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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/xml-guide.xml">
5 zhen 1.9 <title>Gentoo Linux XML Guide</title>
6 zhen 1.6 <author title="Author"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
7 zhen 1.9 <author title="Author"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author>
8 drobbins 1.1
9     <abstract>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using the new lightweight Gentoo guide
10     XML syntax. This syntax is the official format for Gentoo Linux documentation, and this document
11     itself was created using guide XML. This guide assumes a basic working knowledge of XML and HTML.
12     </abstract>
14 zhen 1.9 <version>2.0</version>
15     <date>06 March 2003</date>
16 drobbins 1.1
17     <chapter>
18     <title>Guide basics</title>
20     <section>
21     <title>Guide XML design goals</title>
22     <body>
24     <p> The guide XML syntax is lightweight yet expressive, so that it is easy to
25     learn yet also provides all the features we need for the creation of web
26     documentation. The number of tags is kept to a minimum -- just those we need.
27     This makes it easy to transform guide into other formats, such as DocBook
28     XML/SGML or web-ready HTML. </p>
30     <p>The goal is to make it easy to <e>create</e> and <e>transform</e> guide XML
31     documents.</p>
33     </body>
34     </section>
36     <section>
37     <title>How to transform guide XML into HTML</title>
38     <body>
40     <p> Before we take a look at the guide syntax itself, it's helpful to know how
41     guide XML is transformed into web-ready HTML. To do this, we use a special
42 zhen 1.6 file called <path>guide.xsl</path>, along with a command-line XSLT processing
43     tool (also called an "engine"). The <path>guide.xsl</path> file describes
44 drobbins 1.1 exactly how to transform the contents of the source guide XML document to
45 zhen 1.9 create the target HTML file. The processing tool that Gentoo Linux uses
46     is called <c>xsltproc</c>, which is found in the <i>libxslt</i> package. </p>
47 drobbins 1.1
48 zhen 1.6
49 zhen 1.9 <pre caption="Installing libxslt">
50     # <c>emerge libxslt</c>
51     </pre>
52 zhen 1.6
53 zhen 1.9 <p>Now that we have the way, we need the means, so to speak. In other words,
54     we need some Gentoo XML documents to transform. Gentoo has two types of tarballs
55     that are available for download: </p>
57     <p><b>The first type contains the entire up-to-date Gentoo Linux website</b>.
58     Included are our XSL templates, so if you are planning to transform any documentation,
59     you will need this tarball. The tarball can be found
60     <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/arch/xml-guide-latest.tar.gz">here</uri>.</p>
62     <p><b>The second type contains daily snapshots our XML documentation source</b> in
63     every language that we offer. Please note that it is impossible to transform
64     documentation with this tarball, so please download the web tarball if you want to fully
65     develop your own documentation. These tarballs are especially useful for translators.
66     These tarballs can be found <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/dyn/doc-snapshots">here</uri>.
67 drobbins 1.1 </p>
69 zhen 1.9 <p>After the web tarball is downloaded and extracted, go
70     to the directory where the tarball was extracted, and enter the
71     <path>htdocs</path> directory. Browse around and get comfortable with the
72     layout, but note the <path>xsl</path> and <path>doc</path> directories.
73     As you might have guessed, the XSL stylesheets are in <path>xsl</path>,
74     and our documentation is in <path>doc</path>. For testing purposes, we
75     will be using the Gentoo Linux CD Installation Guide, located at
76     <path>doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</path>. Now that the locations
77     of the XSL and XML file are known, we can do some transforming with
78     <c>xsltproc</c>. </p>
79 zhen 1.6
80     <pre caption="Transforming gentoo-x86-install.xml">
81 zhen 1.9 # <c>xsltproc xsl/guide.xsl ../doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml &gt; /tmp/install.html</c>
82 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
84     <p> If all went well, you should have a web-ready version of
85 zhen 1.6 <path>gentoo-x86-install.xml</path> at <path>/tmp/install.html</path>. For this document
86 drobbins 1.1 to display properly in a web browser, you may have to copy some files from
87 zhen 1.6 <path>htdocs</path> to <path>/tmp</path>, such
88 zhen 1.9 as <path>css/main.css</path> and (to be safe) the entire <path>images</path>
89 drobbins 1.1 directory.
90     </p>
92     </body>
93     </section>
94     </chapter>
95     <chapter>
96     <title>Guide XML</title>
97     <section>
98     <title>Basic structure</title>
99     <body>
101     <p>Now that you know how to transform guide XML, you're ready to start learning
102     the guide XML syntax. We'll start with the the initial tags used in a guide
103     XML document: </p>
105     <pre caption="The initial part of a guide XML document">
106 zhen 1.6 &lt;?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
107     &lt;guide link="relative_link_to_your_guide"&gt;
108 drobbins 1.1 &lt;title&gt;<i>Gentoo Linux Documentation Guide</i>&lt;/title&gt;
109     &lt;author title="<i>Chief Architect</i>"&gt;&lt;mail link="<i>drobbins@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;
110     <i>Daniel Robbins</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
111     &lt;/author&gt;
112     &lt;author title="<i>Editor</i>"&gt;&lt;mail link="<i>thomasfl@gentoo.org</i>"&gt;
113     <i>Thomas Flavel</i>&lt;/mail&gt;
114     &lt;/author&gt;
116     &lt;abstract&gt;<i>This guide shows you how to compose web documentation using
117     our new lightweight Gentoo guide XML syntax. This syntax is the official
118     format for Gentoo Linux web documentation, and this document itself was created
119     using guide XML.</i> &lt;/abstract&gt;
121     &lt;version&gt;<i>1.0</i>&lt;/version&gt;
122     &lt;date&gt;<i>29 Mar 2001</i>&lt;/date&gt;
123     </pre>
125     <p>On the first, line, we see the requisite tag that identifies this as an XML
126     document. Following it, there's a <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag -- the entire
127     guide document is enclosed within a <c>&lt;guide&gt; &lt;/guide&gt;</c> pair.
128     Next, there's a <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> tag, used to set the title for the entire
129     guide document. </p>
131     <p>Then, we come to the <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tags, which contain information
132     about the various authors of the document. Each <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> tag
133     allows for an optional <c>title=</c> element, used to specify the author's
134     relationship to the document (author, co-author, editor, etc.). In this
135     particular example, the authors' names are enclosed in another tag -- a
136     <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag, used to specify an email address for this particular
137     person. The <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag is optional and can be omitted, and no
138     more than one <c>&lt;author&gt;</c> element is required per guide document.
139     </p>
141     <p>Next, we come to the <c>&lt;abstract&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;version&gt;</c> and
142     <c>&lt;date&gt;</c> tags, used to specify a summary of the document, the
143     current version number, and the current version date (in DD MMM YYYY format)
144     respectively. This rounds out the tags that should appear at the beginning of
145     a guide document. Besides the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c>
146     tags, these tags shouldn't appear anywhere else except immediately inside the
147     <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> tag, and for consistency it's recommended (but not
148     required) that these tags appear before the content of the document. </p>
150     </body>
151     </section>
153     <section>
154     <title>Chapters and sections</title>
155     <body>
156     <p>Once the initial tags have been specified, you're ready to start adding
157     the structural elements of the document. Guide documents are divided into
158     chapters, and each chapter can hold one or more sections. Every chapter
159     and section has a title. Here's an example chapter with a single section,
160     consisting of a paragraph. If you append this XML to the XML in the <uri link="#doc_pre2">previous
161     excerpt</uri> and append a <c>&lt;/guide&gt;</c> to the end of the file, you'll have a valid
162     (if minimal) guide document:
163     </p>
165     <pre>
166     &lt;chapter&gt;
167     &lt;title&gt;<i>This is my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
168     &lt;section&gt;
169     &lt;title&gt;<i>This is section one of my chapter</i>&lt;/title&gt;
170     &lt;body&gt;
171     &lt;p&gt;<i>This is the actual text content of my section.</i>&lt;/p&gt;
172     &lt;/body&gt;
173     &lt;/section&gt;
174     &lt;/chapter&gt;
175     </pre>
177     <p>Above, I set the chapter title by adding a child <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
178     element to the <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> element. Then, I created a section by
179     adding a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element. If you look inside the
180     <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> element, you'll see that it has two child elements -- a
181     <c>&lt;title&gt;</c> and a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c>. While the <c>&lt;title&gt;</c>
182     is nothing new, the <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> is -- it contains the actual text
183     content of this particular section. We'll look at the tags that are allowed
184     inside a <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element in a bit. </p>
186     <note>A <c>&lt;guide&gt;</c> element can contain multiple
187     <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> elements, and a <c>&lt;chapter&gt;</c> can contain
188     multiple <c>&lt;section&gt;</c> elements. However, a <c>&lt;section&gt;</c>
189     element can only contain one <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. </note>
191     </body>
192     </section>
194     <section>
195     <title>An example &lt;body&gt;</title>
196     <body>
197     <p>
198     Now, it's time to learn how to mark up actual content. Here's the XML code for an example <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element:
199     </p>
200     <pre>
201     &lt;p&gt;
202     This is a paragraph. &lt;path&gt;/etc/passwd&lt;/path&gt; is a file.
203     &lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt; is my favorite website.
204     Type &lt;c&gt;ls&lt;/c&gt; if you feel like it. I &lt;e&gt;really&lt;/e&gt; want to go to sleep now.
205     &lt;/p&gt;
207     &lt;pre&gt;
208     This is text output or code.
209     # &lt;i&gt;this is user input&lt;/i&gt;
211     Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
212     &lt;foo&gt;&lt;i&gt;bar&lt;/i&gt;&lt;/foo&gt;
214     &lt;codenote&gt;This is how to insert an inline note into the code block&lt;/codenote&gt;
215     &lt;/pre&gt;
216     &lt;note&gt;This is a note.&lt;/note&gt;
217     &lt;warn&gt;This is a warning.&lt;/warn&gt;
218     &lt;impo&gt;This is important.&lt;/impo&gt;
219     </pre>
220     <p>Now, here's how this <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element is rendered:</p>
222     <p>
223     This is a paragraph. <path>/etc/passwd</path> is a file.
224     <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri> is my favorite website.
225     Type <c>ls</c> if you feel like it. I <e>really</e> want to go to sleep now.
226     </p>
228     <pre>
229     This is text output or code.
230     # <i>this is user input</i>
232     Make HTML/XML easier to read by using selective emphasis:
233     &lt;foo&gt;<i>bar</i>&lt;/foo&gt;
235     <codenote>This is how to insert an inline note into the code block</codenote>
236     </pre>
237     <note>This is a note.</note>
238     <warn>This is a warning.</warn>
239     <impo>This is important.</impo>
240     </body>
241     </section>
243     <section>
244     <title>The &lt;body&gt; tags</title>
245     <body>
247     <p> We introduced a lot of new tags in the previous section -- here's what you
248     need to know. The <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> (paragraph), <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> (code
249     block), <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> (warning) and
250     <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> (important) tags all can contain one or more lines of text.
251     Besides the <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> element (which we'll cover in just a bit),
252     these are the only tags that should appear immediately inside a
253     <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> element. Another thing -- these tags <e>should not</e> be
254     stacked -- in other words, don't put a <c>&lt;note&gt;</c> element inside a
255     <c>&lt;p&gt;</c> element. As you might guess, the <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c> element
256     preserves its whitespace exactly, making it well-suited for code excerpts.</p>
258     </body>
259     </section>
260     <section>
261     <title>&lt;path&gt;, &lt;c&gt; and &lt;e&gt;</title>
262     <body>
264     <p>The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;e&gt;</c> elements can
265     be used inside any child <c>&lt;body&gt;</c> tag, except for
266     <c>&lt;pre&gt;</c>. </p>
268     <p>The <c>&lt;path&gt;</c> element is used to mark text that refers to an
269     <e>on-disk file</e> -- either an <e>absolute or relative path</e>, or a <e>simple filename</e>.
270     This element is generally rendered with a monospaced font to offset it from the
271     standard paragraph type. </p>
273     <p>The <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> element is used to mark up a <e>command</e> or <e>user
274     input</e>. Think of <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> as a way to alert the reader to something
275     that they can type in that will perform some kind of action. For example, all
276     the XML tags displayed in this document are enclosed in a <c>&lt;c&gt;</c>
277     element because they represent something that the user could type in that is
278     not a path. By using <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements, you'll help your readers
279     quickly identify commands that they need to type in. Also, because
280     <c>&lt;c&gt;</c> elements are already offset from regular text, <e>it is rarely
281     necessary to surround user input with double-quotes</e>. For example, don't
282     refer to a "<c>&lt;c&gt;</c>" element like I did in this sentence. Avoiding
283     the use of unnecessary double-quotes makes a document more readable -- and adorable!</p>
285     <p><c>&lt;e&gt;</c> is used to apply emphasis to a word or phrase; for example:
286     I <e>really</e> should use semicolons more often. As you can see, this text is
287     offset from the regular paragraph type for emphasis. This helps to give your
288     prose more <e>punch</e>!</p>
290     </body>
291     </section>
293     <section>
294     <title>&lt;mail&gt; and &lt;uri&gt;</title>
295     <body>
297     <p>We've taken a look at the <c>&lt;mail&gt;</c> tag earlier; it's used to link some text
298     with a particular email address, and takes the form <c>&lt;mail link="foo@bar.com"&gt;Mr. Foo Bar&lt;/mail&gt;</c>.</p>
300     <p>The <c>&lt;uri&gt;</c> tag is used to point to files/locations on the
301     Internet. It has two forms -- the first can be used when you want to have the
302     actual URI displayed in the body text, such as this link to
303     <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>. To create this link, I typed
304     <c>&lt;uri&gt;http://www.gentoo.org&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. The alternate form is
305     when you want to associate a URI with some other text -- for example, <uri
306     link="http://www.gentoo.org">the Gentoo Linux website</uri>. To create <e>this</e>
307     link, I typed <c>&lt;uri link="http://www.gentoo.org"&gt;the Gentoo Linux website&lt;/uri&gt;</c>.
308     </p>
310     </body>
311     </section>
313     <section>
314     <title>Figures</title>
316     <body>
318     <p>Here's how to insert a figure into a document -- <c>&lt;figure
319     link="mygfx.png" short="my picture" caption="my favorite picture of all
320     time"/&gt;</c>. The <c>link=</c> attribute points to the actual graphic image,
321     the <c>short=</c> attribute specifies a short description (currently used for
322     the image's HTML <c>alt=</c> attribute), and a caption. Not too difficult
323     :) We also support the standard HTML-style &lt;img src="foo.gif"/&gt; tag
324     for adding images without captions, borders, etc.</p>
326     </body>
327     </section>
328     <section>
329     <title>Tables and lists</title>
330     <body>
332     <p>Guide supports a simplified table syntax similar to that of HTML. To start
333     a table, use a <c>&lt;table&gt;</c> tag. Start a row with a <c>&lt;tr&gt;</c>
334     tag. However, for inserting actual table data, we <e>don't</e> support the
335     HTML &lt;td&gt; tag; instead, use the <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> if you are inserting a
336     header, and <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> if you are inserting a normal informational
337     block. You can use a <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> anywhere you can use a <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c> --
338     there's no requirement that <c>&lt;th&gt;</c> elements appear only in the
339     first row. Currently, these tags don't support any attributes, but some will
340     be added (such as a <c>caption=</c> attribute for <c>&lt;table&gt;</c>) soon.
341     </p>
343     <p> To create ordered or unordered lists, simply use the HTML-style
344     <c>&lt;ol&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ul&gt;</c> and <c>&lt;li&gt;</c> tags. List tags
345     should only appear inside a <c>&lt;p&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;ti&gt;</c>,
346     <c>&lt;note&gt;</c>, <c>&lt;warn&gt;</c> or <c>&lt;impo&gt;</c> tag. </p>
348     </body>
349     </section>
351     <section>
352     <title>Intra-document references</title>
353     <body>
355     <p>Guide makes it really easy to reference other parts of the document using
356     hyperlinks. You can create a link pointing to <uri link="#doc_chap1">Chapter
357     One</uri> by typing <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1"&gt;Chapter
358     One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To point to <uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2">section two of
359     Chapter One</uri>, type <c>&lt;uri link="#doc_chap1_sect2"&gt;section two of
360     Chapter One&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. To refer to figure 3 in chapter 1, type <c>&lt;uri
361     link="doc_chap1_fig3"&gt;figure 1.3&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. Or, to refer to <uri link="#doc_chap2_pre2">code listing 2 in chapter 2</uri>,
362     type <c>&lt;uri link="doc_chap2_pre2"&gt;code listing 2.2&lt;/uri&gt;</c>. We'll be
363     adding other auto-link abilities (such as table support) soon.</p>
365     </body>
366     </section>
367     </chapter>
368     <chapter>
369     <title>Resources</title>
370     <section>
371     <title>Start writing</title>
372     <body>
373     <p>Guide has been specially designed to be "lean and mean" so that developers
374     can spend more time writing documentation and less time learning the actual XML
375     syntax. Hopefully, this will allow developers who aren't unusually "doc-savvy"
376     to start writing quality Gentoo Linux documentation. If you'd like to help (or have any questions about guide), please
377 zhen 1.10 post a message to the <mail link="gentoo-doc@gentoo.org">gentoo-doc mailing list</mail>
378 drobbins 1.1 stating what you'd like to tackle.
379     Have fun!</p>
380     </body>
381     </section>
382     </chapter>
383     </guide>

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