compiled with framebuffer support (svgalib) instead of X11 support
293 (X-server).
294 </p>
295
296 <p>
297 Most distributions compile their packages with support for as much as possible,
298 increasing the size of the programs and startup time, not to mention an enormous
299 amount of dependencies. With Gentoo you can define what options a package
300 should be compiled with. This is where <c>USE</c> comes into play.
301 </p>
302
303 <p>
304 In the <c>USE</c> variable you define keywords which are mapped onto
305 compile-options. For instance, <e>ssl</e> will compile ssl-support in the
306 programs that support it. <e>-X</e> will remove X-server support (note the
307 minus sign in front). <e>gnome gtk -kde -qt3 -qt4</e> will compile your
308 programs with gnome (and gtk) support, and not with kde (and qt) support,
309 making your system fully tweaked for GNOME.
310 </p>
311
312 <p>
313 The default <c>USE</c> settings are placed in the <path>make.defaults</path>
314 files of your profile. You will find <path>make.defaults</path> files in the
315 directory which <path>/etc/make.profile</path> points to and all parent
316 directories as well. The default <c>USE</c> setting is the sum of all <c>USE</c>
317 settings in all <path>make.defaults</path> files. What you place in
318 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> is calculated against these defaults settings. If
319 you add something to the <c>USE</c> setting, it is added to the default list. If
320 you remove something from the <c>USE</c> setting (by placing a minus sign in
321 front of it) it is removed from the default list (if it was in the default list
322 at all). <e>Never</e> alter anything inside the <path>/etc/make.profile</path>
323 directory; it gets overwritten when you update Portage!
324 </p>
325
326 <p>
327 A full description on <c>USE</c> can be found in the second part of the Gentoo
328 Handbook, <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>. A full description on
329 the available USE flags can be found on your system in
330 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</path>.
331 </p>
332
333 <pre caption="Viewing available USE flags">
334 # <i>less /usr/portage/profiles/use.desc</i>
335 <comment>(You can scroll using your arrow keys, exit by pressing 'q')</comment>
336 </pre>
337
338 <p>
339 As an example we show a <c>USE</c> setting for a KDE-based system with DVD, ALSA
340 and CD Recording support:
341 </p>
342
343 <pre caption="Opening /etc/make.conf">
344 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
345 </pre>
346
347 <pre caption="USE setting">
348 USE="-gtk -gnome qt3 qt4 kde dvd alsa cdr"
349 </pre>
350
351 </body>
352 </subsection>
353 <subsection>
354 <title>Optional: GLIBC Locales</title>
355 <body>
356
357 <p>
358 You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You can
359 specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
360 </p>
361
362 <pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
363 # <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
364 </pre>
365
366 <p>
367 The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
368 German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
369 </p>
370
371 <pre caption="Specify your locales">
372 en_US ISO-8859-1
373 en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
374 de_DE ISO-8859-1
375 de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
376 </pre>
377
378 <p>
379 The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generate all the locales you
380 have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
381 </p>
382
383 <note>
384 <c>locale-gen</c> is available in <c>glibc-2.3.6-r4</c> and newer. If you have
385 an older version of glibc, you should update it now.
386 </note>
387
388 <p>
389 Now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=7">Configuring the Kernel</uri>.
390 </p>
391
392 </body>
393 </subsection>
394 </section>
395 </sections>

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