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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.35 2004/08/29 10:56:31 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-working-portage.xml,v 1.84 2013/09/17 07:25:28 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<abstract>
12This chapter explains the "simple" steps a user definitely needs to know to
13maintain the software on his system.
14</abstract>
15
16<version>10</version>
17<date>2013-09-17</date>
18
10<section> 19<section>
11<title>Obtaining Package Information</title> 20<title>Welcome to Portage</title>
12<subsection>
13<title>The Lord of All Tools: emerge</title>
14<body> 21<body>
15 22
16<p>
17The main Portage tool that most users will use is <c>emerge</c>. We have already
18used it during the Gentoo installation and in the previous chapter, but we just
19briefly explained how to use it. This chapter will elaborate on <c>emerge</c>
20and teach you how to use <c>emerge</c> to fix all your software-related needs.
21</p> 23<p>
22 24Portage is probably Gentoo's most notable innovation in software management.
25With its high flexibility and enormous amount of features it is frequently seen
26as the best software management tool available for Linux.
23<p> 27</p>
24<c>emerge</c> is the command used to install, remove, query and maintain 28
25software packages. It is a front-end for <c>ebuild</c>; people interested in
26becoming Gentoo professionals will learn how to use <c>ebuild</c> later on. For
27now, we will focus on <c>emerge</c> as it has functionality that <c>ebuild</c>
28lacks (such as resolving dependencies, searching the Portage tree, etc.).
29</p> 29<p>
30 30Portage is completely written in <uri link="http://www.python.org">Python</uri>
31and <uri link="http://www.gnu.org/software/bash">Bash</uri> and therefore fully
32visible to the users as both are scripting languages.
31<p> 33</p>
32Since <c>emerge</c> is the most important tool for Gentoo users, it has an 34
33extensive manpage you can read by issuing <c>man emerge</c>. You can also view
34the in-command help by running <c>emerge --help</c>.
35</p> 35<p>
36Most users will work with Portage through the <c>emerge</c> tool. This chapter
37is not meant to duplicate the information available from the emerge man page.
38For a complete rundown of emerge's options, please consult the man page:
39</p>
36 40
37<pre caption="Retrieving help for emerge"> 41<pre caption="Reading the emerge man page">
38# <i>man emerge</i> 42$ <i>man emerge</i>
39# <i>emerge --help</i>
40</pre> 43</pre>
41 44
42</body>
43</subsection>
44<subsection>
45<title>The Portage Tree</title>
46<body> 45</body>
47
48<p>
49Before we continue describing <c>emerge</c>, let us first take a look at the
50Portage Tree. Go to <path>/usr/portage</path> and do a listing of the available
51directories. We use <c>ls --classify</c> to list the contents of a
52directory as it will show directories with a trailing "/".
53</p>
54
55<pre caption="Viewing the Portage Tree">
56# <i>cd /usr/portage; ls --classify</i>
57app-admin/ dev-ml/ gnome-libs/ net-print/
58app-arch/ dev-perl/ gnome-office/ net-wireless/
59app-benchmarks/ dev-php/ header.txt net-www/
60app-cdr/ dev-python/ incoming/ net-zope/
61app-crypt/ dev-ruby/ jython/ packages/
62app-dicts/ dev-tcltk/ kde-apps/ profiles/
63app-doc/ dev-tex/ kde-base/ releases/
64app-editors/ dev-util/ kde-i18n/ scripts/
65app-emacs/ distfiles/ kde-libs/ sec-policy/
66app-emulation/ eclass/ licenses/ skel.ChangeLog
67app-games/ experimental/ media-fonts/ skel.ebuild
68app-gnustep/ files/ media-gfx/ skel.metadata.xml
69app-i18n/ fresco-base/ media-libs/ snapshots/
70app-misc/ games-action/ media-plugins/ sys-apps/
71app-office/ games-arcade/ media-radio/ sys-build/
72app-pda/ games-board/ media-sound/ sys-cluster/
73app-portage/ games-emulation/ media-tv/ sys-devel/
74app-sci/ games-engines/ media-video/ sys-fs/
75app-shells/ games-fps/ metadata/ sys-kernel/
76app-text/ games-kids/ net-analyzer/ sys-kmods/
77app-vim/ games-misc/ net-apache/ sys-libs/
78app-xemacs/ games-mud/ net-dialup/ unix2tcp/
79berlin-base/ games-puzzle/ net-dns/ x11-base/
80dev-ada/ games-roguelike/ net-firewall/ x11-libs/
81dev-cpp/ games-rpg/ net-fs/ x11-misc/
82dev-db/ games-server/ net-ftp/ x11-plugins/
83dev-dotnet/ games-simulation/ net-im/ x11-terms/
84dev-embedded/ games-sports/ net-irc/ x11-themes/
85dev-games/ games-strategy/ net-libs/ x11-wm/
86dev-haskell/ games-util/ net-mail/ xfce-base/
87dev-java/ glep/ net-misc/ xfce-extra/
88dev-lang/ gnome-apps/ net-nds/
89dev-libs/ gnome-base/ net-news/
90dev-lisp/ gnome-extra/ net-p2p/
91</pre>
92
93<p>
94As you can see, the Portage tree has several subdirectories. Most of them are
95the <e>categories</e> in which the Gentoo packages reside. Take a look at, for
96instance, <path>app-office</path>:
97</p>
98
99<pre caption="Viewing a category">
100# <i>cd app-office; ls --classify</i>
101abiword/ gnotime/ kmymoney2/ ooodi/ plan/ timestamp.x
102dia/ gnucash/ koffice/ oooqs/ qhacc/
103dia2code/ gnumeric/ lxbank/ openoffice/ sc/
104facturalux/ ical/ lyx/ openoffice-bin/ scribus/
105gaby/ kbudget/ mdbtools/ openoffice-ximian/ siag/
106gnofin/ khacc/ mrproject/ phprojekt/ texmacs/
107</pre>
108
109<p>
110Inside a category you will find the packages belonging to that category, with a
111separate directory for each package. Let us take a look at the <c>openoffice</c>
112package:
113</p>
114
115<pre caption="Viewing a package">
116# <i>cd openoffice; ls --classify</i>
117ChangeLog files/ openoffice-1.0.3-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0-r2.ebuild
118Manifest metadata.xml openoffice-1.1.0-r1.ebuild openoffice-1.1.0.ebuild
119</pre>
120
121<p>
122In the example directory, four ebuilds are stored. An <e>ebuild</e> is a script
123which contains all the necessary information about a specific version of a
124package. The naming for the ebuilds is almost identical; they only differ in
125the version name.
126You are free to view the contents of such an ebuild: they are plain scripts. We
127will not discuss it right now as it isn't important to know if you plan on just
128using Gentoo.
129</p>
130
131<p>
132The other files are the <path>ChangeLog</path> (which contains a listing of all
133the changes done to the ebuilds), <path>Manifest</path> (which contains the
134checksums and filesizes of all the files in the directory) and
135<path>metadata.xml</path> (which contains more information about the package,
136such as the responsible development group -- called <e>herd</e> -- and a more
137extensive description).
138</p>
139
140<p>
141Inside the <path>files</path> directory, you will find extra files, needed by
142Portage: digests (names, sizes and checksums of the files needed by a single
143version of the package), patches, example configuration files, etc.
144</p>
145
146<pre caption="Viewing the extra files">
147# <i>cd files; ls --classify</i>
1481.0.3/ digest-openoffice-1.0.3-r1 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r1
1491.1.0/ digest-openoffice-1.1.0 digest-openoffice-1.1.0-r2
150# <i>cd 1.1.0; ls --classify</i>
151fixed-gcc.patch ooffice-wrapper-1.3
152newstlportfix.patch openoffice-1.1.0-linux-2.6-fix.patch
153no-mozab.patch openoffice-1.1.0-sparc64-fix.patch
154nptl.patch
155</pre>
156
157<p>
158If you go back to the root of the Portage tree (<path>/usr/portage</path>) you
159will notice that there are other, non-category directories, too. We will discuss
160those later in this chapter.
161</p>
162
163</body>
164</subsection>
165<subsection>
166<title>Search for a Package</title>
167<body>
168
169<p>
170If you are new to Linux or Gentoo, you might not know what tool you need for
171what job. To facilitate searching, <c>emerge</c> provides you with a way to
172search through the available packages on your system. There are two ways you can
173search through packages: by <e>name</e>, or by <e>name</e> and
174<e>description</e>.
175</p>
176
177<p>
178To search through the Portage tree by name, use <c>emerge search</c>. For
179instance, to find out more about <c>mozilla</c>:
180</p>
181
182<pre caption="Showing information about mozilla">
183# <i>emerge search mozilla</i>
184Searching...
185[ Results for search key : mozilla ]
186[ Applications found : 5 ]
187<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
188* net-www/mozilla
189 Latest version available: 1.5-r1
190 Latest version installed: 1.4-r3
191 Size of downloaded files: 29,153 kB
192 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org
193 Description: The Mozilla Web Browser
194
195* net-www/mozilla-firebird
196 Latest version available: 0.7
197 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
198 Size of downloaded files: 37,850 kB
199 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/firebird/
200 Description: The Mozilla Firebird Web Browser
201<comment>(...)</comment>
202</pre>
203
204<p>
205If you want to include a search through the descriptions too, use the
206<c>--searchdesc</c> argument:
207</p>
208
209<pre caption="Search through the descriptions too">
210# <i>emerge --searchdesc mozilla</i>
211Searching...
212[ Results for search key : mozilla ]
213[ Applications found : 10 ]
214<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
215* dev-libs/nss-3.8
216 Latest version available: 3.8
217 Latest version installed: 3.8
218 Size of downloaded files: 2,782 kB
219 Homepage: http://www.mozilla.org/projects/security/pki/nss/
220 Description: Mozilla's Netscape Security Services Library that implements PKI support
221</pre>
222
223<p>
224As you can see, the output of <c>emerge</c> informs you about the category and
225name of the package, the available version, the currently installed version,
226the size of the downloaded files, the homepage and the small description.
227</p>
228
229<p>
230You see something new? Yes, <e>downloaded files</e>. When you tell Portage to
231install a package, it of course needs to have the necessary sources (or
232precompiled packages) available. It therefore checks the contents of
233<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> to see if the necessary files are already
234available. If not, it downloads the necessary files and places them in that
235directory.
236</p>
237
238</body>
239</subsection>
240<subsection>
241<title>Viewing the ChangeLog</title>
242<body>
243
244<p>
245While browsing through the Portage Tree, you saw that there was a ChangeLog for
246each package. You can view the ChangeLog entries between the available version
247and the installed version with <c>emerge</c> too. Use the
248<c>--pretend --changelog</c> (<c>-pl</c> in short) options. As an example we
249will view the ChangeLog entries for <c>gnumeric</c>:
250</p>
251
252<pre caption="Viewing the ChangeLog entries for gnumeric">
253# <i>emerge --pretend --changelog gnumeric</i>
254<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
255*gnumeric-1.2.2
256
257 27 Nov 2003; foser &lt;foser@gentoo.org&gt; gnumeric-1.2.2.ebuild :
258 New release, requested in #34492
259 updated deps
260
261 12 Nov 2003; Jason Wever &lt;weeve@gentoo.org&gt; gnumeric-1.2.0.ebuild:
262 Marked stable on sparc, fixes bug #32405.
263
264 14 Oct 2003; Jason Wever &lt;weeve@gentoo.org&gt; gnumeric-1.0.8.ebuild:
265 Added ~sparc keyword. Fixes bug #31150.
266</pre>
267
268</body>
269</subsection>
270</section> 46</section>
271<section> 47<section>
272<title>Updating Portage</title> 48<title>The Portage Tree</title>
273<subsection>
274<title>Introduction</title>
275<body>
276
277<p>
278Searching through Portage is nice, but if you don't update your Portage Tree
279regularly, you will be stuck with the packages and versions available on your
280system. This means that your system will get outdated pretty soon and that
281you will be missing bugfixes and remedies for possible security problems.
282</p>
283
284<p>
285There are several ways to update your Portage Tree. The most popular method is
286by using one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">rsync mirrors</uri>.
287Another one is by using a Portage snapshot (in case a firewall or unavailability
288of a network prohibits the use of the rsync server).
289</p>
290
291</body>
292</subsection> 49<subsection>
50<title>Ebuilds</title>
51<body>
52
53<p>
54When we talk about packages, we often mean software titles that are available to
55the Gentoo users through the Portage tree. The Portage tree is a collection of
56<e>ebuilds</e>, files that contain all information Portage needs to maintain
57software (install, search, query, ...). These ebuilds reside in
58<path>/usr/portage</path> by default.
59</p>
60
61<p>
62Whenever you ask Portage to perform some action regarding software titles, it
63will use the ebuilds on your system as a base. It is therefore important that
64you regularly update the ebuilds on your system so Portage knows about new
65software, security updates, etc.
66</p>
67
68</body>
293<subsection> 69</subsection>
294<title>Selecting a Mirror for rsync</title>
295<body>
296
297<p>
298It is adviseable to first select a fast <uri
299link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror</uri> close to you. You can do this manually
300(by setting the <c>SYNC</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>) or use
301<c>mirrorselect</c> to do this for you automatically. As the <c>SYNC</c>
302variable will be discussed later on, we will focus on using <c>mirrorselect</c>.
303First install <c>mirrorselect</c> by emerging it:
304</p>
305
306<pre caption="Installing mirrorselect">
307# <i>emerge --usepkg mirrorselect</i>
308</pre>
309
310<p>
311Now run <c>mirrorselect</c> to automatically select mirrors for you (it will
312also setup Portage to use a mirror for the source code):
313</p>
314
315<pre caption="Running mirrorselect">
316# <i>mirrorselect -a -s3</i>
317</pre>
318
319</body>
320</subsection> 70<subsection>
321<subsection>
322<title>Updating Portage</title> 71<title>Updating the Portage Tree</title>
323<body> 72<body>
324 73
325<p>
326To update Portage using rsync, simply run <c>emerge sync</c>:
327</p> 74<p>
75The Portage tree is usually updated with <uri
76link="http://rsync.samba.org/">rsync</uri>, a fast incremental file transfer
77utility. Updating is fairly simple as the <c>emerge</c> command provides a
78front-end for rsync:
79</p>
328 80
329<pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge sync"> 81<pre caption="Updating the Portage tree">
330# <i>emerge sync</i> 82# <i>emerge --sync</i>
331</pre> 83</pre>
332 84
333<p>
334If this fails (due to network problems, or a firewall), you can try using
335<c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will download a Portage Tree snapshot using
336<c>wget</c>. This also means that you can use proxies if you want. We discussed
337how to setup your system to use proxies during the Gentoo installation.
338</p> 85<p>
86If you are unable to rsync due to firewall restrictions you can still update
87your Portage tree by using our daily generated Portage tree snapshots. The
88<c>emerge-webrsync</c> tool automatically fetches and installs the latest
89snapshot on your system:
90</p>
339 91
340<pre caption="Updating Portage using emerge-webrsync"> 92<pre caption="Running emerge-webrsync">
341# <i>emerge-webrsync</i> 93# <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
342</pre> 94</pre>
95
96<p>
97An additional advantage of using <c>emerge-webrsync</c> is that it allows the
98administrator to only pull in portage tree snapshots that are signed by the
99Gentoo release engineering GPG key. More information on this can be found
100in the <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=3">Portage Features</uri> section on
101<uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=3#webrsync-gpg">Fetching Validated Portage Tree
102Snapshots</uri>.
103</p>
343 104
344</body> 105</body>
345</subsection> 106</subsection>
346</section> 107</section>
347<section> 108<section>
348<title>Maintaining Software</title> 109<title>Maintaining Software</title>
349<subsection> 110<subsection>
350<title>Building or Prebuilt?</title> 111<title>Searching for Software</title>
351<body>
352
353<p>
354Gentoo provides ebuilds, the Gentoo packages if you like. But when you want to
355install such an ebuild, you can choose between <e>building</e> the package and
356using a <e>prebuilt</e> package. But what are the advantages/disadvantages of
357both approaches, and can they be used next to each other?
358</p>
359
360<p>
361As you probably have guessed, building packages takes a lot of time (especially
362if you have little resources or want to build big packages, such as <uri
363link="http://www.kde.org">KDE</uri>, <uri
364link="http://www.openoffice.org">OpenOffice.org</uri>, etc.). By building the
365package, you can use the <c>USE</c> setting to tweak the package to your system.
366Of course, you can also define high optimization options (in the <c>CFLAGS</c>
367and <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables) to compile the package with.
368</p>
369
370<p>
371Using prebuilt packages improves the installation time (as no more compilation
372is needed), but you will lose the advantages of the <c>USE</c> setting and the
373<c>CFLAGS</c> &amp; <c>CXXFLAGS</c> variables.
374</p>
375
376<p>
377As previously stated, prebuilt packages are stored in the
378<path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> directory, while the source code of the
379packages is placed in <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. If you have finished
380installing a package you can remove the package or source code from the
381respective directory. However, you might want to keep the package/source code of
382the latest version, just in case you want to reinstall the package (so you don't
383have to redownload it).
384</p>
385
386</body> 112<body>
387</subsection> 113
114<p>
115To search through the Portage tree after software titles, you can use
116<c>emerge</c> built-in search capabilities. By default, <c>emerge --search</c>
117returns the names of packages whose title matches (either fully or partially)
118the given search term.
119</p>
120
121<p>
122For instance, to search for all packages who have "pdf" in their name:
123</p>
124
125<pre caption="Searching for pdf-named packages">
126$ <i>emerge --search pdf</i>
127</pre>
128
129<p>
130If you want to search through the descriptions as well you can use the
131<c>--searchdesc</c> (or <c>-S</c>) switch:
132</p>
133
134<pre caption="Searching for pdf-related packages">
135$ <i>emerge --searchdesc pdf</i>
136</pre>
137
138<p>
139When you take a look at the output, you'll notice that it gives you a lot of
140information. The fields are clearly labelled so we won't go further into their
141meanings:
142</p>
143
144<pre caption="Example 'emerge --search' output">
145* net-print/cups-pdf
146 Latest version available: 1.5.2
147 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
148 Size of downloaded files: 15 kB
149 Homepage: http://cip.physik.uni-wuerzburg.de/~vrbehr/cups-pdf/
150 Description: Provides a virtual printer for CUPS to produce PDF files.
151 License: GPL-2
152</pre>
153
154</body>
388<subsection> 155</subsection>
156<subsection>
389<title>Installing Software from Sources</title> 157<title>Installing Software</title>
390<body> 158<body>
391 159
392<p> 160<p>
393Okay, enough talking, let's cut to the chase. To install a package, you will use 161Once you've found a software title to your liking, you can easily install it
394the <c>emerge</c> command. If you don't want to use any prebuilt packages, you 162with <c>emerge</c>: just add the package name. For instance, to install
395can just use <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c> or <c>emerge
396&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package-name&gt;</c>. As an example we'll install
397<c>gnumeric</c>: 163<c>gnumeric</c>:
398</p> 164</p>
399 165
400<pre caption="Building gnumeric"> 166<pre caption="Installing gnumeric">
401# <i>emerge gnumeric</i> 167# <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
402</pre> 168</pre>
403 169
404<p> 170<p>
405This will download the source code for you and unpacks, compiles and installs 171Since many applications depend on each other, any attempt to install a certain
406the package on your system. It will also do the same for all the dependencies. 172software package might result in the installation of several dependencies as
407If you want to see what dependencies will be installed with it, use the 173well. Don't worry, Portage handles dependencies well. If you want to find out
408<c>--pretend</c> option (<c>-p</c> in short): 174what Portage <e>would</e> install when you ask it to install a certain package,
175add the <c>--pretend</c> switch. For instance:
409</p> 176</p>
410 177
411<pre caption="Pretending to build gnumeric"> 178<pre caption="Pretend to install gnumeric">
412# <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i> 179# <i>emerge --pretend gnumeric</i>
413</pre> 180</pre>
414 181
415<p> 182<p>
416If you want to download the source code of the package and its dependencies, 183When you ask Portage to install a package, it will download the necessary source
417but don't want to build the package, use the <c>--fetchonly</c> option 184code from the internet (if necessary) and store it by default in
418(<c>-f</c> in short): 185<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. After this it will unpack, compile and
186install the package. If you want Portage to only download the sources without
187installing them, add the <c>--fetchonly</c> option to the <c>emerge</c> command:
419</p> 188</p>
420 189
421<pre caption="Fetching sources for gnumeric"> 190<pre caption="Download the sourcecode for gnumeric">
422# <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i> 191# <i>emerge --fetchonly gnumeric</i>
423</pre> 192</pre>
424 193
425<p>
426If you want to see where <c>emerge</c> downloads the sources from, combine the
427<c>--fetchonly</c> and <c>--pretend</c> options:
428</p>
429
430<pre caption="Showing URLs of the sources for gnumeric">
431# <i>emerge --fetchonly --pretend gnumeric</i>
432</pre>
433
434<p>
435You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
436For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
437any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
438</p>
439
440<pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
441# <i>emerge "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
442</pre>
443
444<p>
445Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
446version).
447</p>
448
449</body> 194</body>
450</subsection>
451<subsection> 195</subsection>
452<title>Installing Prebuilt Packages</title>
453<body>
454
455<p>
456When you want to install a prebuilt package, you should use the <c>--usepkg</c>
457option (<c>-k</c> in short). This will use the binary package available in
458<path>/usr/portage/packages/All</path> <e>if</e> the package and the version of
459the application you want to install match.
460</p>
461
462<pre caption="Installing a prebuilt package for gnumeric">
463# <i>emerge --usepkg gnumeric</i>
464</pre>
465
466<p>
467If you want to use the binary package, even if the versions don't match, use
468<c>--usepkgonly</c> (<c>-K</c> in short).
469</p>
470
471<pre caption="Installing the prebuilt package for gnumeric">
472# <i>emerge --usepkgonly gnumeric</i>
473</pre>
474
475<p>
476If you don't have the prebuilt package on your system yet, you can have
477<c>emerge</c> download it from a mirror, defined in the <c>PORTAGE_BINHOST</c>
478variable declared in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.
479</p>
480
481<note>
482Gentoo does not have any server or mirror containing such prebuilt packages.
483Portage has been extended with this feature to fullfil the community request.
484</note>
485
486<p>
487To download the binary package in case this package doesn't exist on
488your system already, use <c>--getbinpkg</c> (<c>-g</c> in short):
489</p>
490
491<pre caption="Downloading and installing a prebuilt package for gnumeric">
492# <i>emerge --getbinpkg gnumeric</i>
493</pre>
494
495<p>
496This will download the package and the package-related information for you and
497install it on your system, together with the dependencies. If you want to see
498what dependencies will be installed with it, use the <c>--pretend</c> option
499(<c>-p</c> in short):
500</p>
501
502<pre caption="Pretending to download the prebuilt packages for gnumeric">
503# <i>emerge --getbinpkg --pretend gnumeric</i>
504</pre>
505
506<p>
507You can also opt to download the prebuilt package (and the package-related
508information) <e>without</e> checking the information on your local system and
509<e>without</e> using the prebuilt package already on your system (if
510applicable), use the <c>--getbinpkgonly</c> option (<c>-G</c> in short):
511</p>
512
513<pre caption="Installing a prebuilt package without using local information">
514# <i>emerge --getbinpkgonly gnumeric</i>
515</pre>
516
517<p>
518You can also opt to install a specific version of a package.
519For instance, if you want to install a gnumeric version older than 1.2 -- for
520any reason whatsoever :) you would type:
521</p>
522
523<pre caption="Installing a specific gnumeric version">
524# <i>emerge --usepkg "&lt;gnumeric-1.2"</i>
525</pre>
526
527<p>
528Other possibilities are of course "&gt;" (later version) and "=" (the exact
529version).
530</p>
531
532
533</body>
534</subsection> 196<subsection>
197<title>Finding Installed Package Documentation</title>
198<body>
199
200<p>
201Many packages come with their own documentation. Sometimes, the <c>doc</c> USE
202flag determines whether the package documentation should be installed or not.
203You can check the existence of a <c>doc</c> USE flag with the <c>emerge -vp
204&lt;package name&gt;</c> command.
205</p>
206
207<pre caption="Checking the existence of a doc USE flag">
208<comment>(alsa-lib is just an example, of course.)</comment>
209# <i>emerge -vp alsa-lib</i>
210[ebuild N ] media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1 -debug +doc 698 kB
211</pre>
212
213<p>
214The best way of enabling the <c>doc</c> USE flag is doing it on a per-package
215basis via <path>/etc/portage/package.use</path>, so that you get documentation
216only for packages that you are interested in. Enabling this flag globally is
217known to cause problems with circular dependencies. For more information, please
218read the <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE Flags</uri> chapter.
219</p>
220
221<p>
222Once the package installed, its documentation is generally found in a
223subdirectory named after the package under the <path>/usr/share/doc</path>
224directory. You can also list all installed files with the <c>equery</c> tool
225which is part of the <c>app-portage/gentoolkit</c> <uri
226link="https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Gentoolkit">package</uri>.
227</p>
228
229<pre caption="Locating package documentation">
230# <i>ls -l /usr/share/doc/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1</i>
231total 28
232-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 669 May 17 21:54 ChangeLog.gz
233-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 9373 May 17 21:54 COPYING.gz
234drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 8560 May 17 21:54 html
235-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 196 May 17 21:54 TODO.gz
236
237<comment>(Alternatively, use equery to locate interesting files:)</comment>
238# <i>equery files alsa-lib | less</i>
239media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1
240* Contents of media-libs/alsa-lib-1.0.14_rc1:
241/usr
242/usr/bin
243/usr/bin/alsalisp
244<comment>(Output truncated)</comment>
245</pre>
246
247</body>
535<subsection> 248</subsection>
536<title>Working with Dependencies</title> 249<subsection>
250<title>Removing Software</title>
537<body> 251<body>
538 252
539<p>
540Portage has an extensive support for dependency handling. Although you usually
541don't need to even think about this (as dependencies are automatically handled
542by Portage) some users might want to know how you can work with <c>emerge</c>
543and dependencies.
544</p> 253<p>
545 254When you want to remove a software package from your system, use <c>emerge
255--unmerge</c>. This will tell Portage to remove all files installed by that
256package from your system <e>except</e> the configuration files of that
257application if you have altered those after the installation. Leaving the
258configuration files allows you to continue working with the package if you ever
259decide to install it again.
546<p> 260</p>
547For instance, if you want Portage to pretend that none of the dependencies of a 261
548package are installed, you can use <c>--emptytree</c> (<c>-e</c> in short). This
549is useful with <c>--pretend</c> to display a complete tree of dependencies for
550any particular package. Without <c>--pretend</c>, <c>emerge</c> will (re)compile
551all listed packages.
552</p> 262<p>
553 263However, a <brite>big warning</brite> applies: Portage will <e>not</e> check if
554<pre caption="Show all dependencies of gnumeric"> 264the package you want to remove is required by another package. It will however
555# <i>emerge --emptytree --pretend gnumeric</i> 265warn you when you want to remove an important package that breaks your system
556</pre> 266if you unmerge it.
557
558<p> 267</p>
559Another argument is <c>--nodeps</c>, which will ask Portage to try install the
560given package without taking care of the dependencies. It is trivial that this
561can lead to failures.
562</p>
563 268
564<pre caption="Installing gnumeric without taking care of the dependencies"> 269<pre caption="Removing gnumeric from the system">
565# <i>emerge --nodeps gnumeric</i> 270# <i>emerge --unmerge gnumeric</i>
566</pre> 271</pre>
567 272
568<p>
569The opposite of <c>--nodeps</c> is <c>--onlydeps</c>, which will have Portage
570install all dependencies of a given package, but not the package itself:
571</p> 273<p>
572 274When you remove a package from your system, the dependencies of that package
573<pre caption="Installing the dependencies of gnumeric"> 275that were installed automatically when you installed the software are left. To
574# <i>emerge --onlydeps gnumeric</i> 276have Portage locate all dependencies that can now be removed, use
575</pre> 277<c>emerge</c>'s <c>--depclean</c> functionality. We will talk about this later
576 278on.
577<p> 279</p>
578When you uninstall software Portage will not automatically unmerge the
579dependencies that aren't needed anymore. If you want to "clean" your system from
580those orphaned dependencies, you can use <c>emerge depclean</c>. This will
581search for all installed software that you haven't installed explicitly and that
582isn't a dependency of software that you have installed explicitly.
583</p>
584
585<warn>
586Using depclean can seriously impair your system. Use with caution and
587double-check the list of dependencies that Portage wants to remove before you go
588ahead!
589</warn>
590
591<pre caption="Listing and removing the orphaned dependencies">
592# <i>emerge -p depclean</i>
593<comment>(After seriously verifying the list, remove the orphaned dependencies)</comment>
594# <i>emerge depclean</i>
595</pre>
596 280
597</body> 281</body>
598</subsection> 282</subsection>
599<subsection> 283<subsection>
600<title>Updating your System</title> 284<title>Updating your System</title>
601<body> 285<body>
602 286
603<p> 287<p>
604Portage knows two special tags to denote a set of software packages: 288To keep your system in perfect shape (and not to mention install the latest
605<e>system</e> and <e>world</e>. You have already seen the former while 289security updates) you need to update your system regularly. Since Portage only
606installing Gentoo if you didn't use a <e>stage3</e> installation. To refresh 290checks the ebuilds in your Portage tree you first have to update your Portage
607things: <e>system</e> is the collection of <e>core</e> packages, necessary to 291tree. When your Portage tree is updated, you can update your system with
608have a working Gentoo system. 292<c>emerge --update world</c>. In the next example, we'll also use the
609</p> 293<c>--ask</c> switch which will tell Portage to display the list of packages it
610 294wants to upgrade and ask you if you want to continue:
611<p> 295</p>
612The <e>world</e> tag consists of all software you have installed yourself on 296
613your system plus the <e>system</e> information. In other words, every time you 297<pre caption="Updating your system">
614emerge a package using <c>emerge &lt;package-name&gt;</c>, the 298# <i>emerge --update --ask world</i>
615<c>&lt;package-name&gt;</c> is registered in the <e>world</e> file 299</pre>
616(<path>/var/cache/edb/world</path>). Dependencies are <e>not</e> part of the 300
617<e>world</e> file, but we will get to that later.
618</p> 301<p>
619 302Portage will then search for newer version of the applications you have
303installed. However, it will only verify the versions for the applications you
304have <e>explicitly</e> installed (the applications listed in
305<path>/var/lib/portage/world</path>) - it does not thoroughly check their
306dependencies. If you want to update the dependencies of those packages as well,
307add the <c>--deep</c> argument:
620<p> 308</p>
621If you want to update the system packages, use the <c>--update</c> option 309
622(<c>-u</c> in short): 310<pre caption="Updating your system with dependencies">
311# <i>emerge --update --deep world</i>
312</pre>
313
623</p> 314<p>
624 315Still, this doesn't mean <e>all packages</e>: some packages on your system are
625<pre caption="Updating the system packages"> 316needed during the compile and build process of packages, but once that package
626# <i>emerge --update system</i> 317is installed, these dependencies are no longer required. Portage calls those
627</pre> 318<e>build dependencies</e>. To include those in an update cycle, add
628 319<c>--with-bdeps=y</c>:
629<p>
630An identical approach can be used for the world packages:
631</p> 320</p>
632 321
633<pre caption="Updating your entire system"> 322<pre caption="Updating your entire system">
634# <i>emerge --update world</i> 323# <i>emerge --update --deep --with-bdeps=y world</i>
635</pre> 324</pre>
636 325
637<p>
638Again, if you want to see what <c>emerge</c> wants to update, use the
639<c>--pretend</c> option together with the <c>--update</c> option:
640</p> 326<p>
641 327Since security updates also happen in packages you have not explicitly installed
642<pre caption="Pretending to update your entire system"> 328on your system (but that are pulled in as dependencies of other programs), it
643# <i>emerge --pretend --update world</i> 329is recommended to run this command once in a while.
644<comment>(Some output removed to improve readability)</comment>
645[ebuild U ] net-misc/wget-1.9-r1 [1.9]
646[ebuild UD] media-video/dvdauthor-0.5.0 [0.5.3]
647[ebuild U ] net-analyzer/ethereal-0.9.16 [0.9.14]
648</pre>
649
650<p> 330</p>
651Right next to the word "ebuild" you will notice a letter (or combination of 331
652letters) which gives you more information about the package: 332<p>
333If you have altered any of your <uri link="?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>
334lately you might want to add <c>--newuse</c> as well. Portage will then verify
335if the change requires the installation of new packages or recompilation of
336existing ones:
337</p>
338
339<pre caption="Performing a full update">
340# <i>emerge --update --deep --with-bdeps=y --newuse world</i>
341</pre>
342
343</body>
344</subsection>
345<subsection>
346<title>Metapackages</title>
347<body>
348
349<p>
350Some packages in the Portage tree don't have any real content but are used to
351install a collection of packages. For instance, the <c>kde-meta</c> package will
352install a complete KDE environment on your system by pulling in various
353KDE-related packages as dependencies.
354</p>
355
356<p>
357If you ever want to remove such a package from your system, running <c>emerge
358--unmerge</c> on the package won't have much effect as the dependencies remain
359on the system.
360</p>
361
362<p>
363Portage has the functionality to remove orphaned dependencies as well, but since
364the availability of software is dynamically dependent you first need to update
365your entire system fully, including the new changes you applied when changing
366USE flags. After this you can run <c>emerge --depclean</c> to remove the
367orphaned dependencies. When this is done, you need to rebuild the applications
368that were dynamically linked to the now-removed software titles but don't
369require them anymore.
370</p>
371
372<p>
373All this is handled with the following three commands:
374</p>
375
376<pre caption="Removing orphaned dependencies">
377# <i>emerge --update --deep --newuse world</i>
378# <i>emerge --depclean</i>
379# <i>revdep-rebuild</i>
380</pre>
381
382<p>
383<c>revdep-rebuild</c> is provided by the <c>gentoolkit</c> package; don't forget
384to emerge it first:
385</p>
386
387<pre caption="Installing the gentoolkit package">
388# <i>emerge gentoolkit</i>
389</pre>
390
391</body>
392</subsection>
393</section>
394<section id="license">
395<title>Licenses</title>
396<subsection>
397<body>
398
399<p>
400Beginning with Portage version 2.1.7, you can accept or reject software
401installation based on its license. All packages in the tree contain a
402<c>LICENSE</c> entry in their ebuilds. Running <c>emerge --search
403packagename</c> will tell you the package's license.
404</p>
405
406<p>
407By default, Portage permits all licenses, except End User License Agreements
408(EULAs) that require reading and signing an acceptance agreement.
409</p>
410
411<p>
412The variable that controls permitted licenses is <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c>, which
413can be set in <path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path>. In the next example, this
414default value is shown:
415</p>
416
417<pre caption="Setting ACCEPT_LICENSE in /etc/portage/make.conf">
418ACCEPT_LICENSE="* -@EULA"
419</pre>
420
421<p>
422With this configuration, packages that require interaction during installation
423to approve their EULA <e>will not</e> be installable. Packages without an EULA
424<e>will</e> be installable.
425</p>
426
427<p>
428You can set <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c> globally in <path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path>
429, or you can specify it on a per-package basis in
430<path>/etc/portage/package.license</path>.
431</p>
432
433<p>
434For example, if you want to allow the <c>truecrypt-2.7</c> license for
435<c>app-crypt/truecrypt</c>, add the following to
436<path>/etc/portage/package.license</path>:
437</p>
438
439<pre caption="Specifying a truecrypt license in package.license">
440app-crypt/truecrypt truecrypt-2.7
441</pre>
442
443<p>
444This permits installation of truecrypt versions that have the
445<c>truecrypt-2.7</c> license, but not versions with the <c>truecrypt-2.8</c>
446license.
447</p>
448
449<impo>
450Licenses are stored in <path>/usr/portage/licenses</path>, and license groups
451are kept in <path>/usr/portage/profiles/license_groups</path>. The first entry
452of each line in CAPITAL letters is the name of the license group, and every
453entry after that is an individual license.
454</impo>
455
456<p>
457License groups defined in <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c> are prefixed with an <b>@</b>
458sign. A commonly requested setting is to only allow the installation of free
459software and documentation. To accomplish this, we can remove all currently
460accepted licenses (using <c>-*</c>) and then only allow the licenses in the
461<c>FREE</c> group as follows:
462</p>
463
464<pre caption="Only allowing free software and documentation licenses in /etc/portage/make.conf">
465ACCEPT_LICENSE="-* @FREE"
466</pre>
467
468<p>
469In this case, "free" is mostly defined by the <uri
470link="http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html">FSF</uri> and <uri
471link="http://www.opensource.org/docs/osd">OSI</uri>. Any package whose license
472does not meet these requirements will not be installable on your system.
473</p>
474
475</body>
476</subsection>
477</section>
478<section>
479<title>When Portage is Complaining...</title>
480<subsection>
481<title>About SLOTs, Virtuals, Branches, Architectures and Profiles</title>
482<body>
483
484<p>
485As we stated before, Portage is extremely powerful and supports many features
486that other software management tools lack. To understand this, we explain a few
487aspects of Portage without going into too much detail.
488</p>
489
490<p>
491With Portage different versions of a single package can coexist on a system.
492While other distributions tend to name their package to those versions (like
493<c>freetype</c> and <c>freetype2</c>) Portage uses a technology called
494<e>SLOT</e>s. An ebuild declares a certain SLOT for its version. Ebuilds with
495different SLOTs can coexist on the same system. For instance, the
496<c>freetype</c> package has ebuilds with <c>SLOT="1"</c> and <c>SLOT="2"</c>.
497</p>
498
499<p>
500There are also packages that provide the same functionality but are implemented
501differently. For instance, <c>metalogd</c>, <c>sysklogd</c> and <c>syslog-ng</c>
502are all system loggers. Applications that rely on the availability of "a system
503logger" cannot depend on, for instance, <c>metalogd</c>, as the other system
504loggers are as good a choice as any. Portage allows for <e>virtuals</e>: each
505system logger is listed as an "exclusive" dependency of the logging service in the
506<c>logger</c> virtual package of the <c>virtual</c> category, so that
507applications can depend on the <c>virtual/logger</c> package. When installed,
508the package will pull in the first logging package mentioned in the package,
509unless a logging package was already installed (in which case the virtual is
510satisfied).
511</p>
512
513<p>
514Software in the Portage tree can reside in different branches. By default your
515system only accepts packages that Gentoo deems stable. Most new software titles,
516when committed, are added to the testing branch, meaning more testing needs to
517be done before it is marked as stable. Although you will see the ebuilds for
518those software in the Portage tree, Portage will not update them before they are
519placed in the stable branch.
520</p>
521
522<p>
523Some software is only available for a few architectures. Or the software doesn't
524work on the other architectures, or it needs more testing, or the developer that
525committed the software to the Portage tree is unable to verify if the package
526works on different architectures.
527</p>
528
529<p>
530Each Gentoo installation adheres to a certain <c>profile</c> which contains,
531amongst other information, the list of packages that are required for a system
532to function normally.
533</p>
534
535</body>
536</subsection>
537<subsection id="blocked">
538<title>Blocked Packages</title>
539<body>
540
541<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (with --pretend)">
542[blocks B ] mail-mta/ssmtp (is blocking mail-mta/postfix-2.2.2-r1)
543</pre>
544
545<pre caption="Portage warning about blocked packages (without --pretend)">
546!!! Error: the mail-mta/postfix package conflicts with another package.
547!!! both can't be installed on the same system together.
548!!! Please use 'emerge --pretend' to determine blockers.
549</pre>
550
551<p>
552Ebuilds contain specific fields that inform Portage about its dependencies.
553There are two possible dependencies: build dependencies, declared in
554<c>DEPEND</c> and run-time dependencies, declared in <c>RDEPEND</c>. When one of
555these dependencies explicitly marks a package or virtual as being <e>not</e>
556compatible, it triggers a blockage.
557</p>
558
559<p>
560While recent versions of Portage are smart enough to work around minor blockages
561without user intervention, occasionally you will need to fix it yourself, as
562explained below.
563</p>
564
565<p>
566To fix a blockage, you can choose to not install the package or unmerge the
567conflicting package first. In the given example, you can opt not to install
568<c>postfix</c> or to remove <c>ssmtp</c> first.
569</p>
570
571<p>
572You may also see blocking packages with specific atoms, such as
573<b>&lt;</b>media-video/mplayer-1.0_rc1-r2. In this case, updating to a more
574recent version of the blocking package would remove the block.
575</p>
576
577<p>
578It is also possible that two packages that are yet to be installed are blocking
579each other. In this rare case, you should find out why you need to install both.
580In most cases you can do with one of the packages alone. If not, please file a
581bug on <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo's bugtracking system</uri>.
582</p>
583
584</body>
585</subsection>
586<subsection id="masked">
587<title>Masked Packages</title>
588<body>
589
590<pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages">
591!!! all ebuilds that could satisfy "bootsplash" have been masked.
592</pre>
593
594<pre caption="Portage warning about masked packages - reason">
595!!! possible candidates are:
596
597- gnome-base/gnome-2.8.0_pre1 (masked by: <i>~x86 keyword</i>)
598- lm-sensors/lm-sensors-2.8.7 (masked by: <i>-sparc keyword</i>)
599- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.4.20040808 (masked by: <i>-* keyword</i>)
600- dev-util/cvsd-1.0.2 (masked by: <i>missing keyword</i>)
601- games-fps/unreal-tournament-451 (masked by: <i>package.mask</i>)
602- sys-libs/glibc-2.3.2-r11 (masked by: <i>profile</i>)
603- net-im/skype-2.1.0.81 (masked by: skype-eula <i>license</i>(s))
604</pre>
605
606<p>
607When you want to install a package that isn't available for your system, you
608will receive this masking error. You should try installing a different
609application that is available for your system or wait until the package is put
610available. There is always a reason why a package is masked:
653</p> 611</p>
654 612
655<ul> 613<ul>
656 <li> 614 <li>
657 <e>B</e> (blocks) The package listed to the left is blocking the emerge of 615 <b>~arch keyword</b> means that the application is not tested sufficiently
658 the package listed to the right 616 to be put in the stable branch. Wait a few days or weeks and try again.
659 </li> 617 </li>
660 <li> 618 <li>
661 <e>N</e> (new) The package is new to your system and will be emerged for the 619 <b>-arch keyword</b> or <b>-* keyword</b> means that the application does
662 first time 620 not work on your architecture. If you believe the package does work file
621 a bug at our <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
663 </li> 622 </li>
664 <li> 623 <li>
665 <e>R</e> (replace) The package isn't new, but will be reemerged 624 <b>missing keyword</b> means that the application has not been tested on
625 your architecture yet. Ask the architecture porting team to test the package
626 or test it for them and report your findings on our <uri
627 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> website.
666 </li> 628 </li>
667 <li> 629 <li>
668 <e>F</e> (fetch) The package requires that you download the source code 630 <b>package.mask</b> means that the package has been found corrupt, unstable
669 manually (for instance due to licencing issues) 631 or worse and has been deliberately marked as do-not-use.
670 </li> 632 </li>
671 <li> 633 <li>
672 <e>U</e> (update) The package already exists on your system but will be 634 <b>profile</b> means that the package has been found not suitable for your
673 upgraded 635 profile. The application might break your system if you installed it or is
636 just not compatible with the profile you use.
674 </li> 637 </li>
675 <li> 638 <li>
676 <e>UD</e> (downgrade) The package already exists on your system but will be 639 <b>license</b> means that the package's license is not compatible with your
677 downgraded 640 <c>ACCEPT_LICENSE</c> setting. You must explicitly permit its license or
641 license group by setting it in <path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path> or in
642 <path>/etc/portage/package.license</path>. Refer to <uri
643 link="#license">Licenses</uri> to learn how licenses work.
678 </li> 644 </li>
679</ul> 645</ul>
680 646
681<p>
682We have mentioned that the <e>world</e> file doesn't contain dependencies. When
683you run <c>emerge --update world</c> only the packages mentioned in the
684<e>world</e> file and it's immediate dependencies are checked and, if necessary,
685upgraded. If you want <c>emerge</c> to check <e>all</e> the dependencies
686(including the dependencies of the dependencies), add the <c>--deep</c> flag:
687</p>
688
689<pre caption="Upgrading your entire system, including all dependencies">
690# <i>emerge --update --deep world</i>
691</pre>
692
693<p>
694Of course, we are talking here about <e>system</e> and <e>world</e>, but you can
695perform the same actions for individual software packages.
696</p>
697
698</body> 647</body>
699</subsection>
700<subsection> 648</subsection>
701<title>Removing Software</title> 649<subsection id="USEdependency">
702<body> 650<title>Necessary USE Flag Changes</title>
703
704<p>
705If you want to remove software from your system, you can use the <c>unmerge</c>
706option (<c>-C</c> - capital C - in short):
707</p>
708
709<pre caption="Uninstalling software">
710# <i>emerge unmerge gnumeric</i>
711</pre>
712
713<p>
714If you want to test a removal (but not perform it), you can use <c>--pretend</c>
715again:
716</p>
717
718<pre caption="Pretending to uninstall software">
719# <i>emerge --pretend unmerge gnumeric</i>
720</pre>
721
722<warn>
723Portage doesn't verify if a package is a dependency for another
724installed package. It also doesn't warn you if the package is part of
725<e>system</e>, i.e. a core application necessary for the correct functioning of
726your system!
727</warn>
728
729<p>
730Once the unmerge begins you will see a long list of filenames belonging to the
731package. Some of these filenames will have a flag displayed to the
732left of the filename. The flags <c>!mtime</c>, <c>!empty</c>, and <c>cfgpro</c>
733specify reasons why certain files are not being removed while the package is.
734Files listed without any of these three flags are removed from the
735filesystem successfully. The three flags specify the following reasons:
736</p>
737
738<ul>
739 <li>
740 <c>!mtime</c> : The listed file has been changed since it was installed,
741 probably by you or some tool
742 </li>
743 <li>
744 <c>!empty</c> : The listed directory is not empty
745 </li>
746 <li>
747 <c>cfgpro</c> : This file is located inside a protected directory and will
748 not be touched for safety
749 </li>
750</ul>
751
752</body> 651<body>
753</subsection> 652
754</section> 653<pre caption="Portage warning about USE flag change requirement">
755<section> 654The following USE changes are necessary to proceed:
756<title>Working with Masked Packages</title> 655#required by app-text/happypackage-2.0, required by happypackage (argument)
656>=app-text/feelings-1.0.0 test
657</pre>
658
659<p>
660The error message might also be displayed as follows, if <c>--autounmask</c>
661isn't set:
662</p>
663
664<pre caption="Portage error about USE flag change requirement">
665emerge: there are no ebuilds built with USE flags to satisfy "app-text/feelings[test]".
666!!! One of the following packages is required to complete your request:
667- app-text/feelings-1.0.0 (Change USE: +test)
668(dependency required by "app-text/happypackage-2.0" [ebuild])
669(dependency required by "happypackage" [argument])
670</pre>
671
672<p>
673Such warning or error occurs when you want to install a package which not only
674depends on another package, but also requires that that package is built with a
675particular USE flag (or set of USE flags). In the given example, the package
676<c>app-text/feelings</c> needs to be built with <c>USE="test"</c>, but this USE
677flag is not set on the system.
678</p>
679
680<p>
681To resolve this, either add the requested USE flag to your global USE flags in
682<path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path>, or set it for the specific package in
683<path>/etc/portage/package.use</path>.
684</p>
685
686</body>
757<subsection> 687</subsection>
758<title>ARCH or not?</title> 688<subsection id="missingdependencies">
759<body> 689<title>Missing Dependencies</title>
760
761<p>
762When a Gentoo developer puts an ebuild online it informs Portage how to treat
763the package depending on the architecture and stability of the software title.
764He does so by defining a variable called <c>KEYWORDS</c> inside the ebuild.
765This variable contains one or more architectures and marks them with a special
766flag. An explanation of the available flags is given in the next table.
767</p>
768
769<table>
770<tr>
771 <th>Flag</th>
772 <th>Description</th>
773</tr>
774<tr>
775 <ti>ARCH</ti>
776 <ti>Known to work well on the given architecture</ti>
777</tr>
778<tr>
779 <ti>~ARCH</ti>
780 <ti>
781 Probably works well but needs some further testing on the given
782 architecture
783 </ti>
784</tr>
785<tr>
786 <ti>-ARCH</ti>
787 <ti>Known not to work on the given architecture</ti>
788</tr>
789<tr>
790 <ti>-*</ti>
791 <ti>Known not to work or being extremely dangerous on any architecture</ti>
792</tr>
793</table>
794
795<p>
796Let's take a look at an example:
797</p>
798
799<pre caption="Example KEYWORDS setting">
800KEYWORDS="x86 -sparc ~alpha ~ppc"
801</pre>
802
803<p>
804This example can be read as follows:
805</p>
806
807<ul>
808 <li>
809 The ebuild works well on the x86 architecture
810 </li>
811 <li>
812 The ebuild doesn't work on the sparc architecture
813 </li>
814 <li>
815 The ebuild probably works on the alpha architecture but needs more testing
816 </li>
817 <li>
818 The ebuild probably works on the ppc architecture but needs more testing
819 </li>
820 <li>
821 The ebuild might work on the other architectures but hasn't been tried yet
822 </li>
823</ul>
824
825<p>
826Your system will use <e>ARCH</e> packages per default. If you want to live on
827the edge, don't mind having a broken package once in a while, know how to deal
828with a broken system and you like submitting bugreports to <uri
829link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugs.gentoo.org</uri>, then you can opt to use
830<e>~ARCH</e> packages. To "move" your system to a <e>~ARCH</e>-using system,
831edit the <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS</c> variable in <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so that
832it reads <e>~ARCH</e> (again: for x86-based systems: <e>~x86</e>, etc.).
833</p>
834
835<p>
836Note though that it is far from trivial (if even impossible) to go back to
837<e>ARCH</e> from <e>~ARCH</e>.
838</p>
839
840<p>
841If you want to update your system now, you will notice that <e>a lot</e> of
842packages will be updated!
843</p>
844
845</body> 690<body>
846</subsection> 691
692<pre caption="Portage warning about missing dependency">
693emerge: there are no ebuilds to satisfy "&gt;=sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r4".
694
695!!! Problem with ebuild sys-devel/gcc-3.4.2-r2
696!!! Possibly a DEPEND/*DEPEND problem.
697</pre>
698
699<p>
700The application you are trying to install depends on another package that is not
701available for your system. Please check <uri
702link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
703please report it. Unless you are mixing branches this should not occur and is
704therefore a bug.
705</p>
706
707</body>
847<subsection> 708</subsection>
848<title>Masked Packages</title> 709<subsection id="ambiguousebuild">
849<body> 710<title>Ambiguous Ebuild Name</title>
850
851<p>
852When you want to install a package, you might come across the following message:
853</p>
854
855<pre caption="Message about masked packages">
856Calculating dependencies
857!!! <comment>all ebuilds that could satisfy </comment>&lt;your package&gt;<comment> have been masked.</comment>
858</pre>
859
860<p>
861A package can be masked due to several reasons:
862</p>
863
864<ol>
865 <li>The package is in <e>~ARCH</e> while you use <e>ARCH</e></li>
866 <li>The package is hard-masked explicitly</li>
867 <li>The package isn't available for your ARCH entirely</li>
868 <li>The package is masked by your profile</li>
869</ol>
870
871<p>
872Portage will inform you why a certain package cannot be installed:
873</p>
874
875<ul>
876 <li>
877 <b>~arch keyword</b>: the package is known to work on the given architecture
878 but requires more testing while your system requires that a package is
879 known to work well
880 </li>
881 <li>
882 <b>-arch keyword</b>: the package is known not to work on the given
883 architecture
884 </li>
885 <li>
886 <b>-* keyword</b>: the package is known not to work on any architecture
887 </li>
888 <li>
889 <b>package.mask</b>: the package is listed in the <path>package.mask</path>
890 file, meaning that it breaks something, crashes your system, has severe
891 security issues or worse
892 </li>
893 <li>
894 <b>profile</b>: the package is not available for your profile
895 </li>
896</ul>
897
898<p>
899If the package is masked because of <b>~arch keyword</b>, and you <e>really</e>
900want to install it (knowing that there <e>is</e> a reason why it isn't
901available in <e>ARCH</e>), you can accept the <e>~ARCH</e> version of any
902package by adding it to your <path>/etc/portage/package.keywords</path> file:
903</p>
904
905<pre caption="Accepting the ~ARCH version of a package">
906<comment>(Create the /etc/portage directory if it doesn't exist yet)</comment>
907# <i>mkdir /etc/portage</i>
908
909# <i>echo "app-office/gnumeric ~x86" &gt;&gt; /etc/portage/package.keywords</i>
910# <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
911</pre>
912
913<p>
914Similarly, if you want to install a package marked <b>-arch keyword</b> or <b>-*
915keyword</b> regardless of all the warnings we might put in front of you, edit
916<path>/etc/portage/package.keywords</path> and add the package with the required
917keyword:
918</p>
919
920<pre caption="Accepting the -arch or -* version of a package">
921<comment>(Create the /etc/portage directory if it doesn't exist yet)</comment>
922# <i>mkdir /etc/portage</i>
923
924# <i>echo "app-office/gnumeric -x86" &gt;&gt; /etc/portage/package.keywords</i>
925<comment>(or)</comment>
926# <i>echo "app-office/gnumeric -*" &gt;&gt; /etc/portage/package.keywords</i>
927# <i>emerge gnumeric</i>
928</pre>
929
930<p>
931If you only want to allow the merging of such a package for a specific version
932or version range, you can use the "&lt;, &lt;=, =, &gt;= or &gt;" operands:
933</p>
934
935<pre caption="Accepting a specific ~arch-marked version of a package">
936# <i>echo "=app-office/gnumeric-2.0 ~x86" &gt;&gt; /etc/portage/package.keywords</i>
937</pre>
938
939<p>
940A package is masked due to <b>package.mask</b> if it is listed in
941<path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>. If you read this file, you
942will also read the reason why the package is hardmasked (it is usually added as
943a comment). If you want to install the package nevertheless (despite all the
944possible warnings we could ever throw at your head about "breaking your system",
945"breaks other packages", or "badly needs testing"), create the
946<path>/etc/portage/package.unmask</path> file and list the package in it (use
947the same format as is used in <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path>).
948</p>
949
950<pre caption="Unmasking a hard-masked application">
951<comment>(Create the /etc/portage directory if it doesn't exist yet)</comment>
952# <i>mkdir /etc/portage</i>
953
954# <i>echo "=app-office/gnumeric-1.2.12" &gt;&gt; /etc/portage/package.unmask</i>
955</pre>
956
957<p>
958Do <e>not</e> alter the <path>/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask</path> file as
959all changes are undone the next time you update your Portage tree.
960</p>
961
962<p>
963Sometimes you might want to hardmask a (collection of) package(s). This is the
964case when newer versions of an application don't support something you require
965or when these versions break something else in your environment.
966</p>
967
968<p>
969To hard-mask a package, create <path>/etc/portage/package.mask</path> and list
970the package in it (use the same format as mentioned above).
971</p>
972
973<pre caption="Hard-masking a package">
974<comment>(Create the /etc/portage directory if it doesn't exist yet)</comment>
975# <i>mkdir /etc/portage</i>
976
977# <i>echo "&gt;app-office/gnumeric-1.2.10" &gt;&gt; /etc/portage/package.mask</i>
978</pre>
979
980<p>
981When Portage tells you that it cannot install a package due to <b>profile</b> it
982means that you are working with a certain profile that doesn't allow the package
983to be installed. But what is this "profile"?
984</p>
985
986<p>
987A profile contains a list of package names and a set of default configuration
988options to be used by Portage. Those files tell Portage which packages
989and which specific versions of those packages to allow, disallow, or
990treat as required. Users can switch profiles by changing a single symlink
991(<path>/etc/make.profile</path>).
992</p>
993
994<p>
995You cannot override a package that is blocked due to <b>profile</b>; if you
996really want to use it, switch to the required profile.
997</p>
998
999<p>
1000You will find more information in our <uri
1001link="/proj/en/releng/docs/cascading-profiles.xml">Cascading Profiles
1002Document</uri>.
1003</p>
1004
1005</body> 711<body>
1006</subsection> 712
713<pre caption="Portage warning about ambiguous ebuild names">
714[ Results for search key : listen ]
715[ Applications found : 2 ]
716
717* dev-tinyos/listen [ Masked ]
718 Latest version available: 1.1.15
719 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
720 Size of files: 10,032 kB
721 Homepage: http://www.tinyos.net/
722 Description: Raw listen for TinyOS
723 License: BSD
724
725* media-sound/listen [ Masked ]
726 Latest version available: 0.6.3
727 Latest version installed: [ Not Installed ]
728 Size of files: 859 kB
729 Homepage: http://www.listen-project.org
730 Description: A Music player and management for GNOME
731 License: GPL-2
732
733!!! The short ebuild name "listen" is ambiguous. Please specify
734!!! one of the above fully-qualified ebuild names instead.
735</pre>
736
737<p>
738The application you want to install has a name that corresponds with more than
739one package. You need to supply the category name as well. Portage will inform
740you of possible matches to choose from.
741</p>
742
743</body>
1007<subsection> 744</subsection>
1008<title>Blocked Packages</title> 745<subsection id="circulardependencies">
746<title>Circular Dependencies</title>
747<body>
748
749<pre caption="Portage warning about circular dependencies">
750!!! Error: circular dependencies:
751
752ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2 depends on ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1
753ebuild / app-text/ghostscript-7.05.3-r1 depends on ebuild / net-print/cups-1.1.15-r2
754</pre>
755
756<p>
757Two (or more) packages you want to install depend on each other and can
758therefore not be installed. This is most likely a bug in the Portage tree.
759Please resync after a while and try again. You can also check <uri
760link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">bugzilla</uri> if the issue is known and if not,
761report it.
762</p>
763
1009<body> 764</body>
765</subsection>
766<subsection id="fetchfailed">
767<title>Fetch failed</title>
768<body>
1010 769
1011<p> 770<pre caption="Portage warning about fetch failed">
1012You have a situation when you receive the following error on your screen: 771!!! Fetch failed for sys-libs/ncurses-5.4-r5, continuing...
772<comment>(...)</comment>
773!!! Some fetch errors were encountered. Please see above for details.
774</pre>
775
1013</p> 776<p>
1014 777Portage was unable to download the sources for the given application and will
1015<pre caption="Blocking package"> 778try to continue installing the other applications (if applicable). This failure
1016[blocks B ] gnome-base/bonobo-activation (from pkg gnome-base/libbonobo-2.4.0) 779can be due to a mirror that has not synchronised correctly or because the ebuild
1017</pre> 780points to an incorrect location. The server where the sources reside can also be
1018 781down for some reason.
1019<p> 782</p>
1020In the above example, the package <c>bonobo-activation</c> is blocking the 783
1021emerge of <c>libbonobo</c>. To resolve this issue, remove the
1022<c>bonobo-activation</c> package and continue:
1023</p> 784<p>
1024 785Retry after one hour to see if the issue still persists.
1025<pre caption="Resolving a blocking situation">
1026# <i>emerge unmerge bonobo-activation</i>
1027</pre> 786</p>
787
788</body>
789</subsection>
790<subsection id="profileprotect">
791<title>System Profile Protection</title>
792<body>
793
794<pre caption="Portage warning about profile-protected package">
795!!! Trying to unmerge package(s) in system profile. 'sys-apps/portage'
796!!! This could be damaging to your system.
797</pre>
798
799<p>
800You have asked to remove a package that is part of your system's core packages.
801It is listed in your profile as required and should therefore not be removed
802from the system.
803</p>
804
805</body>
806</subsection>
807<subsection id="digesterror">
808<title>Digest Verification Failures</title>
809<body>
810
811<p>
812Sometimes, when you attempt to emerge a package, it will fail with the message:
813</p>
814
815<pre caption="Digest verification failure">
816&gt;&gt;&gt; checking ebuild checksums
817!!! Digest verification failed:
818</pre>
819
820<p>
821This is a sign that something is wrong with the Portage tree -- often, it is
822because a developer may have made a mistake when committing a package to the
823tree.
824</p>
825
826<p>
827When the digest verification fails, do <e>not</e> try to re-digest the package
828yourself. Running <c>ebuild foo manifest</c> will not fix the problem; it will
829almost certainly make it worse!
830</p>
831
832<p>
833Instead, wait an hour or two for the tree to settle down. It's likely that the
834error was noticed right away, but it can take a little time for the fix to
835trickle down the Portage tree. While you're waiting, check <uri
836link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri> and see if anyone has reported
837the problem yet. If not, go ahead and file a bug for the broken package.
838</p>
839
840<p>
841Once you see that the bug has been fixed, you may want to re-sync to pick up
842the fixed digest.
843</p>
844
845<impo>
846This does <e>not</e> mean that you can re-sync your tree multiple times! As
847stated in the rsync policy (when you run <c>emerge --sync</c>), users who sync
848too often will be banned! In fact, it's better to just wait until your next
849scheduled sync, so that you don't overload the rsync servers.
850</impo>
1028 851
1029</body> 852</body>
1030</subsection> 853</subsection>
1031</section> 854</section>
1032</sections> 855</sections>

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