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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.38 2010/05/23 21:29:35 nightmorph Exp $ --> 3<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/xorg-config.xml,v 1.47 2011/08/23 15:04:51 swift Exp $ -->
4 4
5<guide> 5<guide>
6<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title> 6<title>The X Server Configuration HOWTO</title>
7 7
8<author title="Author"> 8<author title="Author">
20 20
21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 21<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 22<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
23<license/> 23<license/>
24 24
25<version>1.28</version> 25<version>9</version>
26<date>2010-05-23</date> 26<date>2011-08-23</date>
27 27
28<chapter> 28<chapter>
29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title> 29<title>What is the X Window Server?</title>
30<section> 30<section>
31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title> 31<title>Graphical vs Command-Line</title>
32<body> 32<body>
33 33
34<p> 34<p>
35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands. 35The average user may be frightened at the thought of having to type in commands.
36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided 36Why wouldn't he be able to point and click his way through the freedom provided
37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, *big smile*, of course you are able to 37by Gentoo (and Linux in general)? Well, of course you are able to
38do this. :-) Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and 38do this! Linux offers a wide variety of flashy user interfaces and
39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation. 39environments which you can install on top of your existing installation.
40</p> 40</p>
41 41
42<p> 42<p>
43This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user 43This is one of the biggest surprises new users come across: a graphical user
86</chapter> 86</chapter>
87 87
88<chapter> 88<chapter>
89<title>Installing Xorg</title> 89<title>Installing Xorg</title>
90<section> 90<section>
91<title>Kernel configuration</title> 91<body>
92
93<p>
94Before you can install Xorg, you need to prepare your system for it. First,
95we'll set up the kernel to support input devices and video cards. Then we'll
96prepare <path>/etc/make.conf</path> so that the right drivers and Xorg packages
97are built and installed.
98</p>
99
100</body>
101</section>
102<section>
103<title>Input driver support</title>
92<body> 104<body>
93 105
94<p> 106<p>
95By default, Xorg uses <c>evdev</c>, a generic input driver. You'll need to 107By default, Xorg uses <c>evdev</c>, a generic input driver. You'll need to
96activate support for <c>evdev</c> by making a change to your kernel 108activate support for <c>evdev</c> by making a change to your kernel
97configuration. (Read the 109configuration. Read the <uri link="/doc/en/kernel-config.xml">Kernel
98<uri link="/doc/en/kernel-config.xml">Kernel Configuration Guide</uri> if you 110Configuration Guide</uri> if you don't know how to setup your kernel.
99don't know how to setup your kernel.)
100</p> 111</p>
101 112
102<pre caption="Enabling evdev in the kernel"> 113<pre caption="Enabling evdev in the kernel">
103Device Drivers ---&gt; 114Device Drivers ---&gt;
104 Input device support ---&gt; 115 Input device support ---&gt;
106</pre> 117</pre>
107 118
108</body> 119</body>
109</section> 120</section>
110<section> 121<section>
122<title>Kernel modesetting</title>
123<body>
124
125<p>
126Modern open-source video drivers rely on kernel modesetting (KMS). KMS provides
127an improved graphical boot with less flickering, faster user switching, a
128built-in framebuffer console, seamless switching from the console to Xorg, and
129other features. KMS conflicts with legacy framebuffer drivers, which must remain
130<b>disabled</b> in your kernel configuration.
131</p>
132
133<p>
134First, prepare your kernel for KMS. You need to do this step regardless of which
135Xorg video driver you're using.
136</p>
137
138<pre caption="Configuring framebuffers">
139Device Drivers ---&gt;
140 Graphics support ---&gt;
141 Support for frame buffer devices ---&gt;
142 <comment>(Disable all drivers, including VGA, Intel, nVidia, and ATI)</comment>
143
144 <comment>(Further down, enable basic console support. KMS uses this.)</comment>
145 Console display driver support ---&gt;
146 &lt;*&gt; Framebuffer Console Support
147</pre>
148
149<p>
150Next, configure your kernel to use the proper KMS driver for your video card.
151Intel, nVidia, and AMD/ATI are the most common cards, so follow code listing for
152your card below.
153</p>
154
155<p>
156For Intel cards:
157</p>
158
159<pre caption="Intel settings">
160Device Drivers ---&gt;
161 Graphics support ---&gt;
162 /dev/agpgart (AGP Support) ---&gt;
163 &lt;*&gt; Intel 440LX/BX/GX, I8xx and E7x05 chipset support
164 Direct Rendering Manager (XFree86 4.1.0 and higher DRI support) ---&gt;
165 &lt;*&gt; Intel 830M, 845G, 852GM, 855GM, 865G (i915 driver)
166 i915 driver
167 [*] Enable modesetting on intel by default
168</pre>
169
170<p>
171For nVidia cards:
172</p>
173
174<pre caption="nVidia settings">
175<comment>(Enable DRM)</comment>
176Device Drivers ---&gt;
177 Graphics support ---&gt;
178 &lt;*&gt; Direct Rendering Manager ---&gt;
179
180<comment>(Nouveau is currently in the Staging drivers section)</comment>
181Device Drivers ---&gt;
182 Staging drivers ---&gt;
183 [ ] Exclude Staging drivers from being built
184 &lt;*&gt; Nouveau (nVidia) cards
185</pre>
186
187<p>
188For newer AMD/ATI cards (<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">RadeonHD 2000 and
189up</uri>), you will need to emerge <c>radeon-ucode</c> or
190<c>linux-firmware</c>. Once you have installed one of these packages,
191configure your kernel as shown:
192</p>
193
194<pre caption="AMD/ATI settings">
195<comment>(Setup the kernel to use the radeon-ucode firmware)</comment>
196Device Drivers ---&gt;
197 Generic Driver Options ---&gt;
198 [*] Include in-kernel firmware blobs in kernel binary
199 <comment># RadeonHD 2000, 3000, and 4000 series cards:</comment>
200 (radeon/R600_rlc.bin radeon/R700_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
201 <comment># RadeonHD 5000, a.k.a Evergreen, and newer cards:</comment>
202 (radeon/CEDAR_me.bin radeon/CEDAR_pfp.bin radeon/CEDAR_rlc.bin
203 radeon/CYPRESS_me.bin radeon/CYPRESS_pfp.bin radeon/CYPRESS_rlc.bin
204 radeon/JUNIPER_me.bin radeon/JUNIPER_pfp.bin radeon/JUNIPER_rlc.bin
205 radeon/REDWOOD_me.bin radeon/REDWOOD_pfp.bin
206 radeon/REDWOOD_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
207 <comment># Radeon HD 6000 series Fusion APUs:</comment>
208 (radeon/PALM_me.bin radeon/PALM_pfp.bin SUMO2_me.bin SUMO2_pfp.bin
209 SUMO_me.bin SUMO_pfp.bin radeon/SUMO_rlc.bin) External firmware blobs
210 <comment># Radeon HD 6400-6900 aka. Northern Islands:</comment>
211 (radeon/BARTS_mc.bin radeon/BARTS_me.bin radeon/BARTS_pfp.bin
212 radeon/BTC_rlc.bin radeon/CAICOS_mc.bin radeon/CAICOS_me.bin
213 radeon/CAICOS_pfp.bin CAYMAN_mc.bin
214 CAYMAN_me.bin CAYMAN_pfp.bin CAYMAN_rlc.bin radeon/TURKS_mc.bin
215 radeon/TURKS_me.bin radeon/TURKS_pfp.bin) External firmware blobs
216 (/lib/firmware/) Firmware blobs root directory
217
218<comment>(Enable Radeon KMS support)</comment>
219Device Drivers ---&gt;
220 Graphics support ---&gt;
221 &lt;*&gt; Direct Rendering Manager ---&gt;
222 &lt;*&gt; ATI Radeon
223 [*] Enable modesetting on radeon by default
224</pre>
225
226<note>
227Old Radeon cards (X1900 series and older) don't need the <c>radeon-ucode</c>
228package or any firmware configuration. Just enable the Direct Rendering Manager
229and ATI Radeon modesetting.
230</note>
231
232<p>
233Now that you're done setting up KMS, continue with preparing
234<path>/etc/make.conf</path> in the next section.
235</p>
236
237</body>
238</section>
239<section>
111<title>make.conf configuration</title> 240<title>make.conf configuration</title>
112<body> 241<body>
113 242
114<p> 243<p>
115Before you install Xorg, you have to configure two important variables in the 244Now that your kernel is prepared, you have to configure two important variables
116<path>/etc/make.conf</path> file. 245in the <path>/etc/make.conf</path> file before you can install Xorg.
117</p> 246</p>
118 247
119<p> 248<p>
120The first variable is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers 249The first variable is <c>VIDEO_CARDS</c>. This is used to set the video drivers
121that you intend to use and is usually based on the kind and brand of card you 250that you intend to use and is usually based on the kind of video card you have.
122have. The most common settings are <c>nvidia</c> for Nvidia cards or 251The most common settings are <c>nouveau</c> for nVidia cards or <c>radeon</c>
123<c>fglrx</c> for ATI Radeon cards. Those are the proprietary drivers from Nvidia 252for ATI cards. Both have actively developed, well-supported open-source
124and ATI respectively. If you would like to use the open source nVidia driver, 253drivers.
125use <c>nv</c> rather than <c>nvidia</c> in the variable, but bear in mind that 254</p>
126using this driver means no 3D acceleration at all. The free <c>radeon</c> and 255
127<c>radeonhd</c> drivers are available for ATI cards, and are more or less the 256<note>
128equal of the proprietary <c>fglrx</c> driver. The <c>intel</c> driver may be 257You may also try the proprietary drivers from nVidia and AMD/ATI, <c>nvidia</c>
129used for desktops or laptops with common Intel integrated graphics chipsets. 258and <c>fglrx</c> respectively. However, setting up the proprietary drivers is
130<c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, in this case list of them 259beyond the scope of this guide. Please read the <uri
131should be separated with spaces. 260link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and <uri
261link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know which
262drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
263</note>
264
132</p> 265<p>
266The <c>intel</c> driver may be used for desktops or laptops with common Intel
267integrated graphics chipsets.
268</p>
269
270<note>
271<c>VIDEO_CARDS</c> may contain more than one driver, each separated with a
272space.
273</note>
133 274
134<p> 275<p>
135The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which 276The second variable is <c>INPUT_DEVICES</c> and is used to determine which
136drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to 277drivers are to be built for input devices. In most cases setting it to
137<c>evdev</c> should work just fine. If you use alternative input 278<c>evdev</c> should work just fine. If you use alternative input
145</p> 286</p>
146 287
147<pre caption="Sample make.conf entries"> 288<pre caption="Sample make.conf entries">
148<comment>(For mouse, keyboard, and Synaptics touchpad support)</comment> 289<comment>(For mouse, keyboard, and Synaptics touchpad support)</comment>
149INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics" 290INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics"
150<comment>(For Nvidia cards)</comment> 291<comment>(For nVidia cards)</comment>
151VIDEO_CARDS="nvidia" 292VIDEO_CARDS="nouveau"
152<comment>(OR, for ATI Radeon cards)</comment> 293<comment>(For AMD/ATI cards)</comment>
153VIDEO_CARDS="radeon" 294VIDEO_CARDS="radeon"
154</pre> 295</pre>
155 296
156<note>
157More instructions on how to configure nVidia and ATI cards can be found in the
158<uri link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Gentoo Linux nVidia Guide</uri> and in the
159<uri link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">Gentoo Linux ATI FAQ</uri>. If you don't know
160which drivers you should choose, refer to these guides for more information.
161</note>
162
163<p> 297<p>
164If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv 298If the suggested settings don't work for you, you should run <c>emerge -pv
165xorg-server</c>, check all the options available and choose those which apply to 299xorg-drivers</c>, check all the options available and choose those which apply to
166your system. This example is for a system with a keyboard, mouse, Synaptics 300your system. This example is for a system with a keyboard, mouse, Synaptics
167touchpad, and a Radeon video card. 301touchpad, and a Radeon video card.
168</p> 302</p>
169 303
170<pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available"> 304<pre caption="Displaying all the driver options available">
171# <i>emerge -pv xorg-server</i> 305# <i>emerge -pv xorg-drivers</i>
172 306
173These are the packages that would be merged, in order: 307These are the packages that would be merged, in order:
174 308
175Calculating dependencies... done! 309Calculating dependencies... done!
176[ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-server-1.6.3.901-r2 USE="hal nptl xorg -debug
177-dmx -ipv6 -kdrive -minimal -sdl -tslib" 0 kB
178[ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-drivers-1.6 INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics 310[ebuild R ] x11-base/xorg-drivers-1.9 INPUT_DEVICES="evdev synaptics
179-acecad -aiptek -citron -elographics -fpit -hyperpen -joystick -keyboard -mouse 311-acecad -aiptek -elographics% -fpit% -joystick -keyboard -mouse -penmount -tslib
180-mutouch -penmount -tslib -virtualbox -vmmouse -void -wacom" 312-virtualbox -vmmouse -void -wacom"
181VIDEO_CARDS="radeon -apm -ark -ast -chips -cirrus -dummy -epson -fbdev -fglrx 313VIDEO_CARDS="radeon -apm -ark -ast -chips -cirrus -dummy -epson -fbdev -fglrx
182(-geode) -glint -i128 (-i740) (-impact) (-imstt) -intel -mach64 -mga -neomagic 314(-geode) -glint -i128 (-i740) (-impact) -intel -mach64 -mga -neomagic (-newport)
183(-newport) -nv -nvidia -r128 -radeonhd -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage 315-nouveau -nv -nvidia -r128 -rendition -s3 -s3virge -savage -siliconmotion -sis
184-siliconmotion -sis -sisusb (-sunbw2) (-suncg14) (-suncg3) (-suncg6) (-sunffb) 316-sisusb (-sunbw2) (-suncg14) (-suncg3) (-suncg6) (-sunffb) (-sunleo) (-suntcx)
185(-sunleo) (-suntcx) -tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l (-vermilion) -vesa -via 317-tdfx -tga -trident -tseng -v4l -vesa -via -virtualbox -vmware (-voodoo) (-xgi)"
186-virtualbox -vmware (-voodoo) (-xgi)" 0 kB 3180 kB
187</pre> 319</pre>
188 320
189<p> 321<p>
190After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package. 322After setting all the necessary variables you can install the Xorg package.
191</p> 323</p>
192 324
193<pre caption="Installing Xorg"> 325<pre caption="Installing Xorg">
326<comment>(Make sure udev is in your USE flags)</comment>
327# <i>echo "x11-base/xorg-server udev" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
328<comment>(Install Xorg)</comment>
194# <i>emerge xorg-server</i> 329# <i>emerge xorg-server</i>
195</pre> 330</pre>
196 331
197<note> 332<note>
198You could install the <c>xorg-x11</c> metapackage instead of the more 333You could install the <c>xorg-x11</c> metapackage instead of the more
202many different languages. They're not necessary for a working desktop. 337many different languages. They're not necessary for a working desktop.
203</note> 338</note>
204 339
205<p> 340<p>
206When the installation is finished, you will need to re-initialise some 341When the installation is finished, you will need to re-initialise some
207environment variables before you continue. Just run <c>env-update</c> followed 342environment variables before you continue:
208by <c>source /etc/profile</c> and you're all set.
209</p> 343</p>
210 344
211<pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables"> 345<pre caption="Re-initialising the environment variables">
212# <i>env-update</i> 346# <i>env-update</i>
213# <i>source /etc/profile</i> 347# <i>source /etc/profile</i>
214</pre> 348</pre>
215 349
216<p>
217Now it's time to start the Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) daemon and set it to
218automatically start each time you boot. This is necessary to get a working X
219environment, otherwise your input devices won't be detected and you'll probably
220just get a blank screen. We'll cover HAL more in the <uri
221link="#using_hal">next section</uri>.
222</p>
223
224<pre caption="Starting HAL">
225# <i>/etc/init.d/hald start</i>
226# <i>rc-update add hald default</i>
227</pre>
228
229</body> 350</body>
230</section> 351</section>
231</chapter> 352</chapter>
232 353
233<chapter> 354<chapter>
234<title>Configuring Xorg</title> 355<title>Configuring Xorg</title>
235<section id="using_hal"> 356<section>
236<title>Using HAL</title>
237<body> 357<body>
238 358
239<p>
240Recent X server versions are designed to work out-of-the-box, with no need to
241manually edit Xorg's configuration files.
242</p> 359<p>
243 360The X server is designed to work out-of-the-box, with no need to manually edit
361Xorg's configuration files. It should detect and configure devices such as
362displays, keyboards, and mice.
244<p> 363</p>
364
365<p>
245You should first try <uri link="#using_startx">starting X</uri> without creating 366You should first try <uri link="#using_startx">starting X</uri> without editing
246<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path>. 367any configuration files. If Xorg won't start, or there's some other problem,
247</p> 368then you'll need to manually configure Xorg as shown in the next section.
248
249<p> 369</p>
250If Xorg won't start (if there's something wrong with the screen, or with your
251keyboard/mouse), then you can try fixing problems by using the right
252configuration files.
253</p>
254 370
255<p>
256By default, Xorg uses HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer) to detect and configure
257devices such as keyboards and mice.
258</p>
259
260<p>
261HAL comes with many premade device rules, also called policies. These policy
262files are available in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/</path>. Just find a few
263that suit your needs most closely and copy them to
264<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>.
265</p>
266
267<impo>
268Do not edit the files in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/</path>! Just copy the ones
269you need, and edit them once they're placed in the proper <path>/etc</path>
270location.
271</impo>
272
273<p>
274For example, to get a basic working keyboard/mouse combination, you could copy
275the following files to <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>:
276</p>
277
278<pre caption="Using HAL policy files">
279# <i>cp /usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/10osvendor/10-input-policy.fdi /etc/hal/fdi/policy</i>
280# <i>cp /usr/share/hal/fdi/policy/10osvendor/10-x11-input.fdi /etc/hal/fdi/policy</i>
281</pre>
282
283<p>
284There are several other HAL policies in <path>/usr/share/hal/fdi/</path> that
285may interest you, such as laptop configurations, storage device handling, power
286management, and more. Just copy any of the policies to
287<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/</path>.
288</p>
289
290<impo>
291Remember, <e>every</e> time you finish making changes to HAL policy files, you
292need to restart the HAL daemon by running <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c>.
293</impo>
294
295<p>
296You can edit the policy files in <path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy</path> to your
297liking. You may want to make a few tweaks or to expose additional
298functionality. Let's go through an example of tweaking a HAL policy.
299</p>
300
301<p>
302One very convenient trick is to kill the X server entirely by pressing
303Ctrl-Alt-Backspace. This is useful when your X server is malfunctioning, frozen,
304etc. It's not as extreme as rebooting the whole machine with Ctrl-Alt-Del.
305</p>
306
307<p>
308Recent X server versions disabled this key combination by default. However, you
309can reenable it by copying <path>10-x11-input.fdi</path> to
310<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy</path> and editing it. You'll need to add just one
311line to the appropriate section, as shown below:
312</p>
313
314<pre caption="Editing 10-x11-input.fdi">
315<comment>(Open the file in your preferred editor)</comment>
316# <i>nano -w /etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-x11-input.fdi</i>
317<comment>(Find the "input.keys" section)</comment>
318&lt;match key="info.capabilities" contains="input.keys"&gt;
319<comment>(Add the "terminate" merge string as shown)</comment>
320&lt;match key="info.capabilities" contains="input.keys"&gt;
321 &lt;merge key="input.x11_driver" type="string"&gt;keyboard&lt;/merge&gt;
322 <i>&lt;merge key="input.xkb.options" type="string"&gt;terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp&lt;/merge&gt;</i>
323 &lt;match key="/org/freedesktop/Hal/devices/computer:system.kernel.name"
324 string="Linux"&gt;
325 &lt;merge key="input.x11_driver" type="string"&gt;evdev&lt;merge&gt;
326 &lt;/match&gt;
327 &lt;/match&gt;
328</pre>
329
330<p>
331Once you're done, run <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c> so that HAL picks up your
332changes.
333</p>
334
335<p>
336There, now you have a handy way of killing an unresponsive X server. This is
337useful when programs have frozen your display entirely, or when configuring and
338tweaking your Xorg environment. Be careful when killing your desktop with this
339key combination -- most programs really don't like it when you end them this
340way, and you may lose some (or all) of what you were working on.
341</p>
342
343<p>
344Hopefully just working with the HAL policy files results in a working X desktop.
345If Xorg still won't start, or there's some other problem, then you'll need to
346manually configure <path>xorg.conf</path> as shown in the next section.
347</p>
348
349</body> 371</body>
350</section>
351<section> 372</section>
373<section>
352<title>The xorg.conf file</title> 374<title>The xorg.conf.d directory</title>
353<body> 375<body>
354 376
355<note> 377<note>
356Configuring <path>xorg.conf</path> should be seen as a "last resort" option. It 378Configuring files in <path>xorg.conf.d</path> should be seen as a "last resort"
357really desirable to run without one if possible, and to do all your 379option. It really desirable to run without any special configuration if
358configuration via HAL policy files. If you still can't get a working 380possible. If you still can't get a working configuration, then read on.
359configuration, then read on.
360</note> 381</note>
361 382
362<p> 383<p>
363The configuration file of Xorg is called <path>xorg.conf</path> and it resides 384The configuration files of Xorg are stored in
364in <path>/etc/X11</path>. Xorg provides an example configuration as 385<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>. Each file is given a unique name and ends in
365<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path> which you can use to create your own 386<path>.conf</path>. If the filenames start with a number, then Xorg will read
366configuration. It is heavily commented, but if you are in need of more 387the files in numeric order. <path>10-evdev.conf</path> will be read before
367documentation regarding the syntax, don't hesitate to read the man page: 388<path>20-synaptics.conf</path>, and so on. You don't <e>have</e> to give them
368</p> 389numbers, but it may help you organize them.
369
370<pre caption="Reading the xorg.conf man page">
371$ <i>man 5 xorg.conf</i>
372</pre>
373
374</body>
375</section>
376<section>
377<title>Automatic Generation of xorg.conf</title>
378<body>
379
380<p> 390</p>
381Xorg itself is able to guess most parameters for you. In most cases, you
382will only have to change some lines to get the resolution you want up and
383running. If you are interested in more in-depth tweaking, be sure to check the
384resources at the end of this chapter. But first, let us generate a (hopefully
385working) Xorg configuration file.
386</p>
387 391
388<pre caption="Generating an xorg.conf file"> 392<note>
389# <i>Xorg -configure</i> 393Xorg provides example configurations in
390</pre> 394<path>/usr/share/doc/xorg-server-${version}/xorg.conf.example.bz2</path>. You
391 395can use these to create your own configuration files in
392<p> 396<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>. The examples are heavily commented, but if
393Be sure to read the last lines printed on your screen when Xorg has finished 397you are in need of more documentation regarding the syntax, read <c>man
394probing your hardware. If it tells you it failed at some point, you're forced to 398xorg.conf</c>. Other examples can be found in the <uri
395manually write an <path>xorg.conf</path> file. Assuming that it didn't fail, it 399link="#resources">Resources</uri> chapter at the end of this guide.
396will have told you that it has written <path>/root/xorg.conf.new</path> ready 400</note>
397for you to test. So let's test. :)
398</p>
399
400<pre caption="Testing the xorg.conf.new file">
401# <i>X -config -retro /root/xorg.conf.new</i>
402</pre>
403
404<p>
405If all goes well, you should see a simple black and white pattern. Verify if
406your mouse works correctly and if the resolution is good. You might not be able
407to deduce the exact resolution, but you should be able to see if it's too low.
408You can exit any time by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.
409</p>
410
411</body>
412</section>
413<section>
414<title>Copying over xorg.conf</title>
415<body>
416
417<p>
418Let us copy over the <path>xorg.conf.new</path> to
419<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> now, so we won't have to continuously run
420<c>X -config</c> -- typing just <c>startx</c> is easier. :)
421</p>
422
423<pre caption="Copying over xorg.conf">
424# <i>cp /root/xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</i>
425</pre>
426 401
427</body> 402</body>
428</section> 403</section>
429<section id="using_startx"> 404<section id="using_startx">
430<title>Using startx</title> 405<title>Using startx</title>
431<body> 406<body>
432 407
433<p> 408<p>
434Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script 409Now try <c>startx</c> to start up your X server. <c>startx</c> is a script
435that executes an <e>X session</e>, that is, it starts the X servers and some 410that executes an <e>X session</e>; that is, it starts the X server and some
436graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run 411graphical applications on top of it. It decides which applications to run
437using the following logic: 412using the following logic:
438</p> 413</p>
439 414
440<ul> 415<ul>
444 </li> 419 </li>
445 <li> 420 <li>
446 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute 421 Otherwise, it will read the value of the XSESSION variable and will execute
447 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> 422 one of the sessions available in <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path>
448 accordingly. You can set the value of XSESSION in 423 accordingly. You can set the value of XSESSION in
449 <path>/etc/env.d/90xsession</path> to make it a default for all the users on 424 <path>/etc/env.d/90xsession</path> to make it a default for all the users
450 the system. For example, as root, run <c>echo XSESSION="Xfce4" > 425 on the system. For example, as root, run <c>echo XSESSION="Xfce4" >
451 /etc/env.d/90xsession</c>. This will create the <path>90xsession</path> file 426 /etc/env.d/90xsession</c>. This will create the <path>90xsession</path> file
452 and set the default X session to Xfce4. 427 and set the default X session to <uri
428 link="/doc/en/xfce-config.xml">Xfce</uri>. Remember to run <c>env-update</c>
429 after changing <path>90xsession</path>.
453 </li> 430 </li>
454</ul> 431</ul>
455 432
456<pre caption="Starting X"> 433<pre caption="Starting X">
457$ <i>startx</i> 434$ <i>startx</i>
458</pre> 435</pre>
459
460<p>
461You can kill the X session by using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace combination. This
462will, however, make X exit disgracefully -- something that you might not always
463want.
464</p>
465 436
466<p> 437<p>
467If you haven't yet installed a window manager, all you'll see is a black screen. 438If you haven't yet installed a window manager, all you'll see is a black screen.
468Since this can also be a sign that something's wrong, you may want to emerge 439Since this can also be a sign that something's wrong, you may want to emerge
469<c>twm</c> and <c>xterm</c> <e>only to test X</e>. 440<c>twm</c> and <c>xterm</c> <e>only to test X</e>.
470</p> 441</p>
471 442
472<p> 443<p>
473Once those two programs are installed, run <c>startx</c> again. A few xterm 444Once those two programs are installed, run <c>startx</c> again. A few
474windows should appear, making it easier to verify that X is working correctly. 445<c>xterm</c> windows should appear, making it easier to verify that X is working
475Once you're satisfied with the results, run <c>emerge --unmerge twm xterm</c> as 446correctly. Once you're satisfied with the results, run <c>emerge --unmerge twm
476root to get rid of the testing packages. You won't need them once you've setup a 447xterm</c> as root to get rid of the testing packages. You won't need them once
477proper desktop environment. 448you've setup a proper desktop environment.
478</p> 449</p>
479 450
480</body> 451</body>
481</section> 452</section>
482</chapter> 453</chapter>
487<title>Setting your Resolution</title> 458<title>Setting your Resolution</title>
488<body> 459<body>
489 460
490<p> 461<p>
491If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two 462If you feel that the screen resolution is wrong, you will need to check two
492sections in your <path>xorg.conf</path> configuration. First of all, you have 463sections in your <path>xorg.conf.d</path> configuration. First of all, you have
493the <e>Screen</e> section which lists the resolutions, if any that your X server 464the <e>Screen</e> section which lists the resolutions that your X server will
494will run at. By default, this section might not list any resolutions at all. If 465run at. This section might not list any resolutions at all. If this is the case,
495this is the case, Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in 466Xorg will estimate the resolutions based on the information in the second
496the second section, <e>Monitor</e>. 467section, <e>Monitor</e>.
497</p>
498
499<p> 468</p>
500What happens is that Xorg checks the settings of <c>HorizSync</c> and 469
501<c>VertRefresh</c> in the <e>Monitor</e> section to compute valid resolutions.
502For now, leave these settings as-is. Only when the changes to the <e>Screen</e>
503section (which we will describe in a minute) don't work, then you will need to
504look up the specs for your monitor and fill in the correct values.
505</p> 470<p>
506
507<warn>
508Do <b>not</b> "just" change the values of these two monitor related variables
509without consulting the technical specifications of your monitor. Setting
510incorrect values lead to out-of-sync errors at best and smoked up screens at
511worst.
512</warn>
513
514<p>
515Now let us change the resolutions. In the next example from 471Now let us change the resolution. In the next example from
516<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</path> we add the <c>Modes</c> lines and the 472<path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/40-monitor.conf</path> we add the
517<c>DefaultDepth</c> so that our X server starts with 24 bits at 1440x900 by 473<c>PreferredMode</c> line so that our X server starts at 1440x900 by default.
518default. Don't mind the given strings -- they are examples and will most likely 474The <c>Option</c> in the <c>Device</c> section must match the name of your
519differ from the settings on your system. 475monitor (<c>DVI-0</c>), which can be obtained by running <c>xrandr</c>. You'll
476need to <c>emerge xrandr</c> just long enough to get this information. The
477argument after the monitor name (in the <c>Device</c> section) must match the
478<c>Identifier</c> in the <c>Monitor</c> section.
520</p> 479</p>
521 480
522<pre caption="Changing the Screen section in /etc/X11/xorg.conf"> 481<pre caption="Changing the Monitor section">
482# <i>nano -w /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/40-monitor.conf</i>
483
523Section "Screen" 484Section "Device"
524 Identifier "Default Screen"
525 Device "RadeonHD 4550" 485 Identifier "RadeonHD 4550"
526 Monitor "Generic Monitor" 486 Option "Monitor-DVI-0" "DVI screen"
527 <i>DefaultDepth 24</i>
528 <comment># Skipping some text to improve readability</comment>
529 SubSection "Display"
530 Depth 24
531 <i>Modes "1440x900"</i>
532 EndSubSection
533EndSection 487EndSection
488Section "Monitor"
489 Identifier "DVI screen"
490 Option "PreferredMode" "1440x900"
491EndSection
534</pre> 492</pre>
535 493
536<p> 494<p>
537Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want. 495Run X (<c>startx</c>) to discover it uses the resolution you want.
538</p> 496</p>
539 497
540</body> 498</body>
541</section> 499</section>
542<section> 500<section>
501<title>Multiple monitors</title>
502<body>
503
504<p>
505You can configure more than one monitor in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>.
506All you have to do is give each monitor an identifer, then list its physical
507position, such as "RightOf" or "Above" another monitor. The following example
508shows how to configure a DVI and a VGA monitor, with the VGA monitor as the
509right-hand screen:
510</p>
511
512<pre caption="Configuring multiple monitors">
513# <i>nano -w /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/40-monitor.conf</i>
514
515Section "Device"
516 Identifier "RadeonHD 4550"
517 Option "Monitor-DVI-0" "DVI screen"
518 Option "Monitor-VGA-0" "VGA screen"
519EndSection
520Section "Monitor"
521 Identifier "DVI screen"
522EndSection
523Section "Monitor"
524 Identifier "VGA screen"
525 Option "RightOf" "DVI screen"
526EndSection
527</pre>
528
529</body>
530</section>
531<section>
543<title>Configuring your keyboard</title> 532<title>Configuring your keyboard</title>
544<body> 533<body>
545 534
546<p> 535<p>
547To setup X to use an international keyboard, you can copy the content of 536To setup X to use an international keyboard, you just have to create the
548<path>/usr/share/doc/hal-*/*/use-estonian-layout.fdi.bz2</path> to 537appropriate config file in <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</path>. This example
549<path>/etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-xinput-configuration.fdi</path>: 538features a Czech keyboard layout:
550</p>
551
552<pre caption="Using an existing config file">
553# <i>bzcat /usr/share/doc/hal-*/*/use-estonian-layout.fdi.bz2 > /etc/hal/fdi/policy/10-xinput-configuration.fdi</i>
554</pre>
555
556<p> 539</p>
557Now you can just edit <path>10-xinput-configuration.fdi</path> and change the 540
558Estonian keyboard layout (<c>ee</c>) to your own, such as Great Britain 541<pre caption="Using an international keyboard">
559(<b>gb</b>) or Polish (<b>pl</b>). 542# <i>nano -w /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/30-keyboard.conf</i>
543
544Section "InputClass"
545 Identifier "keyboard-all"
546 Driver "evdev"
547 Option "XkbLayout" "us,cz"
548 Option "XkbModel" "logitech_g15"
549 Option "XkbRules" "xorg"
550 Option "XkbOptions" "grp:alt_shift_toggle,grp:switch,grp_led:scroll,compose:rwin,terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp"
551 Option "XkbVariant" ",qwerty"
552 MatchIsKeyboard "on"
553EndSection
554</pre>
555
560</p> 556<p>
561 557The "terminate" command (<c>terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp</c>) lets you kill the X
562<p> 558session by using the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace key combination. This will, however,
563When you're finished, run <c>/etc/init.d/hald restart</c> as root to make sure 559make X exit disgracefully -- something that you might not always want. It can be
564that HAL picks up your configuration file changes. 560useful when programs have frozen your display entirely, or when you're
561configuring and tweaking your Xorg environment. Be careful when killing your
562desktop with this key combination -- most programs really don't like it when you
563end them this way, and you may lose some (or all) of what you were working on.
565</p> 564</p>
566 565
567</body> 566</body>
568</section> 567</section>
569<section> 568<section>
571<body> 570<body>
572 571
573<p> 572<p>
574Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result. Congratulations, you now 573Run <c>startx</c> and be happy about the result. Congratulations, you now
575(hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to install a 574(hopefully) have a working Xorg on your system. The next step is to install a
576useful window manager (or even a desktop environment) such as KDE or GNOME, but 575useful window manager or desktop environment such as KDE, GNOME, or Xfce, but
577that's not part of this guide. 576that's not part of this guide. Information on installing these desktop
577environments can be found in our <uri link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo
578Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>.
578</p> 579</p>
579 580
580</body> 581</body>
581</section> 582</section>
582</chapter> 583</chapter>
583 584
584<chapter> 585<chapter id="resources">
585<title>Resources</title> 586<title>Resources</title>
586<section> 587<section>
587<title>Creating and Tweaking xorg.conf</title> 588<title>Creating and editing config files</title>
588<body> 589<body>
589 590
590<p> 591<p>
591First of all, <c>man xorg.conf</c> and <c>man evdev</c> provide quick yet 592First of all, <c>man xorg.conf</c> and <c>man evdev</c> provide quick yet
592complete references about the syntax used by these configuration files. Be sure 593complete references about the syntax used by these configuration files. Be sure
593to have them open on a terminal near you when you edit your configuration 594to have them open on a terminal when you edit your configuration files!
594files!
595</p>
596
597<p> 595</p>
598Also, be sure to look at <path>/etc/X11/xorg.conf.example</path>; you may wish 596
599to copy this and use it as a foundation for writing your own
600<path>xorg.conf</path>.
601</p> 597<p>
602
603<p>
604You may find the X.org <uri link="http://www.x.org/wiki/FAQ">FAQ</uri> provided
605on their website, in addition to their other documentation.
606</p>
607
608<p>
609There are also many online resources on editing <path>xorg.conf</path>. We only 598There are also many online resources on editing config files in
610list few of them here, be sure to <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> 599<path>/etc/X11/</path>. We only list few of them here; be sure to <uri
611for more. 600link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> for more.
612</p> 601</p>
613 602
614</body> 603</body>
615</section> 604</section>
616<section> 605<section>
623link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop Documentation Resources</uri> 612link="/doc/en/?catid=desktop">Gentoo Desktop Documentation Resources</uri>
624section of our documentation. 613section of our documentation.
625</p> 614</p>
626 615
627<p> 616<p>
628If you're upgrading to xorg-server-1.6 from an earlier version, then be sure to 617If you're upgrading to <c>xorg-server</c> 1.9 from an earlier version, then be
629read the <uri 618sure to read the <uri
630link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/xorg-server-1.6-upgrade-guide.xml">migration 619link="/proj/en/desktop/x/x11/xorg-server-1.9-upgrade-guide.xml">migration
631guide</uri>. 620guide</uri>.
621</p>
622
623<p>
624X.org provides many <uri link="http://www.x.org/wiki/FAQ">FAQs</uri> on their
625website, in addition to their other documentation.
632</p> 626</p>
633 627
634</body> 628</body>
635</section> 629</section>
636</chapter> 630</chapter>

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