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1 neysx 1.11 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 rane 1.29 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/java.xml,v 1.28 2006/08/08 09:51:12 rane Exp $ -->
3 swift 1.8 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 zhen 1.4
5 neysx 1.11 <guide link="/doc/en/java.xml">
6     <title>Gentoo Java Guide</title>
7    
8 nightmorph 1.23 <author title="Author">
9 rane 1.28 <mail link="nichoj@gentoo.org">Joshua Nichols</mail>
10 neysx 1.11 </author>
11 nightmorph 1.23 <author title="Author">
12 rane 1.28 <mail link="karltk@gentoo.org">Karl Trygve Kalleberg</mail>
13 neysx 1.11 </author>
14 swift 1.13 <author title="Editor">
15 nightmorph 1.23 <mail link="nightmorph@gentoo.org">Joshua Saddler</mail>
16 swift 1.13 </author>
17 neysx 1.11
18     <abstract>
19 nightmorph 1.23 This guide will introduce you to Java and explain how to use Java with Gentoo
20     Linux.
21 neysx 1.11 </abstract>
22    
23 nightmorph 1.23 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
24     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
25 neysx 1.11 <license/>
26    
27 rane 1.29 <version>0.7</version>
28     <date>2006-08-08</date>
29 neysx 1.11
30     <chapter>
31 swift 1.13 <title>What is Java?</title>
32 neysx 1.11 <section>
33     <title>Overview</title>
34     <body>
35    
36     <p>
37 nightmorph 1.23 Java is a programming language developed by engineers of Sun Microsystems. The
38     language is object-oriented and designed to run on multiple platforms without
39     the need of recompiling code for each platform. Although Java can be compiled
40     as a native program, much of Java's popularity can be attributed to its
41     portability, along with other features such as garbage collection. To make
42     platform independence possible the Java compiler compiles the Java code to an
43     intermediate representation called "Java bytecode" that runs on a JRE (Java
44     Runtime Environment) and not directly on the operating system.
45 swift 1.13 </p>
46    
47     <p>
48 nightmorph 1.23 In order to run Java bytecode, one needs to have a JRE (Java Runtime
49     Environment) installed. A JRE provides core libraries, a platform dependent
50     Java Virtual Machine, plug-ins for browsers, among other things. A JDK (Java
51     Development Kit) adds programming tools, such as a bytecode compiler and a
52     debugger.
53 swift 1.13 </p>
54    
55     </body>
56     </section>
57     </chapter>
58    
59     <chapter>
60 rane 1.28 <title>New Java System</title>
61     <section>
62     <body>
63    
64     <p>
65     The way Java is handled on Gentoo has recently seen many changes and
66     improvements. This has only happened very recently, and as a result, all the
67     packages related to it are marked with testing keywords, ie ~x86. This
68     document assumes you are using the new system.
69     </p>
70    
71     </body>
72     </section>
73     <section>
74     <title>Keywords</title>
75     <body>
76    
77     <p>
78     If you are using the stable tree, i.e. x86, ppc, or amd64 as opposed to ~x86,
79     ~ppc, or ~amd64, you will need to add some entries to your
80     <path>/etc/portage/package.keywords</path>:
81     </p>
82    
83     <pre caption="package.keywords">
84     # Core Gentoo/Java Packages
85     dev-java/ant-core
86     dev-java/ant-tasks
87     dev-java/ant
88     dev-java/java-config
89     dev-java/java-config-wrapper
90     dev-java/javatoolkit
91 rane 1.29 dev-java/sun-jce-bin
92 rane 1.28 # JDKs
93     =dev-java/sun-jdk-1.4*
94     =dev-java/sun-jdk-1.5*
95     =dev-java/ibm-jdk-bin-1.4*
96     =dev-java/ibm-jdk-bin-1.5*
97     =dev-java/jrockit-jdk-bin-1.4*
98     =dev-java/jrockit-jdk-bin-1.5*
99     =dev-java/blackdown-jdk-1.4*
100     dev-java/kaffe
101     # JREs
102     =dev-java/sun-jre-bin-1.4*
103     =dev-java/sun-jre-bin-1.5*
104     =dev-java/ibm-jre-bin-1.4*
105     =dev-java/blackdown-jre-1.4*
106     # Virtuals
107     virtual/jdk
108     virtual/jre
109     # Compilers
110     dev-java/eclipse-ecj
111     dev-java/jikes
112     # Documentation
113     dev-java/java-sdk-docs
114     # Misc packages that have been updated to generation-2,
115     # where the generation-1 won't build and/or run properly
116     dev-java/lucene
117     # These have optional Java support, but need ~arch to function properly
118     # with generation-2
119     dev-util/subversion
120     sys-libs/db
121     </pre>
122    
123     <impo>
124     It is crucial that you keyword ALL packages related to the new Java system,
125     otherwise you will have problems in the later steps of this guide.
126     </impo>
127    
128     <impo>
129     It can't be emphasized enough that you have to have ALL the packages related
130     to the new Java system keyworded for it to function properly.
131     </impo>
132    
133     </body>
134     </section>
135     <section>
136     <title>Existing installs</title>
137     <body>
138    
139     <p>
140     For existing installs, regardless of if you have installed anything Java
141     before, make sure you have followed the <uri
142     link="/proj/en/java/java-upgrade.xml">Java Upgrade Guide</uri>.
143     </p>
144    
145     </body>
146     </section>
147     <section>
148     <title>New installs</title>
149     <body>
150    
151     <p>
152     New installs should require no further preparation.
153     </p>
154    
155     </body>
156     </section>
157     </chapter>
158    
159     <chapter>
160     <title>Installing a Virtual Machine</title>
161 swift 1.13 <section>
162     <title>The choices</title>
163     <body>
164    
165     <p>
166 rane 1.28 Gentoo provides numerous Runtime Environments (JREs) and Development Kits
167     (JDKs). Among the current choices, we have:
168 swift 1.13 </p>
169    
170 nightmorph 1.23 <table>
171     <tr>
172     <th>Vendor</th>
173     <th>JDK</th>
174     <th>JRE</th>
175     </tr>
176     <tr>
177     <ti>The Blackdown Java Kit</ti>
178 rane 1.27 <ti>dev-java/blackdown-jdk</ti>
179 nightmorph 1.23 <ti>dev-java/blackdown-jre</ti>
180     </tr>
181     <tr>
182     <ti>Sun's Java Kit</ti>
183     <ti>dev-java/sun-jdk</ti>
184     <ti>dev-java/sun-jre-bin</ti>
185     </tr>
186     <tr>
187     <ti>The IBM Java Kit</ti>
188     <ti>dev-java/ibm-jdk-bin</ti>
189     <ti>dev-java/ibm-jre-bin</ti>
190     </tr>
191     <tr>
192     <ti>The Compaq Java Kit for Alpha/Linux/GNU</ti>
193     <ti>dev-java/compaq-jdk</ti>
194     <ti>dev-java/compaq-jre</ti>
195     </tr>
196     <tr>
197     <ti>BEA WebLogic's J2SE Development Kit</ti>
198     <ti>dev-java/jrockit-jdk-bin</ti>
199     </tr>
200     </table>
201    
202     <!--
203 rane 1.26 TODO: list free implementations?
204     note about not drop-in replacements
205 nightmorph 1.23 kaffe/sablevm/gcj/jamvm
206     -->
207    
208     <p>
209     The default is Blackdown for both the JRE and the JDK, as it is freely ("free
210     as in beer") available without any registration fuss.
211     </p>
212 swift 1.13
213     <p>
214 rane 1.28 The default for Java 1.4 is the Blackdown JRE/JDK pair, as it is freely
215     ("free as in beer") available without any registration fuss.
216 neysx 1.11 </p>
217    
218     <p>
219 rane 1.28 JREs and JDKs from Sun, IBM, and BEA are generally faster, but getting them
220     is a bit more work, as you are required to read and accept their license before
221     downloading (IBM additionally requires you to register).
222 neysx 1.11 </p>
223    
224 nightmorph 1.23 </body>
225     </section>
226     <section>
227     <title>Installing a JRE/JDKs</title>
228     <body>
229    
230 neysx 1.11 <p>
231 nightmorph 1.23 To install your profile's default JDK, you can run <c>emerge virtual/jdk</c>.
232     Or to install your profile's default JRE, you can <c>emerge virtual/jre</c>.
233 neysx 1.11 </p>
234    
235 rane 1.28 <p>
236     In recent events, Sun has relicensed their JDK and JRE under a more Linux
237     distro friendly license. As a result, Sun releases Java 1.5 and onwards are
238     freely downloadable, without any further hassle.
239     </p>
240    
241 nightmorph 1.23 <note>
242     A JDK also includes a JRE, so if you install a JDK you shouldn't have to also
243     have to install a JRE.
244     </note>
245    
246 neysx 1.11 </body>
247     </section>
248     <section>
249 rane 1.28 <title>Installing fetch-restricted virtual machines</title>
250 neysx 1.11 <body>
251    
252     <p>
253 rane 1.28 As already mentioned, some of the JDKs and JREs require you to jump through a
254     few hoops before installing. Simply emerge the packages as you normally would.
255     The ebuilds will then instruct you where to go and what to download.
256 neysx 1.11 </p>
257    
258     <p>
259     You should download the indicated file(s) into
260 nightmorph 1.23 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. Once there, you can rerun the emerge
261     command, at which point the JRE/JDK will be begin to install.
262 neysx 1.11 </p>
263    
264     </body>
265     </section>
266     </chapter>
267    
268     <chapter>
269 rane 1.28 <title>Configuring your virtual machine</title>
270 neysx 1.11 <section>
271     <title>Overview</title>
272     <body>
273    
274     <p>
275 nightmorph 1.23 Gentoo has the ability to have multiple JDKs and JREs installed without causing
276     conflicts.
277 neysx 1.11 </p>
278    
279     <p>
280 nightmorph 1.23 Using the <c>java-config</c> tool, you can set the system-wide default
281     (provided you have root access). Users can also use <c>java-config</c> to set
282     up their own personal default.
283 neysx 1.11 </p>
284    
285 nightmorph 1.23 <note>
286     You can also use <e>eselect</e> to change the system and user vm. See
287 nightmorph 1.24 <c>eselect java-vm help</c>.
288 nightmorph 1.23 </note>
289    
290 neysx 1.11 </body>
291     </section>
292     <section>
293 rane 1.28 <title>Setting a default virtual machine</title>
294 neysx 1.11 <body>
295    
296     <p>
297 nightmorph 1.23 Running the command <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> will give you a
298     list of all JREs and JDKs installed on your system. Here is an example of
299     output:
300 neysx 1.11 </p>
301    
302     <pre caption="Listing available VMs">
303 neysx 1.12 # <i>java-config --list-available-vms</i>
304 nightmorph 1.23 1) Blackdown JDK 1.3.1 [blackdown-jdk-1.3] (/etc/env.d/java/20blackdown-jdk-1.3)
305     2) Blackdown JDK 1.4.2.02 [blackdown-jdk-1.4] (/etc/env.d/java/20blackdown-jdk-1.4)
306     3) Blackdown JRE 1.4.2.02 [blackdown-jre-1.4] (/etc/env.d/java/20blackdown-jre-1.4)
307     4) IBM JDK 1.4.2 [ibm-jdk-bin-1.4] (/etc/env.d/java/20ibm-jdk-bin-1.4)
308     5) IBM JRE 1.4.2 [ibm-jre-bin-1.4] (/etc/env.d/java/20ibm-jre-bin-1.4)
309     6) WebLogic JRockit 1.4.2.05 [jrockit-jdk-bin-1.4] (/etc/env.d/java/20jrockit-jdk-bin-1.4)
310     7) WebLogic JRockit 1.5.0.03 [jrockit-jdk-bin-1.5] (/etc/env.d/java/20jrockit-jdk-bin-1.5)
311     8) Sun JDK 1.3.1.13 [sun-jdk-1.3] (/etc/env.d/java/20sun-jdk-1.3)
312     9) Sun JDK 1.4.2.09 [sun-jdk-1.4] (/etc/env.d/java/20sun-jdk-1.4)
313     *) Sun JDK 1.5.0.04 [sun-jdk-1.5] (/etc/env.d/java/20sun-jdk-1.5)
314     11) Sun JRE 1.4.2.09 [sun-jre-bin-1.4] (/etc/env.d/java/20sun-jre-bin-1.4)
315     12) Sun JRE 1.5.0.04 [sun-jre-bin-1.5] (/etc/env.d/java/20sun-jre-bin-1.5)
316 neysx 1.11 </pre>
317    
318     <p>
319 nightmorph 1.23 The <e>*</e> indicates this is the current active vm (system-vm or user-vm when
320     set). The name in the brackets (<e>[]</e>) is the handle or ID for that
321     particular VM. You use the handle or the number to <c>java-config
322     --set-system-vm</c>. Here is an example of how to set the system VM.
323 neysx 1.11 </p>
324 zhen 1.4
325 neysx 1.11 <pre caption="Setting the System VM">
326 nightmorph 1.23 <comment>(By handle (preferred))</comment>
327     # <i>java-config --set-system-vm blackdown-jdk-1.4</i>
328     <comment>(By number)</comment>
329     # <i>java-config --set-system-vm 2</i>
330 neysx 1.11 </pre>
331 drobbins 1.1
332 nightmorph 1.23 <p>
333     As a regular user, you can use <c>java-config --set-user-vm</c>.
334     </p>
335    
336 neysx 1.11 <note>
337 nightmorph 1.23 You no longer have to <c>source</c> the profile for updates to the user/system
338     VM take place.
339 neysx 1.11 </note>
340    
341 nightmorph 1.23 </body>
342     </section>
343     <section id="preferred-vm">
344     <title>Preferred VM</title>
345     <body>
346    
347     <p>
348     While merging Java packages, the VM can and will be switched as necessary.
349     </p>
350    
351     <p>
352     Because of the wide variety of available VMs, we do not have the resources to
353     test and verify every package works on all of them. So to ensure that every
354     packages merges smoothly, we have defined a list of <e>default/supported
355     VMs</e> per arch. You can find them in
356     <path>/usr/share/java-config/config/jdk-defaults.conf</path>. When you are
357     merging a Java package, and it detects one of the VM in that file is installed,
358     it will automatically use that VM, instead of the system-vm.
359     </p>
360    
361 neysx 1.11 <p>
362 nightmorph 1.23 The merge time VM switching is also needed when, for example, your system-vm is
363     set a 1.4 VM and the package you are merging requires a 1.5 VM. While merging
364     it will use the preferred 1.5 VM, leaving your system-vm choice intact.
365 neysx 1.11 </p>
366 drobbins 1.1
367 nightmorph 1.23 <p>
368     Of course, Gentoo is all about choice, so you can override these defaults in
369     <path>/etc/java-config-2/build/jdk.conf</path> and have complete control over
370     which VM will get used. Some examples:
371     </p>
372    
373     <pre caption="Example /etc/java-config-2/build/jdk.conf">
374     <comment>(I always want it to use a sun-jdk, ie sun-jdk-1.4 for 1.4, sun-jdk-1.5 for 1.5, etc)</comment>
375     *=sun-jdk
376 neysx 1.11 </pre>
377 drobbins 1.1
378 nightmorph 1.23 <pre caption="Example /etc/java-config-2/build/jdk.conf">
379     <comment>(Always use sun-jdk-1.5 wherever possible, except for when a 1.4 or 1.3 VM is explicitly required)</comment>
380     *=sun-jdk-1.5
381     </pre>
382    
383     <pre caption="Example /etc/java-config-2/build/jdk.conf">
384     <comment># For 1.3 I prefer sun-jdk 1.4 but when it is not available, use ibm-jdk-bin,
385     # For 1.4, use blackdown-jdk, and for 1.5, use sun-jdk </comment>
386     1.3=sun-jdk-1.4 ibm-jdk-bin
387     1.4=blackdown-jdk
388     1.5=sun-jdk
389     </pre>
390    
391     <warn>
392     You do not have to edit this file. If you change these options to use a
393     unsupported VM, things could possibly break. Bugs reported with a unsupported
394 rane 1.26 VM won't be prioritized as much as bugs present within supported VMs.
395 nightmorph 1.23 </warn>
396    
397     </body>
398     </section>
399     </chapter>
400    
401     <chapter>
402     <title>Compilers</title>
403     <section>
404     <body>
405    
406 neysx 1.11 <p>
407 nightmorph 1.23 The standard Java compiler used for building is javac, which comes with each
408     JDK. In addition to configuring the VM used at build time, it is also possible
409     configure which compiler is used. Essentially, you define a list your
410     preference for which compiler to use in
411     <path>/etc/java-config-2/build/compilers.conf</path>.
412 neysx 1.11 </p>
413    
414 nightmorph 1.23 <pre caption="/etc/java-config-2/build/compilers.conf">
415     # If the ebuild supports it
416     # it will check the COMPILERS var front to back and
417     # use the first compiler that is installed
418    
419     COMPILERS="ecj-3.1 jikes javac"
420     </pre>
421    
422 neysx 1.11 <p>
423 nightmorph 1.23 Some compilers don't support all possible -target and -source arguments.
424     Therefore, each compiler in the list is checked to see if it can support the
425     desired -source/-target. javac will work in all cases, so if no other suitable
426     compiler is found, it will be used instead.
427 neysx 1.11 </p>
428    
429 nightmorph 1.23 <p>
430     More details about each compiler are provided below:
431     </p>
432    
433     <table>
434     <tr>
435     <th>Name</th>
436     <th>Handle</th>
437     <th>Package</th>
438     <th>Description</th>
439     </tr>
440     <tr>
441     <ti>javac</ti>
442     <ti>javac</ti>
443     <ti>N/A</ti>
444     <ti>
445     This is the default compiler that will be used, and comes with each JDK.
446     </ti>
447     </tr>
448     <tr>
449     <ti>jikes</ti>
450     <ti>jikes</ti>
451     <ti>dev-java/jikes</ti>
452     <ti>
453     Jikes was originally developed by IBM. Anecdotally, it is generally quicker
454     than javac. Note however, that it is more pedantic, and will fail under a
455     few circumstances where javac has no issue. It also does not support Java
456     1.5 syntax yet.
457     </ti>
458     </tr>
459     <tr>
460     <ti>Eclipse Compiler for Java</ti>
461     <ti>ecj-3.1</ti>
462     <ti>=dev-java/eclipse-ecj-3.1*</ti>
463     <ti>
464     ECJ is the compiler used by the Eclipse software development kit. It is
465     very full featured, and is pretty fast. It does support Java 1.5 syntax.
466     </ti>
467     </tr>
468     </table>
469    
470     </body>
471     </section>
472     </chapter>
473    
474     <chapter>
475     <title>Setting a default CLASSPATH</title>
476     <section>
477     <body>
478    
479     <warn>
480     The options explained in this section should be considered deprecated and will
481 rane 1.26 most likely be removed in the future. We strongly recommend against using
482 nightmorph 1.23 these, because your Java projects or application should ideally manage their
483     own classpaths. If you choose to specify a default CLASSPATH, some applications
484     may behave unexpectedly, because classes they weren't expecting would be on the
485     classpath.
486     </warn>
487    
488     <p>
489     <c>java-config</c> can also be used to set a system-wide default CLASSPATH, as
490     well a user-specific default CLASSPATH.
491     </p>
492    
493     <p>
494     First, you will want to list available Java libraries installed on your system
495     that might want to be put in your CLASSPATH. Here is an example of output:
496     </p>
497    
498     <pre caption="Listing classes">
499     # <i>java-config --list-available-packages</i>
500     [xerces-2] The next generation of high performance, fully compliant XML parsers in the Apache Xerces family (/usr/share/xerces-2/package.env)
501     [junit] Simple framework to write repeatable tests (/usr/share/junit/package.env)
502     [bsh] BeanShell: A small embeddable Java source interpreter (/usr/share/bsh/package.env)
503     [bcel] The Byte Code Engineering Library: analyze, create, manipulate Java class files (/usr/share/bcel/package.env)
504     [log4j] A low-overhead robust logging package for Java (/usr/share/log4j/package.env)
505     ...
506     </pre>
507    
508     <p>
509     Again, the names in brackets (<e>[]</e>) are the IDs that you have to pass to
510     <c>java-config --set-system-classpath</c>. Here is an example:
511     </p>
512    
513     <pre caption="Setting classpaths">
514     # <i>java-config --set-system-classpath log4j,xerces-2</i>
515     </pre>
516    
517     <note>
518     The current directory (<path>.</path>) will not be part of the system
519     classpath, as that should be added in your system's login profile.
520     </note>
521    
522     <p>
523 rane 1.26 You will have to update your environment by logging out, then in again or
524     sourcing <path>/etc/profile</path>.
525 nightmorph 1.23 </p>
526    
527     <p>
528     For users, <c>java-config --set-user-classpath</c> will create
529     <path>~/.gentoo/java-env-classpath</path>, which you should then source from
530     your shell's profile.
531     </p>
532    
533     <pre caption="Sourcing user specific classpath">
534     <i>if [[ -f "${HOME}/.gentoo/java-env-classpath" ]]; then
535     source ${HOME}/.gentoo/java-env-classpath
536     fi</i>
537     </pre>
538    
539     <p>
540     If you really want a system wide or user default classpath you can add
541 rane 1.25 something like the following to your shell's profile. But we would advise
542 nightmorph 1.23 against it.
543     </p>
544    
545     <pre caption="Setting classpath">
546     # <i>export CLASSPATH="${CLASSPATH}:$(java-config --classpath log4j,xerces-2)"</i>
547     </pre>
548    
549 neysx 1.11 </body>
550     </section>
551 swift 1.13 </chapter>
552    
553     <chapter>
554     <title>USE flags for use with Java</title>
555     <section>
556     <title>Setting USE flags</title>
557     <body>
558    
559     <p>
560 rane 1.17 For more information regarding USE flags, refer to the <uri
561     link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>
562 swift 1.13 chapter from the Gentoo Handbook.
563 neysx 1.11 </p>
564    
565     </body>
566     </section>
567 swift 1.13 <section>
568     <title>The flags</title>
569     <body>
570    
571     <ul>
572 nightmorph 1.23 <li>The <b>java</b> flag adds support for Java in a variety of programs</li>
573     <li>
574     The <b>nsplugin</b> flag adds support for Mozilla-like browsers (including
575     Firefox).You will need this for viewing Java applets in your Mozilla-like
576     browser.
577     </li>
578 rane 1.17 <li>
579 nightmorph 1.23 The <b>doc</b> flag will typically install API documentation, as generated
580     by javadoc.
581     </li>
582     <li>
583     The <b>source</b> flag will install a zip of the package's source code.
584     This is typically used to provide your IDE with the source code for the
585     package.
586 rane 1.17 </li>
587 rane 1.28 <li>
588     The <b>source</b> flag installs a zip of the source code of a package.
589     This is traditionally used for for IDEs to 'attach' source to the libraries
590     you are using.
591     </li>
592     <li>
593     For Java packages, the <b>doc</b> flag will build API documentation using
594     javadoc.
595     </li>
596 swift 1.13 </ul>
597    
598     </body>
599     </section>
600 neysx 1.11 </chapter>
601    
602     <chapter>
603     <title>Additional resources</title>
604     <section>
605     <title>Off-line resources</title>
606     <body>
607    
608     <ul>
609 rane 1.17 <li>java-config man page</li>
610     <li><c>java-config --help</c></li>
611 neysx 1.11 </ul>
612    
613     </body>
614     </section>
615     <section>
616     <title>Online resources</title>
617     <body>
618 rane 1.17
619 neysx 1.11 <ul>
620 nightmorph 1.23 <li>
621     The <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/java/">Java Project
622     Page</uri>
623     </li>
624 rane 1.17 <li>
625     The <uri
626 nightmorph 1.23 link="http://news.gmane.org/gmane.linux.gentoo.java">gentoo-java</uri>,
627     <uri
628     link="http://news.gmane.org/gmane.linux.gentoo.user">gentoo-user</uri>, and
629     <uri
630     link="http://news.gmane.org/gmane.linux.gentoo.devel">gentoo-dev</uri>
631 alin 1.18 mailing list archives
632 rane 1.17 </li>
633 alin 1.18 <li>#gentoo and #gentoo-java on irc.freenode.net</li>
634 rane 1.17 <li>
635     <uri
636     link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Java_programming_language">Wikipedia's
637     entry for Java</uri>
638     </li>
639 neysx 1.11 </ul>
640    
641     </body>
642     </section>
643     </chapter>
644 neysx 1.12 </guide>

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